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1.
  • Andreasen, N, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid tau and Abeta42 as predictors of development of Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 273:1, s. 5-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied CSF-tau and CSF-Abeta42 in 16 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who at follow-up investigations 6-27 months later had progressed to Alzheimer's disease (AD) with dementia. For comparison, we studied 15 age-matched healthy individuals. At baseline, 14/16 (88%) of MCI patients had high CSF-tau and/or low CSF-Abeta42 levels. These findings show that these CSF-markers are abnormal before the onset of clinical dementia and that they may help to identify MCI patients that will develop AD. This is especially important when drugs with potential effects on the progression of AD will reach the clinical phase.
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2.
  • Blomqvist, Photjanee, et al. (författare)
  • Lesions of the locus coeruleus system aggravate ischemic damage in the rat brain
  • 1985
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 58:3, s. 353-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The possibility that the noradrenergic locus coeruleus system influences brain damage following ischemia was explored in rats. Bilateral lesions of the locus coeruleus projections to the forebrain aggravated the neuronal necrosis in the hippocampal CAI region and neocortex following complete cerebral ischemia induced by transient cardiac arrest. These findings provide evidence that the postischemic activation of the inhibitory locus coeruleus system could counteract a possible detrimental neuronal hyperexcitation, thereby limiting neuronal necrosis.
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3.
  • Borlongan, C V, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclosporine-A enhances choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the septal region of adult rats
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 279:2, s. 73-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclosporine-A (CsA) is the primary anti-rejection drug used for organ and neural transplantation therapy. In addition to its immunosuppressive action, CsA has been recently shown to exert neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system when able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Postulated mechanisms for these CsA-induced beneficial effects include the drug's powerful inhibition of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CN) and blockade of the assembly of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. We report here, for the first time, that adult Wistar rats treated with CsA (10 mg/kg per day, i.p. for 9 days) displayed significantly reduced septal CN expression in combination with enhanced levels of septal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity as compared to controls. The observed enhancement of septal ChAT immunoreactivity suggests potential therapeutic utility of CsA for brain disorders characterized by alterations of the cholinergic system.
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4.
  • Bretillon, L, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in patients with neurological diseases
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 293:2, s. 87-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The brain is the exclusive or almost exclusive site of formation of 24S-hydroxycholesterol and we have shown that the circulating level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol is dependent upon the relation between cerebral production and hepatic clearance. In the present work we determined plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in patients with various neurological diseases. Eleven subjects with brain death occurring 6-10 h before collection of the plasma samples had markedly reduced circulating levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol (-43%, P<0.001). Patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease and cerebral inflammatory diseases had slightly lower levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in plasma when compared to matched controls. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis and primary brain tumors had levels not significantly different from those of controls. The conditions leading to reduced plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol had no significant effect on plasma levels of another side-chain oxidized oxysterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol. Except for conditions characterized by very marked destruction of the central nervous system, different severe neurological diseases seem to have relatively small effects on the flux of 24S-hydroxycholesterol from the brain.
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5.
  • Cardell, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • Protein kinase C is translocated to cell membranes during cerebral ischemia
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 119:2, s. 228-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The subcellular distribution of PKC(α) and PKC(γ) was studied in homogenates of cerebral cortex from rats subjected to 10 and 15 min of ischemia and 15 min of ischemia followed by 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days of reperfusion. During ischemia no significant changes in the levels of PKC (α) were seen. During the first hour of reperfusion, a transient 2.5-fold (P < 0.05) increase in PKC(α) levels was observed in the particulate fraction. In contrast, a three-fold increase of PKC(γ) in the particulate fraction concomitant with a 40% decrease in the cytosol was noted during ischemia. In the postischemic phase the levels in the cytosol decreased to 35% of control values at 2 days following ischemia, with a concomitant decrease in the particulate fraction to control levels. The redistribution of PKC to the cell membranes during and following ischemia could be due to ischemia induced receptor activation, increased levels of diacylglycerols, arachidonate and intracellular calcium, and may be of importance for the development of ischemic neuronal damage.
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6.
