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1.
  • Abegg, K., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of bariatric surgery combined with medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy or calorie restriction and weight loss on glycemic control in Zucker diabetic fatty rats
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - 0363-6119. ; 308:4, s. R321-R329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bariatric surgery rapidly improves Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our objective was to profile and compare the extent and duration of improved glycemic control following Roux-en-Y gastric (RYGB) bypass surgery and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and compare against calorie restriction/weight loss and medical combination therapy-based approaches using the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF) rodent model of advanced T2DM. Male ZDF rats underwent RYGB (n = 15) or SG surgery (n = 10) at 18 wk of age and received postsurgical insulin treatment, as required to maintain mid-light-phase glycemia within a predefined range (10-15 mmol/l). In parallel, other groups of animals underwent sham surgery with ad libitum feeding (n = 6), with body weight (n = 8), or glycemic matching (n = 8) to the RYGB group, using food restriction or a combination of insulin, metformin, and liraglutide, respectively. Both bariatric procedures decreased the daily insulin dose required to maintain mid-light-phase blood glucose levels below 15 mmol/l, compared with those required by body weight or glycemia-matched rats (P < 0.001). No difference was noted between RYGB and SG with regard to initial efficacy. SG was, however, associated with higher food intake, weight regain, and higher insulin requirements vs. RYGB at study end (P < 0.05). Severe hypoglycemia occurred in several rats after RYGB. RYGB and SG significantly improved glycemic control in a rodent model of advanced T2DM. While short-term outcomes are similar, long-term efficacy appears marginally better after RYGB, although this is tempered by the increased risk of hypoglycemia.
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2.
  • Ahrén, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • A Novel Approach to Assess Insulin Sensitivity Reveals No Increased Insulin Sensitivity in Mice with a Dominant-Negative Mutant Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1{alpha}
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - : American Physiological Society. - 0363-6119. ; 291:1, s. 131-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In phenotype experiments in mice, determination of dynamic insulin sensitivity often uses the insulin tolerance test. However, the interpretation of this test is complicated by the counterregulation occurring at low glucose. To overcome this problem, we determined the dynamic insulin sensitivity after inhibition of endogenous insulin secretion by diazoxide (25 mg/kg) in association with intravenous administration of glucose plus insulin (the DSGIT technique). Estimation of insulin sensitivity index (SI) by this technique showed good correlation to SI from a regular intravenous glucose tolerance test (r = 0.87; P < 0.001; n = 15). With DSGIT, we evaluated dynamic insulin sensitivity in mice with a rat insulin promoter (beta-cell-targeted) dominant-negative mutation of hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-1{alpha} [RIP-DN HNF-1{alpha} (Tg) mice]. When insulin was administered exogenously at the same dose in Tg and wild-type (WT) mice, plasma insulin levels were higher in WT, indicating an increased insulin clearance in Tg mice. When the diazoxide test was used, different doses of insulin were therefore administered (0.1 and 0.15 U/kg in WT and 0.2 and 0.25 U/kg in Tg) to achieve similar insulin levels in the groups. Minimal model analysis showed that SI was the same in the two groups (0.78 ± 0.21 x 10–4 min·pmol–1·l–1 in WT vs. 0.60 ± 0.11 in Tg; P = 0.45) as was the glucose elimination rate (P = 0.27). We conclude that 1) the DSGIT technique determines the in vivo dynamic insulin action in mice, 2) insulin clearance is increased in Tg mice, and 3) chronic islet dysfunction in RIP-DN HNF-1{alpha} mice is not compensated with increased insulin sensitivity.
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4.
