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1.
  • Stokkeland, Knut, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy outcome in more than 5000 births to women with viral hepatitis : a population-based cohort study in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Springer. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 32:7, s. 617-625
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with respect to hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcome in women with HBV or HCV. In a nationwide cohort of births between 2001 and 2011 we investigated the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in 2990 births to women with HBV and 2056 births to women with HCV using data from Swedish healthcare registries. Births to women without HBV (n = 1090 979), and births without HCV (n = 1091 913) served as population controls. Crude and adjusted relative risks (aRR) were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. Women with HCV were more likely to smoke (46.7 vs. 8.0%) and to have alcohol dependence (18.9 vs. 1.3%) compared with population controls. Most women with HBV were born in non-Nordic countries (91.9%). Maternal HCV was associated with a decreased risk of preeclampsia (aRR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.24-0.64), but an increased risk of preterm birth (aRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60) and late neonatal death (7-27 days: aRR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.07-13.39) Preterm birth were also more common in mothers with HBV, aRR: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.02-1.45). Both HBV and HCV are risk factors for preterm birth, while HCV seems to be associated with a decreased risk for preeclampsia. Future studies should corroborate these findings.</p>
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2.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 29:4, s. 261-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as biomarker patterns representing potentially important pathways for CRC development.</p>
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3.
  • Almqvist, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • LifeGene : a large prospective population-based study of global relevance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 26:1, s. 67-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Studying gene-environment interactions requires that the amount and quality of the lifestyle data is comparable to what is available for the corresponding genomic data. Sweden has several crucial prerequisites for comprehensive longitudinal biomedical research, such as the personal identity number, the universally available national health care system, continuously updated population and health registries and a scientifically motivated population. LifeGene builds on these strengths to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical applications with particular attention to populations, through a unique design in a research-friendly setting. LifeGene is designed both as a prospective cohort study and an infrastructure with repeated contacts of study participants approximately every 5 years. Index persons aged 18-45 years old will be recruited and invited to include their household members (partner and any children). A comprehensive questionnaire addressing cutting-edge research questions will be administered through the web with short follow-ups annually. Biosamples and physical measurements will also be collected at baseline, and re-administered every 5 years thereafter. Event-based sampling will be a key feature of LifeGene. The household-based design will give the opportunity to involve young couples prior to and during pregnancy, allowing for the first study of children born into cohort with complete pre-and perinatal data from both the mother and father. Questions and sampling schemes will be tailored to the participants' age and life events. The target of LifeGene is to enroll 500,000 Swedes and follow them longitudinally for at least 20 years.</p>
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4.
  • Almqvist, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • LifeGene - A large prospective population-based study of global relevance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 26:1, s. 67-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Studying gene-environment interactions requires that the amount and quality of the lifestyle data is comparable to what is available for the corresponding genomic data. Sweden has several crucial prerequisites for comprehensive longitudinal biomedical research, such as the personal identity number, the universally available national health care system, continuously updated population and health registries and a scientifically motivated population. LifeGene builds on these strengths to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical applications with particular attention to populations, through a unique design in a research-friendly setting. LifeGene is designed both as a prospective cohort study and an infrastructure with repeated contacts of study participants approximately every 5 years. Index persons aged 18-45 years old will be recruited and invited to include their household members (partner and any children). A comprehensive questionnaire addressing cutting-edge research questions will be administered through the web with short follow-ups annually. Biosamples and physical measurements will also be collected at baseline, and re-administered every 5 years thereafter. Event-based sampling will be a key feature of LifeGene. The household-based design will give the opportunity to involve young couples prior to and during pregnancy, allowing for the first study of children born into cohort with complete pre-and perinatal data from both the mother and father. Questions and sampling schemes will be tailored to the participants' age and life events. The target of LifeGene is to enrol 500,000 Swedes and follow them longitudinally for at least 20 years.</p>
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5.
  • Almqvist, Catarina, et al. (författare)
  • LifeGene-a large prospective population-based study of global relevance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 26:1, s. 67-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Studying gene-environment interactions requires that the amount and quality of the lifestyle data is comparable to what is available for the corresponding genomic data. Sweden has several crucial prerequisites for comprehensive longitudinal biomedical research, such as the personal identity number, the universally available national health care system, continuously updated population and health registries and a scientifically motivated population. LifeGene builds on these strengths to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical applications with particular attention to populations, through a unique design in a research-friendly setting. LifeGene is designed both as a prospective cohort study and an infrastructure with repeated contacts of study participants approximately every 5 years. Index persons aged 18-45 years old will be recruited and invited to include their household members (partner and any children). A comprehensive questionnaire addressing cutting-edge research questions will be administered through the web with short follow-ups annually. Biosamples and physical measurements will also be collected at baseline, and re-administered every 5 years thereafter. Event-based sampling will be a key feature of LifeGene. The household-based design will give the opportunity to involve young couples prior to and during pregnancy, allowing for the first study of children born into cohort with complete pre-and perinatal data from both the mother and father. Questions and sampling schemes will be tailored to the participants' age and life events. The target of LifeGene is to enrol 500,000 Swedes and follow them longitudinally for at least 20 years.</p>
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6.
  • Arnold, Melina, et al. (författare)
  • Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk : a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Springer. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 31:9, s. 893-904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing different forms of cancer. Study participants from seven European and one US cohort study with two or more weight assessments during follow-up were included (n = 329,576). Trajectories of body mass index (BMI) across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25) and cumulative weighted overweight years were calculated. In multivariate Cox models and random effects analyses, a longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of obesity-related cancer [overall hazard ratio (HR) per 10-year increment: 1.36; 95 % CI 1.12-1.60], but also increased the risk of postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer. Additionally accounting for the degree of overweight further increased the risk of obesity-related cancer. Risks associated with a longer overweight duration were higher in men than in women and were attenuated by smoking. For postmenopausal breast cancer, increased risks were confined to women who never used hormone therapy. Overall, 8.4 % of all obesity-related cancers could be attributed to overweight at any age. These findings provide further insights into the role of overweight duration in the etiology of cancer and indicate that weight control is relevant at all ages. This knowledge is vital for the development of effective and targeted cancer prevention strategies.</p>
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7.
