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Sökning: L773:0302 3427 OR L773:1471 5430

  • Resultat 1-10 av 85
  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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1.
  • Alänge, Sverker, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • From job-less growth to growth-with-less-jobs: Employment and equity impact of technical and organisational change
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 1471-5430 .- 0302-3427. ; 23:1, s. 27-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New technical innovations in the form of new production technologies are known to affect productivity, but organisational innovations and new ways of designing products have now been found to have a profound influence on productivity. These innovations have moved the industrialised countries into a stage in which industrial growth is accompanied by the continuous reduction in industrial employment. This development will greatly influence our society and put stringent demands on our political decision-making apparatus to avoid a growth in the 'wealth of nations' going hand-in-hand with a growth in poverty.
2.
  • Baraldi, Enrico, et al. (författare)
  • A proactive approach to the utilization of academic research : The case of Uppsala University's AIMday
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 43:5, s. 613-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>While most research on university-industry interactions focuses on established collaborations, this paper focuses on those interactions that occur before the emergence of a concrete relationship. Uppsala University, Sweden, applies this 'proactive' approach, based on creating universityindustry cooperation platforms before, or irrespectively of, the creation of commercializable knowledge. This study aims to analyze the structure, processes and effects of proactive approaches to utilize academic research commercially. It focuses on a conference, Academy Industry Meeting day (AIMday) and addresses three main questions: first, how does this mechanism work? Second, why do different actors, such as researchers, small and large companies, participate? Third, what values and concrete effects do they obtain from it? Our case study reflects the perspectives of industry, academia and the administrative units organizing the event. We find that some reasons to participate and values are important to all participants, but that there are also considerable differences.</p>
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3.
  • Bergek, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to new technology-based firms
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 42:4, s. 514-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper analyses public support and argues that supply does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The demand side of public support to NTBFs is analysed by developing a typology of NTBFs, based on venture origin and degree of innovativeness. Each types characteristics, challenges and support needs are identified. The supply side is analysed in terms of the goals, instruments and level of aggregation of the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small and medium-sized enterprise policy and science, technology and innovation policy. Finally, the demand and supply sides are compared and three main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs are identified. This paper makes a twofold contribution: first, the typology gives guidelines for policy-makers with respect to the support needs of the NTBFs. Second, it identifies shortcomings in existing public support and recommends improvements.</p>
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4.
  • Boholm, Max, 1982- (författare)
  • Political representations of nano in Swedish government documents
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 41:5, s. 575-596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses the political dimensions of nanotechnology and related nanophenomena, by conducting a systematic and detailed analysis of the linguistic practices in Swedish government documents. A total of 180 documents (1985–2011) referring to nano are analysed with regard to the types of phenomena referred to in terms of nano and what is said about these nanophenomena. More precisely, the lexical and grammatical context of nano in sentences is explored. Based on these linguistic patterns, general themes are identified, for example, knowledge, support, innovation, benefits, competence and competition, application, risk, and regulation. Based on the findings, the conclusion is drawn that government discourse on nano is political in three senses: it is articulated by politicians; it formulates matters of collective concern; and it expresses and promotes specific social interests, rather than others, namely, government support of an allegedly uniform nanofield.
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5.
  • Braunerhjelm, Pontus, 1953- (författare)
  • Academic Entrepreneurship : Social norms, university culture and policies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 34:9, s. 619-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Is a shift in intellectual property rights to universities the key instrument in increasing commercialization of publicly funded research? How much can actually be learned from the US system, disregarding the ongoing debate as to whether the USA do actually outperform Europe in terms of commercializing university-based research? Taking Sweden as a role model, the article claims that this policy will not work, from the analysis of a unique database giving individual university researchers' views on participation in commercialization of public research, their commercialization experiences, and the obstacles researchers say exist to increase academic entrepreneurship. Despite researchers' positive attitudes towards engaging in commercial activities, the university culture, weak incentive structures and badly managed support facilities impede the creation of efficient links to markets. Measures must be taken at primarily the national level, but also at the university level, to enhance commercialization activities</p>
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6.