  • Alamdari, Nima, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of muscle strength during sepsis is in part regulated by glucocorticoids and is associated with reduced muscle fiber stiffness
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - 0363-6119 .- 1522-1490. ; 303:10, s. R1090-R1099
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sepsis is associated with impaired muscle function but the role of glucocorticoids in sepsis-induced muscle weakness is not known. We tested the role of glucocorticoids in sepsis-induced muscle weakness by treating septic rats with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486. In addition, normal rats were treated with dexamethasone to further examine the role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of muscle strength. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture and muscle force generation (peak twitch and tetanic tension) was determined in lower extremity muscles. In other experiments, absolute and specific force as well as stiffness (reflecting the function of actomyosin cross-bridges) were determined in isolated skinned muscle fibers from control and septic rats. Sepsis and treatment with dexamethasone resulted in reduced maximal twitch and tetanic force in intact isolated extensor digitorum longus muscles. The absolute and specific maximal force in isolated muscle fibers was reduced during sepsis together with decreased fiber stiffness. These effects of sepsis were blunted (but not abolished) by RU38486. The results suggest that muscle weakness during sepsis is at least in part regulated by glucocorticoids and reflects loss of contractility at the cellular (individual muscle fiber) level. In addition, the results suggest that reduced function of the cross-bridges between actin and myosin (documented as reduced muscle fiber stiffness) may be involved in sepsis-induced muscle weakness. An increased understanding of mechanisms involved in loss of muscle strength will be important for the development of new treatment strategies in patients with this debilitating consequence of sepsis.
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5.
  • Albinsson, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Arterial remodeling and plasma volume expansion in caveolin-1 deficient mice.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - : American Physiological Society. - 0363-6119. ; 293, s. 1222-1231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caveolin- 1 ( Cav- 1) is essential for the morphology of membrane caveolae and exerts a negative influence on a number of signaling systems, including nitric oxide ( NO) production and activity of the MAP kinase cascade. In the vascular system, ablation of caveolin- 1 may thus be expected to cause arterial dilatation and increased vessel wall mass ( remodeling). This was tested in Cav- 1 knockout ( KO) mice by a detailed morphometric and functional analysis of mesenteric resistance arteries, shown to lack caveolae. Quantitative morphometry revealed increased media thickness and media- to- lumen ratio in KO. Pressure- induced myogenic tone and flow- induced dilatation were decreased in KO arteries, but both were increased toward wild- type ( WT) levels following NO synthase ( NOS) inhibition. Isometric force recordings following NOS inhibition showed rightward shifts of passive and active length- force relationships in KO, and the force response to alpha 1- adrenergic stimulation was increased. In contrast, media thickness and force response of the aorta were unaltered in KO vs. WT, whereas lumen diameter was increased. Mean arterial blood pressure during isoflurane anesthesia was not different in KO vs. WT, but greater fluctuation in blood pressure over time was noted. Following NOS inhibition, fluctuations disappeared and pressure increased twice as much in KO ( 38 +/- 6%) compared with WT ( 17 +/- 3%). Tracer- dilution experiments showed increased plasma volume in KO. We conclude that NO affects blood pressure more in Cav- 1 KO than in WT mice and that restructuring of resistance vessels and an increased responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation compensate for a decreased tone in Cav- 1 KO mice.
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6.
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7.
  • Anesten, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Preproglucagon neurons in the hindbrain have IL-6 receptor-α and show Ca2+ influx in response to IL-6
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - 0363-6119. ; 311:1, s. R115-R123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuronal circuits in the hypothalamus and hindbrain are of importance for control of food intake, energy expenditure, and fat mass. We have recently shown that treatment with exendin-4 (Ex-4), an analog of the proglucagonderived molecule glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), markedly increases mRNA expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and that this increase partly mediates the suppression of food intake and body weight by Ex-4. Endogenous GLP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is produced by preproglucagon (PPG) neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the hindbrain. These neurons project to various parts of the brain, including the hypothalamus. Outside the brain, IL-6 stimulates GLP-1 secretion from the gut and pancreas. In this study, we aim to investigate whether IL-6 can affect GLP-1-producing PPG neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in mouse hindbrain via the ligand binding part of the IL-6 receptor, IL-6 receptor-α (IL-6Rα). Using immunohistochemistry, we found that IL-6Rα was localized on PPG neurons of the NTS. Recordings of these neurons in GCaMP3/GLP-1 reporter mice showed that IL-6 enhances cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in neurons capable of expressing PPG. We also show that the Ca2+ increase originates from the extracellular space. Furthermore, we found that IL-6Rα was localized on cells in the caudal hindbrain expressing immunoreactive NeuN (a neuronal marker) or CNP:ase (an oligodendrocyte marker). In summary, IL-6Rα is present on PPG neurons in the NTS, and IL-6 can stimulate these cells by increasing influx of Ca2+ to the cytosol from the extracellular space. © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
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8.