  • Davidsson, P, et al. (författare)
  • Differential increase in cerebrospinal fluid-acetylcholinesterase after treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in patients with Alzheimer's disease
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 300:3, s. 157-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical significance and the effects of pharmacological treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were evaluated by measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF-AChE of AD patients was lower, not significantly, compared with controls. However, CSF-AChE was significantly increased after treatment of AD patients with AChE inhibitors (donepezil and galantamine). The increase was higher in patients treated with donezepil than in those treated with galantamine, which might be related to different mechanisms for the substances. The increase was also dose-dependent, and was especially marked in patients showing a clinical response. These data suggest that CSF biomarkers are capable not only of identifying a biochemical effect of drugs, but also of differentiating between different compounds in a dose-dependent manner.
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7.
  • Edbladh, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Early regeneration in vitro of adult mouse sciatic axons is dependent on local protein synthesis but may not involve neurotrophins
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 168:1-2, s. 37-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The sensory axons of the adult mouse sciatic nerve were shown to regenerate after a local test crush lesion in vitro in a serum-free medium. The average outgrowth distance of the leading axons after culturing for 3 days was 2.8 ± 0.1 mm, which was shorter than in vivo (3.8 ± 0.2 mm). With the use of a compartmentalised culture system we could show that regeneration was partially dependent on local protein synthesis in the injury region. The initial stages of regeneration did not seem to involve neurotrophins since both K252a and K252b, selective and nontoxic inhibitors of the neurotrophin actions, failed to inhibit axonal growth. The present in vitro model system offers favourable conditions to investigate the early events of the regeneration process in an adult mammalian peripheral nerve.
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8.
  • Ekström, Per A R (författare)
  • Insulin stimulates ganglionic protein synthesis and reduces thymidine incorporation in support cells of the in vitro regenerating adult frog sciatic sensory neurons
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 132:2, s. 183-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin was tested for effects on crush injured, in vitro regenerating, adult frog sciatic sensory axons. A wide range of insulin concentrations (0.01-10 μg × ml-1) was found to stimulate incorporation of radioactive leucine into ganglionic protein by 50-80%. without affecting the regeneration distance. Simultaneously insulin inhibited the proliferation of the support cells at the crush region by 30%, as measured by thymidine incorporation. Experiments using compartmentalized culture dishes indicated that the proliferation inhibitory effect could be indirect and mediated by the neuronal cells. The results suggest that insulin influences the metabolism of adult peripheral neuronal cell bodies. The stimulated nerve cells could in turn affect the proliferation of support cells in the nerve trunk.
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9.
  • Ekström, Per A R, et al. (författare)
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor null mice : Unhampered in vitro outgrowth of sensory axons but reduced stimulatory potential by nerve segments
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 281:2-3, s. 107-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is locally up-regulated after peripheral nerve injury and may be involved in the subsequent regeneration. Here, adult mice with or without LIF gene deletions were used to study the role of LIF in regeneration. The results show that axonal regeneration in vitro from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was unaffected by LIF deletion. However, segments from wild type mice promoted DRG axonal outgrowth better than segments from LIF deleted animals when in vivo-injured sciatic nerve segments were co-cultured with DRGs from normal adult mice. Addition of LIF could not restore the deficit. This suggests that LIF is engaged in the local regulation of regeneration but not in the regenerative events occuring at the cell body level. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
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10.
  • Ekström, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The left habenular nucleus contains a discrete serotonin-immunoreactive subnucleus in the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - : Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 91:2, s. 121-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By use of antibodies against serotonin, a discrete subnucleus of putatively serotoninergic neurons was observed in the dorsal subdivision of the left habenular nucleus in the brain of the coho salmon. The subnucleus was observed in salmon of different life-stages: in fingerlings, during smolt transformation, after smolt transformation (in seawater), and after spawning. This finding further emphasizes the close relationship between the pineal organ and the habenular nuclei not only in terms of topographical proximity but also in terms of cytological similarities: cells of the habenular nucleus and the pineal complex have previously been shown to be immunoreactive also with antibodies directed against retinal phototransduction proteins [5]. It also underlines the asymmetric organization of the epithalamic region.
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