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Sökning: L773:0302 3427 OR L773:1471 5430 > (2015-2019)

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  • Baraldi, Enrico, et al. (författare)
  • A proactive approach to the utilization of academic research : The case of Uppsala University's AIMday
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 43:5, s. 613-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While most research on university-industry interactions focuses on established collaborations, this paper focuses on those interactions that occur before the emergence of a concrete relationship. Uppsala University, Sweden, applies this 'proactive' approach, based on creating universityindustry cooperation platforms before, or irrespectively of, the creation of commercializable knowledge. This study aims to analyze the structure, processes and effects of proactive approaches to utilize academic research commercially. It focuses on a conference, Academy Industry Meeting day (AIMday) and addresses three main questions: first, how does this mechanism work? Second, why do different actors, such as researchers, small and large companies, participate? Third, what values and concrete effects do they obtain from it? Our case study reflects the perspectives of industry, academia and the administrative units organizing the event. We find that some reasons to participate and values are important to all participants, but that there are also considerable differences.
  • Fernandez-Carro, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Emperor's clothes and the Pied Piper: Bureaucracy and scientific productivity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 43:4, s. 546-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For some scholars, bureaucratic contracts (i.e. low-powered and highly regulated) mitigate problems of time inconsistency between public employees who have undertaken costly asset-specific investments, and potentially opportunistic governments. For others, bureaucratic contracts exacerbate information asymmetries between bureaucratic experts and political dilettantes. This paper aims to reconcile these views by proposing two testable propositions: while bureaucratic impartiality has a positive effect because it reduces time inconsistency problems in the relationship between principals (governments) and agents (public employees), a bureaucratic career has, on the contrary, a negative effect because it reduces incentives. We test these hypotheses with three samples of countries (worldwide, OECD and EU) using scientific productivity as a proxy for public employees' performance that can be compared across countries. The results show how, controlling for levels of development and investment, proxies for bureaucratic impartiality show a significant positive effect on scientific productivity while the existence of bureaucratic careers significantly diminishes scientists' performance. © The Author 2015.
  • McKelvey, Maureen, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • A Recent Crisis in Regenerative Medicine: Analyzing Governance in Order to Identify Public Policy Issues
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427 .- 1471-5430. ; 45:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article focuses upon issues that public policy makers need to address, when trying to stimulate world-leading research into new areas, which are potentially also valuable to solving societal challenges. Our analysis helps contribute to the theoretical discussions about governance of new knowledge. We focus upon the sequence of events surrounding the main actors of a recent crisis of regenerative medicine in Sweden. We define governance theoretically, and use a conceptual model in order to structure the empirical analysis. Regenerative medicine is an interesting setting to explore these topics, not least because both public and private actors are often involved, and because governments struggle with how to promote ‘translational research’, e.g. diffusing scientific research into clinical practice. Our case study helps understand the process that led up to a crisis in regenerative medicine and identifies and discusses four issues that need to be addressed by policy makers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.
  • Arocena, Rodrigo, et al. (författare)
  • Towards making research evaluation more compatible with developmental goals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 46:2, s. 210-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research evaluation practices linked to social impact have important systemic effects on the prioritization and organization of research while at the same time leading to the delivery of higher social value. Amidst growing criticisms, global research evaluation has evolved in a different direction, characterized by quantitative metrics and mimetic behavior. The article deals with the forces that sustain the prevailing research evaluation system, asks why it has proven to be so resilient, and discusses alternative proposals. A new argument for building an alternative is put forward: the need for a developmental role for universities, introducing the notion of ‘connected autonomy’ allowing universities to productively and in a nonsubordinated way collaborate with a broad set of actors to achieve desirable social changes. An outline is presented for how to make research evaluation practices and the pursuit of developmental goals more compatible, an important issue for knowledge public policy.
  • Bergek, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to new technology-based firms
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0302-3427. ; 42:4, s. 514-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper analyses public support and argues that supply does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The demand side of public support to NTBFs is analysed by developing a typology of NTBFs, based on venture origin and degree of innovativeness. Each types characteristics, challenges and support needs are identified. The supply side is analysed in terms of the goals, instruments and level of aggregation of the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small and medium-sized enterprise policy and science, technology and innovation policy. Finally, the demand and supply sides are compared and three main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs are identified. This paper makes a twofold contribution: first, the typology gives guidelines for policy-makers with respect to the support needs of the NTBFs. Second, it identifies shortcomings in existing public support and recommends improvements.
  • Borrás, Susana, et al. (författare)
  • Education, training and skills in innovation policy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 42:2, s. 215-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education, training and skills) when designing and implementing innovation policies. After a brief literature review, this paper suggests a typology of internal/external and individual/organizational sources of competences that are related to innovation activities. This serves to examine briefly the most common initiatives that governments are taking in this regard. The paper identifies three overall deficiencies and imbalances in innovation systems in terms of education, training and skills: the insufficient levels of competences in a system, the time lag between firms’ short-term needs for specific competences and the long time required to develop them, and the imbalances between internal and external sources of competences in firms. From these, the paper elaborates a set of overall criteria for the (re)design of policy instruments addressing those tensions and imbalances.
  • Bugge, Markus M., et al. (författare)
  • Governing socio-technical change : Orchestrating demand for assisted living in ageing societies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 45:4, s. 468-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in innovation studies towards grand challenges, and in how demand-side policy instruments can supplement traditional supply-side policy measures. To contribute to an improved understanding of how demand-side policy requires new governance responses, this article presents a case study of trialling assisted living technologies to address the grand challenge of demographic ageing. The article departs from an innovation policy framework that incorporates theorising on transformational system failures, governance modes, and policy mixes. This framework serves as an entry point to explore how different modes of governance condition the ways in which demand for assisted living in healthcare is orchestrated across multiple stakeholders. The case study is embedded in a wider system shift from a reactive to a proactive system of healthcare provision, enabling the elderly to live independently at home longer and thus avoiding or postponing institutionalised care.
  • Frishammar, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • A Knowledge-based Perspective on System Weaknesses in Technological Innovation Systems
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 46:1, s. 55-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The literature on technological innovation systems (TIS) provides policymakers and other actors with a scheme of analysis to identify system weaknesses. In doing so, TIS analysis centres on which system weaknesses policy interventions should target to promote further development of a particular system. However, prior TIS literature has not sufficiently elaborated on what may constitute the conceptual roots of a ‘weakness’. We apply a knowledge-based perspective and propose that many—albeit not all—system weaknesses may root in four types of knowledge problems: uncertainty, complexity, equivocality, and ambiguity. Employing these as sensitizing concepts, we study system weaknesses by analysing data from a biorefinery TIS in Sweden. This analysis results in novel implications for the TIS literature and for achieving a better match between system weaknesses and the design of innovation policies.
  • Hallonsten, Olof (författare)
  • Development and transformation of the third sector of R&D in Sweden, 1942-2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 45:5, s. 634-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article chronicles and analyzes the history of the third sector of R&D in Sweden, which corresponds to an organizational field of research institutes outside academia and private firms. Using secondary sources and governmental documentation, the chronicle begins with the forming of a number of industry-specific and industry-owned institutes in the 1940s and ends with today’s reformed and state-owned institute group called Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE). The analysis demonstrates the potential of theoretical tools from historical institutionalism in longitudinal analyses of research policy, by putting the spotlight on an organizational field that has developed in the shadow of major science policy decision-making, largely through processes of conversion and drift. The article identifies path dependence as a key feature of the national Swedish R&D system, and thus confirms, in the area of research policy, the historical-institutionalist postulation that organizational fields and societal sectors often transform gradually and incrementally, with preserved macro-level stability.
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