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Sökning: L773:0302 3427 OR L773:1471 5430 > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Boholm, Max, 1982- (författare)
  • Political representations of nano in Swedish government documents
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 41:5, s. 575-596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses the political dimensions of nanotechnology and related nanophenomena, by conducting a systematic and detailed analysis of the linguistic practices in Swedish government documents. A total of 180 documents (1985–2011) referring to nano are analysed with regard to the types of phenomena referred to in terms of nano and what is said about these nanophenomena. More precisely, the lexical and grammatical context of nano in sentences is explored. Based on these linguistic patterns, general themes are identified, for example, knowledge, support, innovation, benefits, competence and competition, application, risk, and regulation. Based on the findings, the conclusion is drawn that government discourse on nano is political in three senses: it is articulated by politicians; it formulates matters of collective concern; and it expresses and promotes specific social interests, rather than others, namely, government support of an allegedly uniform nanofield.
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2.
  • Fogelberg, Hans, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of academic and entrepreneurial roles: The case of nanotechnology research at Chalmers University of Technology
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 40:1, s. 127-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article analyzes how researchers in leading roles at a Swedish research university relate to the integration of academic and entrepreneurial roles in the field of nanotechnology. In contrast to earlier studies that characterize researchers as being either ‘critical towards’ or ‘unfit for’ entrepreneurial activity, the article argues that researchers can develop a positive approach towards entrepreneurship and it discusses how this, in certain situations and in a specific research area, can lead to new innovation networks and provide important input to early development and commercialization. This is encouraging in the view of current science and innovation policy of nations, which promotes the entrepreneurial scientist and yet hesitates to give him or her adequate control over resources for innovation management processes.
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3.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • From particle physics to photon science: Multi-dimensional and multi-level renewal at DESY and SLAC
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 40:5, s. 591-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of institutional transformation in science have largely overlooked Big Science installations, despite far-reaching changes to the roles and functions of such large labs in the past decades. Here, we present and analyze two Big Science labs that have undergone profound transformations from single-purpose particle physics labs to multi-purpose centers for so-called photon science: SLAC in the USA and DESY in Germany. We provide brief historic accounts of the labs and an analysis of the processes of change on different levels and from different aspects informed by a theoretical framework of institutional change in science. Thus, we describe the relevance of the study of Big Science labs from the perspective of institutional change and in terms of science policy/management. We also prove the aptness of the framework used and pave the way for a detailed analysis of particular forces of change and their interrelatedness.
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5.
  • Antonelli, Cristiano, et al. (författare)
  • The heterogeneity of knowledge and the academic mode of knowledge governance : Italian evidence in the first part of the 20th century
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 41:1, s. 15-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper considers university-industry relations, identifying the heterogeneity of academic knowledge with respect to economic growth and analysing its implication for the working of the academic mode of knowledge governance. It provides unique historical evidence on the differentiated effects of academic spillovers, using professorial chairs distinguished by disciplinary field, as a proxy, for the total factor productivity growth. The results shed light on the impacts of the various disciplines on economic growth. The increase in the number of chairs in engineering and chemistry contributed most to the growth in the total factor productivity. This is consistent with the historical context, characterized by the radical transformation of a backward agricultural economy into a highly industrialized, prosperous one. The results of this analysis stress the need to control and direct the composition of the bundle of types of knowledge generated by the academic system with the support of public subsidies.
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6.
  • Benner, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Head in the clouds and feet on the ground
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 39:2, s. 258-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined Few countries have increased their expenditure on R&D as rapidly as has China in recent years. However, so far, little academic attention has been paid to how decisions are taken and priorities set in Chinese research policy. This paper analyzes priority-setting in China's recent research policy. We find that China's research policy is driven by a variety of different, and sometimes conflicting, objectives, leading to a multitude of often overlapping initiatives. Secondly, mission- and excellence-driven research dominates over institution- and capacity-building and diffusion objectives. Thirdly, the process of setting research priorities is characterized by a combination of central goal articulation-top-down decision-making-and decentralization, deliberation and stakeholder consultation-bottom-up mechanisms. Aside from contributing to the understanding of China's research and innovation policy and system, this paper provides insights into policy change in China more generally and also into the processes which shape priority-setting in transition economies.
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7.
  • Borrás, Susana, et al. (författare)
  • Competence building: A systemic approach to innovation policy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other.With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly at the unresolved tensions and systemic unbalances related to competences in the system; and last but not least, it elaborates a set of overall criteria for the selection and design of relevant policy instruments addressing those tensions and unbalances.
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8.
  • Borras, Susana, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to special issue on learning, innovation systems and policy in honour of Bengt-Ake Lundvall
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 38:9, s. 666-668
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This special issue celebrates the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall on his 70th birthday. In the 1980s and 1990s he was a key player among a small group of academics in the USA and Europe that developed a new, systemic approach to the study of the interactions between science, innovation, and policy. He contributed to the popularity of the approach in the policy community in several ways, among other things through his period as Deputy Director at the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry at the OECD between 1992 and 1995, and through his later work for the European Commission, as evidenced among other things by the highly influential booklet, The Globalising Learning Economy: Implications for Innovation Policy. His strong emphasis on learning, a hallmark of Lundvall's approach, is also evident in much of his recent work. This issue has six papers written by some of his collaborators.
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9.
  • Broström, Anders (författare)
  • Interaction with science : In what sense a case of learning by doing?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427. ; 41:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the contribution of Cohen et al. (Management Science, 2002, 48: 1-23), it is well established that linkages between engineering firms and public research organisations serve to both suggest new R&D projects and comple existing projects. However, the literature has little to say about whether these two types of outcomes are linked or independent effects. Drawing on theories of organisational learning and empirical analysis of data on Swedish engineering firms, this paper establishes that the occurrence of useful impulses to further R& D is inherently linked to the achievement of objectives related to a firm's ongoing R& D projects. This connection is, however, mediated by the character of the project objective. Compared to linkages where objectives of exploration and exploitation are balanced, the connection between serendipitous learning and the achievement of established R& D objectives is stronger when these objectives are oriented towards exploration and weaker when objectives are oriented towards exploitation.
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10.
  • Eklöf, Jenny, 1973- (författare)
  • Success Story or Cautionary Tale? : Swedish Ethanol in Co-existing Science-Policy Frameworks
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 38:10, s. 795-806
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sweden's consumption of transport ethanol has given the country a specific biofuel profile in Europe. In recent commentary, Sweden is either depicted as an environmental role model, or figures as a cautionary tale of things going wrong. In both cases, science plays a central role for how this success, or failure, has been achieved. Drawing on the insight that science and policy are highly interwoven, the article identifies different, co-existing and sometimes conflicting, science-policy frameworks. It sets out to shed some light over the complexities of science-policy interactions in the biofuel case and argues that one needs to ask which science is relevant for which policy choice, be aware that lack of scientific certainty carries different weight in different political situations and recognise that high decision-stakes entail value-plurality, also within scientific circles.
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