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Sökning: L773:0302 3427 OR L773:1471 5430 > (2010-2014) > (2012)

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1.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Institutional persistence through gradual organizational adaptation : Analysis of national laboratories in the USA and Germany
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 39:4, s. 450-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper discusses the institutional persistence of systems of national laboratories (SNLs) that unlike other public and private research organizations appear to have experienced only minor institutional shifts in recent years. Although national laboratories started as time-limited mission-oriented projects, most of them have remained in operation as continuously renewed multi-purpose organizations. By comparing the SNLs in Germany and the USA, this paper discusses the relationship between the system and the organizational level and concludes that incremental organizational rearrangements have enabled the institutional persistence of SNLs despite considerable changes in their political and funding environments. The paper applies recent advances in institutional theory and thus contributes to a better understanding of institutional change in path-dependent public R&amp;D systems.</p>
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2.
  • Jacob, Merle, et al. (författare)
  • The persistence of big science and megascience in research and innovation policy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 39:4, s. 411-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This special section of an issue of Science and Public Policy grew out of an interest in following the politics of the European Spallation Source (ESS) Facility at Lund, Sweden. The ESS spectacle provided a platform from which to review different research infrastructure projects and to place them in the context of science policy as a whole. Large-scale research infrastructure investments are often very visible and controversial science policy investments. This group of five papers provides insights into the persistence of these types of investments in an era where cost efficiency and the contribution of science to innovation and economic development appear to be the dominant rationale for investment.</p>
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4.
  • Benner, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Head in the clouds and feet on the ground
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 39:2, s. 258-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined Few countries have increased their expenditure on R&D as rapidly as has China in recent years. However, so far, little academic attention has been paid to how decisions are taken and priorities set in Chinese research policy. This paper analyzes priority-setting in China's recent research policy. We find that China's research policy is driven by a variety of different, and sometimes conflicting, objectives, leading to a multitude of often overlapping initiatives. Secondly, mission- and excellence-driven research dominates over institution- and capacity-building and diffusion objectives. Thirdly, the process of setting research priorities is characterized by a combination of central goal articulation-top-down decision-making-and decentralization, deliberation and stakeholder consultation-bottom-up mechanisms. Aside from contributing to the understanding of China's research and innovation policy and system, this paper provides insights into policy change in China more generally and also into the processes which shape priority-setting in transition economies.
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5.
  • Elzinga, Aant, 1937- (författare)
  • Features of the current science policy regime: Viewed in historical perspective
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427. ; 39:4, s. 416-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper aims to throw into relief some of the general features in the development of the history of science policy by drawing attention to the continuation and deepening of old issues in new forms within the current science policy regime. The paper presents a typology which distinguishes different ways in which policy attempts to 'account' for public funding of science by showing how science contributes to wealth and prosperity. The paper concludes that the new forms of accounting place the focus of attention on what is 'produced' in science and that science policy itself has become dominated by the logic of globalism and new public management.
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6.
  • Fogelberg, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Regional innovation policy and public-private partnership: The case of Triple Helix Arenas in Western Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427. ; 39:3, s. 347-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Policies for regional innovation in Sweden rely on the view that different groups of actors enter into collaboration on the basis of a mutual interest. One recent organisational expression of this view is the development of innovation policy and development organisations known as 'Arenas'. These organisations were modelled on the Triple Helix innovation theory, which is known for promoting innovation as collaboration between industry, university and policy. This paper analyses the historical development of two such Arenas, which were created by public and private actors in two Swedish cities. The study used a historical case-study approach, combined with interviews with project management and project workers, to highlight the difficulties in stabilising broad collaboration patterns. The paper concludes that diverging interests may result in unresolved tensions within Triple Helix Arenas.
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7.
  • Hallonsten, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Institutional persistence through gradual adaptation: analysis of national laboratories in the USA and Germany
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427. ; 39:4, s. 450-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper discusses the institutional persistence of systems of national laboratories (SNLs) that unlike other public and private research organizations appear to have experienced only minor institutional shifts in recent years. Although national laboratories started as time-limited mission-oriented projects, most of them have remained in operation as continuously renewed multi-purpose organizations. By comparing the SNLs in Germany and the USA, this paper discusses the relationship between the system and the organizational level and concludes that incremental organizational rearrangements have enabled the institutional persistence of SNLs despite considerable changes in their political and funding environments. The paper applies recent advances in institutional theory and thus contributes to a better understanding of institutional change in path-dependent public R&D systems.
  •  
8.
  • Jacob, Merle, et al. (författare)
  • The persistence of big science and megascience in research and innovation policy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 39:4, s. 411-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This special section of an issue of Science and Public Policy grew out of an interest in following the politics of the European Spallation Source (ESS) Facility at Lund, Sweden. The ESS spectacle provided a platform from which to review different research infrastructure projects and to place them in the context of science policy as a whole. Large-scale research infrastructure investments are often very visible and controversial science policy investments. This group of five papers provides insights into the persistence of these types of investments in an era where cost efficiency and the contribution of science to innovation and economic development appear to be the dominant rationale for investment.
  •  
9.
  • Meijer, I, et al. (författare)
  • Networked research infrastructures and their governance : The case of biobanking
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 39:4, s. 491-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research infrastructures such as biobanks are increasingly important for science and society. This paper focuses on the transition of biobanks from being a research tool of individual research groups to complex, internationally networked research infrastructures supporting large-scale biomedical investigations, and the challenges that this change poses for governance in relation to management, funding, ethical and legal issues. A major problem for most publicly funded biobanks is that funding remains time-limited and is normally associated with specific research projects. Yet, as biobanks are becoming large research infrastructures, they are requiring new forms of sustainable funding. Based on ten in-depth case studies with biobanks of different sizes from different EU countries, we conclude that the growth in scale triggers the need for different governance structures, based on the specialization and professionalization of technical tasks, the formalization of many management practices and a shift in funding structures.
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10.
  • Perez Vico, Eugenia, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying, explaining and improving the effects of academic R&amp;D : The case of nanotechnology in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 39:4, s. 513-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is commonly believed that the academic sector does not generate enough value for society. This value is often measured in terms of new firms, patents and products, leading to policy responses which aim to enhance ‘commercialisation’ by academics. However, others maintain that academic research generates benefits in many ways, some of which are difficult to measure, and that policy must look beyond the academic sector to find ways of improving the impact of academic R&D. Applying a new version of the ‘technological innovation system’ framework to nanotechnology in Sweden, we find a rich pattern of impact, including substantial ‘commercialisation’. However, the effect of academic activities is constrained by factors exogenous to academia, in particular a lack of knowledge about environmental and health risks, institutional and market uncertainties, poorly coordinated policies and insufficient access to innovation-related capital. Policy-makers seeking to improve the impact of academic R&D should help to resolve these issues.
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