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  • Anckarsäter, Rolf, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • Association between thyroid hormone levels and monoaminergic neurotransmission during surgery.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 32:8-10, s. 1138-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human studies assessing thyroid hormone metabolism in relation to brain monoaminergic activity in vivo are scarce. The few studies that do exist suggest significant associations between thyroid function and monoaminergic activity, but the cause-and-effect relationships are far from elucidated. METHODS: We simultaneously collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 35 patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery before, 3h after and the morning after interventions and performed analyses for thyroid hormones and monoamine metabolites. RESULTS: At baseline, the CSF 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol concentrations were significantly correlated to the serum T(3)/T(4) ratio (rho=0.41, p=0.017). During surgery, serum thyroid hormones and the T(3)/T(4) ratio decreased (p<0.0001), while the CSF T(3)/T(4) ratio increased (p=0.0009). There were no correlations between serum and CSF levels of T(3) and T(4) at any of the samplings. Strong correlations were noted between baseline CSF thyroid hormone concentrations and subsequent increases in CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and homovanillinic acid (HVA), but not vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid hormone levels in serum and CSF during stress seem to be distinctly regulated. Baseline thyroid hormone activity may facilitate changes in brain monoaminergic neurotransmission in response to stress.
  • Andréen, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Sex steroid induced negative mood may be explained by the paradoxical effect mediated by GABAA modulators
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 34:8, s. 1121-1132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Certain women experience negative mood symptoms as a result of progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, progestagens in hormonal contraceptives, or the addition of progesterone or progestagens in sequential hormone therapy (HT). This phenomenon is believed to be mediated via the action of the progesterone metabolites on the GABA(A) system, which is the major inhibitory system in the mammalian CNS. The positive modulators of the GABA(A) receptor include allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, both neuroactive metabolites of progesterone, as well as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol. Studies on the effect of GABA(A) receptor modulators have shown contradictory results; although human and animal studies have revealed beneficial properties such as anaesthesia, sedation, anticonvulsant effects, and anxiolytic effects, recent reports have also indicated adverse effects such as anxiety, irritability, and aggression. It has actually been suggested that several GABA(A) receptor modulators, including allopregnanolone, have biphasic effects, in that low concentrations increase an adverse, anxiogenic effect whereas higher concentrations decrease this effect and show beneficial, calming properties. The allopregnanolone increase during the luteal phase in fertile women, as well as during the addition of progesterone in HT, has been shown to induce adverse mood in women. The severity of these mood symptoms is related to the allopregnanolone serum concentrations in a manner similar to an inverted U-shaped curve. Negative mood symptoms occur when the serum concentration of allopregnanolone is similar to endogenous luteal phase levels, while low and high concentrations have less effect on mood. It has also been shown that progesterone/allopregnanolone treatment in women increases the activity in the amygdala (as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging) in a similar way to the changes seen during anxiety reactions. However, it is evident that only certain women experience adverse mood during progesterone or GABA(A) receptor modulator treatments. Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) have severe luteal phase related symptoms; in this phase, they show changes in GABA(A) receptor sensitivity and GABA concentrations that are related to the severity of the condition. These findings suggest that negative mood symptoms in women with PMDD are caused by the paradoxical effect of allopregnanolone mediated via the GABA(A) receptor. CONCLUSION: Progesterone and progestagens induce negative mood, most probably via their GABA(A) receptor active metabolites. In postmenopausal women treated with progesterone and animals treated with allopregnanolone, there is a bimodal association between serum allopregnanolone concentration and adverse mood, resembling an inverted U-shaped curve. In humans, the maximal effective concentration of allopregnanolone for producing negative mood is within the range of physiological luteal phase serum concentrations.
  • Bannbers, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Lower levels of prepulse inhibition in luteal phase cycling women in comparison with postmenopausal women
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 35:3, s. 422-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Menopause denotes the end of the reproductive period in a woman's life and is characterized by gradually declining plasma levels of ovarian hormones. Mounting evidence suggests that prepulse inhibition (PPI) is sensitive to fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone. Deficits in PPI are associated with conditions characterized by increased levels of ovarian steroids, such as the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and the third trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study was to further elucidate ovarian steroid-related effects on PPI by examining 43 women with regular menstrual cycles, 20 healthy postmenopausal women without hormone replacement treatment (HRT) and 21 healthy postmenopausal women with ongoing estradiol-only or estradiol and progesterone therapy (EPT). Cycling women were tested during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle while postmenopausal women were tested on any arbitrary day. The PPI was measured by electromyography. Cycling women exhibited lower levels of PPI than postmenopausal women (p<0.05). There were no differences in PPI between postmenopausal HRT users and non-users. However, postmenopausal women with estradiol serum concentrations in the cycling range had lower PPI than postmenopausal women with low estradiol concentrations (groupxPPI interaction, p<0.05). In conclusion, the results further suggest a role for the ovarian steroids in PPI regulation as PPI is increased in postmenopausal women in comparison to regularly menstruating women examined during the late luteal phase. Furthermore, postmenopausal women with estradiol levels in the cycling range had lower PPI than postmenopausal women with low estradiol levels.
  • Bannbers, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder have increased startle modulation during anticipation in the late luteal phase period in comparison to control subjects
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 36:8, s. 1184-1192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a withdrawal reflex to sudden or noxious auditory stimuli and, most importantly, an unbiased measure of emotional processing of appetitive and aversive stimuli. By exposing subjects to fearful situations, such as aversive pictures, the ASR may be enhanced, suggesting that amygdala modulates the startle circuit during threat situations. As one previous study, investigating affective modulation of the ASR in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), discovered no difference during picture viewing it is possible that the mood changes observed in PMDD relate to anxious anticipation rather than to direct stimulus responding. Hence we sought to examine the effects of PMDD on picture anticipation and picture response. Sixteen PMDD patients and 16 controls watched slide shows containing pleasant and unpleasant pictures and positive and negative anticipation stimuli during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Simultaneously, semi-randomized startle probes (105dB) were delivered and the ASR was assessed with electromyography. Compared with control subjects, PMDD patients displayed an enhanced startle modulation by positive and negative anticipation stimuli in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. This finding was mainly driven by increased modulation in the luteal phase in comparison to the follicular phase among PMDD patients but also by an increased modulation in patients compared to controls during luteal phase. This suggests that the neural circuits underlying response to emotional anticipation are more sensitive during this period and emphasize the need of examining the neural correlates of anticipatory processes in women with PMDD.
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