  • Arnold, Melina, et al. (författare)
  • Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk : a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 31:9, s. 893-904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing different forms of cancer. Study participants from seven European and one US cohort study with two or more weight assessments during follow-up were included (n = 329,576). Trajectories of body mass index (BMI) across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25) and cumulative weighted overweight years were calculated. In multivariate Cox models and random effects analyses, a longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of obesity-related cancer [overall hazard ratio (HR) per 10-year increment: 1.36; 95 % CI 1.12-1.60], but also increased the risk of postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer. Additionally accounting for the degree of overweight further increased the risk of obesity-related cancer. Risks associated with a longer overweight duration were higher in men than in women and were attenuated by smoking. For postmenopausal breast cancer, increased risks were confined to women who never used hormone therapy. Overall, 8.4 % of all obesity-related cancers could be attributed to overweight at any age. These findings provide further insights into the role of overweight duration in the etiology of cancer and indicate that weight control is relevant at all ages. This knowledge is vital for the development of effective and targeted cancer prevention strategies.</p>
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8.
  • Aro, Pertti, et al. (författare)
  • Use of tobacco products and gastrointestinal morbidity : an endoscopic population-based study (the Kalixanda study)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 25:10, s. 741-750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The impact of snus (smokeless tobacco or snuff) on gastrointestinal symptoms and pathological findings is largely unknown. The authors aimed to investigate whether the exposure to different forms of tobacco influences upper gastrointestinal symptoms, histology and frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection. A random sample (n = 2,860) of the adult population of two northern Swedish municipalities Kalix and Haparanda (n = 21,610) was surveyed between December 1998 and June 2001 using a validated postal questionnaire assessing gastrointestinal symptoms (response rate 74.2%, n = 2,122) (The Kalixanda Study). A random sub-sample (n = 1,001) of the responders was invited to undergo an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (participation rate 73.3%) including biopsies, Helicobacter pylori culture and serology and symptom assessment and exploration of present and past use of tobacco products. No symptom groups were associated with snus use. Snus users had a significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic esophagitis univariately but snus use was not associated with esophagitis in multivariate analysis. Snus use was associated with basal cell hyperplasia (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.00) and with elongation of papillae (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.05-3.05) of the squamous epithelium at the esophago-gastric junction. Current smoking cigarettes was associated with overall peptic ulcer disease (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.19) whereas snus use was not. There were no significant association between current Helicobacter pylori infection and different tobacco product user groups. Snus significantly alters the histology of the distal esophagus but does not impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or peptic ulcer disease.</p>
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9.
  • Avendano, Mauricio, et al. (författare)
  • Are some populations resilient to recessions? Economic fluctuations and mortality during a period of economic decline and recovery in Finland
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 32:1, s. 77-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper uses individual-level longitudinal data on working-age Finns to examine the health effects of economic fluctuations during a period of economic decline (1989-1996) and recovery (1997-2007) in Finland. We used a nationally representative, longitudinal sample formed by linking population, employment and mortality registers (n = 698,484; 7,719,870 person-years). We implemented a region fixed-effect model that exploits within-regional variations over time in the unemployment rate to identify the effect of economic fluctuations on mortality, controlling for individual employment transitions. Unemployment rates increased from 5.2 % in 1989 to 19.8 % in 1996, declining gradually thereafter and reaching 9.7 % in 2007. Results indicate that these large fluctuations in the economy had no impact on the overall mortality of most working age Finns. The exception was highly educated men, who experienced an increase of 7 % (Rate ratio = 1.07, 95 % confidence interval 1.04, 1.10) for every one-point increase in the regional unemployment rate during the period 1989-1996 due to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease and suicide. This increase, however, was not robust in models that used the employment to population ratio as measure of the economy. Unemployment rates were unrelated to mortality among females, lower educated men, and among any group during economic recovery (1997-2007). For most Finns, we found no consistent evidence of changes in mortality in response to contractions or expansions in the economy. Possible explanations include the weak impact of the recession on wages, as well as the generous unemployment insurance and social benefit system in Finland.</p>
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10.
  • Baba, Sachiko, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of smoking and snuff cessation on risk of preterm birth
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 27:4, s. 297-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The mechanisms by which antenatal smoking exposure increases the risk of preterm birth remain unknown. Swedish oral moist snuff contains quantities of nicotine comparable to those typically absorbed from cigarette smoking, but does not result in exposure to the products of combustion, for example carbon monoxide. In a nationwide study of 776,836 live singleton births in Sweden from 1999 to 2009, the authors used multiple logistic regression models to examine associations between cessation of smoking and Swedish snuff use early in pregnancy and risk of preterm birth (before 37 weeks). Compared with nontobacco users both before and in early pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratios (OR), 95 % confidence interval (CI) were OR = 0.92, 95 % CI 0.84-1.01, for women who stopped using snuff, and OR = 0.90, 95 % CI 0.87-0.94, for women who stopped smoking. In contrast, continued snuff use and smoking were associated with increased risks of preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.17-1.43, adjusted OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.25-1.36, respectively). The snuff and smoking-related risks were, if anything, higher for very (before 32 weeks) than moderately (32-36 weeks) preterm birth, and also higher for spontaneous than induced pretermbirth. These findings suggest that antenatal exposure to nicotine is involved in the mechanism by which tobacco use increase the risk of preterm birth.</p>
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