  • Broström, Anders (författare)
  • Interaction with science : In what sense a case of learning by doing?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 41:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Since the contribution of Cohen et al. (Management Science, 2002, 48: 1-23), it is well established that linkages between engineering firms and public research organisations serve to both suggest new R&amp;D projects and comple existing projects. However, the literature has little to say about whether these two types of outcomes are linked or independent effects. Drawing on theories of organisational learning and empirical analysis of data on Swedish engineering firms, this paper establishes that the occurrence of useful impulses to further R&amp; D is inherently linked to the achievement of objectives related to a firm's ongoing R&amp; D projects. This connection is, however, mediated by the character of the project objective. Compared to linkages where objectives of exploration and exploitation are balanced, the connection between serendipitous learning and the achievement of established R&amp; D objectives is stronger when these objectives are oriented towards exploration and weaker when objectives are oriented towards exploitation.</p>
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7.
  • Eklöf, Jenny, 1973- (författare)
  • Success Story or Cautionary Tale? : Swedish Ethanol in Co-existing Science-Policy Frameworks
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Fuel of the Future. - Oxford University Press.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Sweden's consumption of transport ethanol has given the country a specific biofuel profile in Europe. In recent commentary, Sweden is either depicted as an environmental role model, or figures as a cautionary tale of things going wrong. In both cases, science plays a central role for how this success, or failure, has been achieved. Drawing on the insight that science and policy are highly interwoven, the article identifies different, co-existing and sometimes conflicting, science-policy frameworks. It sets out to shed some light over the complexities of science-policy interactions in the biofuel case and argues that one needs to ask which science is relevant for which policy choice, be aware that lack of scientific certainty carries different weight in different political situations and recognise that high decision-stakes entail value-plurality, also within scientific circles.</p>
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8.
  • Fernandez-Carro, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Emperor's clothes and the Pied Piper: Bureaucracy and scientific productivity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 43:4, s. 546-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For some scholars, bureaucratic contracts (i.e. low-powered and highly regulated) mitigate problems of time inconsistency between public employees who have undertaken costly asset-specific investments, and potentially opportunistic governments. For others, bureaucratic contracts exacerbate information asymmetries between bureaucratic experts and political dilettantes. This paper aims to reconcile these views by proposing two testable propositions: while bureaucratic impartiality has a positive effect because it reduces time inconsistency problems in the relationship between principals (governments) and agents (public employees), a bureaucratic career has, on the contrary, a negative effect because it reduces incentives. We test these hypotheses with three samples of countries (worldwide, OECD and EU) using scientific productivity as a proxy for public employees' performance that can be compared across countries. The results show how, controlling for levels of development and investment, proxies for bureaucratic impartiality show a significant positive effect on scientific productivity while the existence of bureaucratic careers significantly diminishes scientists' performance. © The Author 2015.
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9.
  • Fogelberg, Hans, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of academic and entrepreneurial roles: The case of nanotechnology research at Chalmers University of Technology
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 40:1, s. 127-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article analyzes how researchers in leading roles at a Swedish research university relate to the integration of academic and entrepreneurial roles in the field of nanotechnology. In contrast to earlier studies that characterize researchers as being either ‘critical towards’ or ‘unfit for’ entrepreneurial activity, the article argues that researchers can develop a positive approach towards entrepreneurship and it discusses how this, in certain situations and in a specific research area, can lead to new innovation networks and provide important input to early development and commercialization. This is encouraging in the view of current science and innovation policy of nations, which promotes the entrepreneurial scientist and yet hesitates to give him or her adequate control over resources for innovation management processes.
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10.
  • Frishammar, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • A knowledge-based perspective on system weaknesses in technological innovation systems
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 1471-5430 .- 0302-3427. ; 46:1, s. 55-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The literature on technological innovation systems (TIS) provides policymakers and other actors with a scheme of analysis to identify system weaknesses. In doing so, TIS analysis centres on which system weaknesses policy interventions should target to promote further development of a particular system. However, prior TIS literature has not sufficiently elaborated on what may constitute the conceptual roots of a 'weakness'. We apply a knowledge-based perspective and propose that many-albeit not all-system weaknesses may root in four types of knowledge problems: uncertainty, complexity, equivocality, and ambiguity. Employing these as sensitizing concepts, we study system weaknesses by analysing data from a biorefinery TIS in Sweden. This analysis results in novel implications for the TIS literature and for achieving a better match between system weaknesses and the design of innovation policies.
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