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Sökning: L773:0302 3427 OR L773:1471 5430

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  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
  • Baraldi, Enrico, et al. (författare)
  • A proactive approach to the utilization of academic research : The case of Uppsala University's AIMday
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 43:5, s. 613-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While most research on university-industry interactions focuses on established collaborations, this paper focuses on those interactions that occur before the emergence of a concrete relationship. Uppsala University, Sweden, applies this 'proactive' approach, based on creating universityindustry cooperation platforms before, or irrespectively of, the creation of commercializable knowledge. This study aims to analyze the structure, processes and effects of proactive approaches to utilize academic research commercially. It focuses on a conference, Academy Industry Meeting day (AIMday) and addresses three main questions: first, how does this mechanism work? Second, why do different actors, such as researchers, small and large companies, participate? Third, what values and concrete effects do they obtain from it? Our case study reflects the perspectives of industry, academia and the administrative units organizing the event. We find that some reasons to participate and values are important to all participants, but that there are also considerable differences.
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2.
  • Boholm, Max, 1982- (författare)
  • Political representations of nano in Swedish government documents
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 41:5, s. 575-596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses the political dimensions of nanotechnology and related nanophenomena, by conducting a systematic and detailed analysis of the linguistic practices in Swedish government documents. A total of 180 documents (1985–2011) referring to nano are analysed with regard to the types of phenomena referred to in terms of nano and what is said about these nanophenomena. More precisely, the lexical and grammatical context of nano in sentences is explored. Based on these linguistic patterns, general themes are identified, for example, knowledge, support, innovation, benefits, competence and competition, application, risk, and regulation. Based on the findings, the conclusion is drawn that government discourse on nano is political in three senses: it is articulated by politicians; it formulates matters of collective concern; and it expresses and promotes specific social interests, rather than others, namely, government support of an allegedly uniform nanofield.
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3.
  • Fernandez-Carro, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Emperor's clothes and the Pied Piper: Bureaucracy and scientific productivity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 43:4, s. 546-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For some scholars, bureaucratic contracts (i.e. low-powered and highly regulated) mitigate problems of time inconsistency between public employees who have undertaken costly asset-specific investments, and potentially opportunistic governments. For others, bureaucratic contracts exacerbate information asymmetries between bureaucratic experts and political dilettantes. This paper aims to reconcile these views by proposing two testable propositions: while bureaucratic impartiality has a positive effect because it reduces time inconsistency problems in the relationship between principals (governments) and agents (public employees), a bureaucratic career has, on the contrary, a negative effect because it reduces incentives. We test these hypotheses with three samples of countries (worldwide, OECD and EU) using scientific productivity as a proxy for public employees' performance that can be compared across countries. The results show how, controlling for levels of development and investment, proxies for bureaucratic impartiality show a significant positive effect on scientific productivity while the existence of bureaucratic careers significantly diminishes scientists' performance. © The Author 2015.
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4.
  • Fogelberg, Hans, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of academic and entrepreneurial roles: The case of nanotechnology research at Chalmers University of Technology
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 40:1, s. 127-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article analyzes how researchers in leading roles at a Swedish research university relate to the integration of academic and entrepreneurial roles in the field of nanotechnology. In contrast to earlier studies that characterize researchers as being either ‘critical towards’ or ‘unfit for’ entrepreneurial activity, the article argues that researchers can develop a positive approach towards entrepreneurship and it discusses how this, in certain situations and in a specific research area, can lead to new innovation networks and provide important input to early development and commercialization. This is encouraging in the view of current science and innovation policy of nations, which promotes the entrepreneurial scientist and yet hesitates to give him or her adequate control over resources for innovation management processes.
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5.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • From particle physics to photon science: Multi-dimensional and multi-level renewal at DESY and SLAC
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 40:5, s. 591-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of institutional transformation in science have largely overlooked Big Science installations, despite far-reaching changes to the roles and functions of such large labs in the past decades. Here, we present and analyze two Big Science labs that have undergone profound transformations from single-purpose particle physics labs to multi-purpose centers for so-called photon science: SLAC in the USA and DESY in Germany. We provide brief historic accounts of the labs and an analysis of the processes of change on different levels and from different aspects informed by a theoretical framework of institutional change in science. Thus, we describe the relevance of the study of Big Science labs from the perspective of institutional change and in terms of science policy/management. We also prove the aptness of the framework used and pave the way for a detailed analysis of particular forces of change and their interrelatedness.
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6.
  • McKelvey, Maureen, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • A Recent Crisis in Regenerative Medicine: Analyzing Governance in Order to Identify Public Policy Issues
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 45:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article focuses upon issues that public policy makers need to address, when trying to stimulate world-leading research into new areas, which are potentially also valuable to solving societal challenges. Our analysis helps contribute to the theoretical discussions about governance of new knowledge. We focus upon the sequence of events surrounding the main actors of a recent crisis of regenerative medicine in Sweden. We define governance theoretically, and use a conceptual model in order to structure the empirical analysis. Regenerative medicine is an interesting setting to explore these topics, not least because both public and private actors are often involved, and because governments struggle with how to promote ‘translational research’, e.g. diffusing scientific research into clinical practice. Our case study helps understand the process that led up to a crisis in regenerative medicine and identifies and discusses four issues that need to be addressed by policy makers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.
7.
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8.
  • Antonelli, Cristiano, et al. (författare)
  • The heterogeneity of knowledge and the academic mode of knowledge governance : Italian evidence in the first part of the 20th century
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 41:1, s. 15-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper considers university-industry relations, identifying the heterogeneity of academic knowledge with respect to economic growth and analysing its implication for the working of the academic mode of knowledge governance. It provides unique historical evidence on the differentiated effects of academic spillovers, using professorial chairs distinguished by disciplinary field, as a proxy, for the total factor productivity growth. The results shed light on the impacts of the various disciplines on economic growth. The increase in the number of chairs in engineering and chemistry contributed most to the growth in the total factor productivity. This is consistent with the historical context, characterized by the radical transformation of a backward agricultural economy into a highly industrialized, prosperous one. The results of this analysis stress the need to control and direct the composition of the bundle of types of knowledge generated by the academic system with the support of public subsidies.
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9.
  • Arocena, Rodrigo, et al. (författare)
  • Towards making research evaluation more compatible with developmental goals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 46:2, s. 210-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research evaluation practices linked to social impact have important systemic effects on the prioritization and organization of research while at the same time leading to the delivery of higher social value. Amidst growing criticisms, global research evaluation has evolved in a different direction, characterized by quantitative metrics and mimetic behavior. The article deals with the forces that sustain the prevailing research evaluation system, asks why it has proven to be so resilient, and discusses alternative proposals. A new argument for building an alternative is put forward: the need for a developmental role for universities, introducing the notion of ‘connected autonomy’ allowing universities to productively and in a nonsubordinated way collaborate with a broad set of actors to achieve desirable social changes. An outline is presented for how to make research evaluation practices and the pursuit of developmental goals more compatible, an important issue for knowledge public policy.
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10.
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