  • Arvedsen, SK, et al. (författare)
  • Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - : American Physiological Society. - 0363-6119 .- 1522-1490. ; 309:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is known that arterial pressure correlates positively with body height in males and it has been suggested that this is due to the increasing vertical hydrostatic gradient from the heart to the carotid baroreceptors. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that a higher gravitoinertial stress induced by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41y), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, p<0.0001) and tall (23±2 mmHg, p<0.0001) males, with no significant difference between the groups. HR increased more (p<0.05) in the tall than in the short group (14±2 versus 7±2 bpm). Stroke volume (SV) decreased in the short group (26±4 mL, p=0.001) and more so in the tall group (39±5 mL, p<0.0001; short vs tall p=0.047). During +2GX, systolic arterial pressure increased (p<0.001) and SV (p=0.012) decreased in the tall group only. In conclusion, during +2Gz MAP increased in both short and tall males with no difference between the groups. However, in the tall group HR increased more during +2Gz which could be caused by a larger hydrostatic pressure gradient from heart to head leading to greater inhibition of the carotid baroreceptors.
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9.
  • Astrand, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 demonstrate increased heart rate associated with altered autonomic activity.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. - 0363-6119. ; 287:4, s. R749-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) plays an important role in energy balance. The current studies were carried out on a new line of mice lacking the rodent MCH receptor (MCHR1(-/-) mice). These mice confirmed the previously reported lean phenotype characterized by increased energy expenditure and modestly increased caloric intake. Because MCH is expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area, which also has an important role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetric method to investigate whether the increased energy expenditure in these mice might be due to altered autonomic nervous system activity. Male MCHR1(-/-) mice demonstrated a significantly increased heart rate [24-h period: wild type 495 +/- 4 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 561 +/- 8 beats/min (P < 0.001); dark phase: wild type 506 +/- 8 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 582 +/- 9 beats/min (P < 0.001); light phase: wild type 484 +/- 13 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 539 +/- 9 beats/min (P < 0.005)] with no significant difference in mean arterial pressure [wild type 110 +/- 0.3 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 113 +/- 0.4 mmHg (P > 0.05)]. Locomotor activity and core body temperature were higher in the MCHR1(-/-) mice during the dark phase only and thus temporally dissociated from heart rate differences. On fasting, wild-type animals rapidly downregulated body temperature and heart rate. MCHR1(-/-) mice displayed a distinct delay in the onset of this downregulation. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, autonomic blockade experiments were carried out. Administration of the adrenergic antagonist metoprolol completely reversed the tachycardia seen in MCHR1(-/-) mice, suggesting an increased sympathetic tone.
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10.
  • Bekele, Tafesse, et al. (författare)
  • Physiological and behavioral responses to different watering intervals in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - : American Physiological Society. - 0363-6119 .- 1522-1490. ; 305, s. R639-R646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During drought periods camels are watered at long intervals, but effects on body fluid homeostasis of lactating camels are not known. It was hypothesized that camels store water after drinking and minimize water losses by diurnal variation in body temperature, changes in behavior, and release of vasopressin. The aim was to find a sustainable watering interval for lactating camels. Seven lactating camels were studied in a cross-over trial in which they were watered once daily (W1), every fourth day (W4), every eighth day (W8), or after 16 days (W16) with a 5-day interval between treatments. When offered water every fourth or eighth days, the camels drank sufficient amounts to cover their needs for subsequent days, but after 16 days of dehydration they did not drink enough to compensate the body weight loss. Rectal temperature fell at night and the camels searched shade during daytime minimizing evaporative fluid losses. Plasma osmolality and sodium concentration were elevated after 4 days of water deprivation and plasma protein and vasopressin concentrations after 8 days. Milk production decreased during the last week of W16. Plasma aldosterone concentration was elevated upon rehydration after W16, indicating sodium deficiency. In conclusion, lactating camels stored water after drinking and reduced water losses by staying in shade, keeping body temperature low, and releasing plasma vasopressin. However, serious dehydration was observed during W8, and after 16 days of water deprivation recovery took a long time. A watering interval between 4 and 7 days seems advisable under similar environmental conditions.
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