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1.
  • Alfvén, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Low-level cadmium exposure and osteoporosis.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 15, s. 1579-1586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. A number of risk factors, such as age and gender, are well established. High cadmium exposure causes renal damage and in severe cases also causes osteoporosis and osteomalacia, We have examined whether long-term Pow-level cadmium exposure increases the risk of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the forearm was measured in 520 men and 544 women, aged 16-81 years, environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique. Cadmium in urine was used as the dose estimate and protein HC was used: as a marker of renal tubular damage. There was a clear dose-response relation between cadmium dose and the prevalence of tubular proteinuria. Inverse relations were found between cadmium dose, tubular proteinuria, and BMD, particularly apparent in persons over 60 years of age, There was a dose-response relation between cadmium dose and osteoporosis. The odds ratios (ORs) for men were 2.2 (95% CI, 1.0-4.8) in the dose group 0.5-3 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine and 5.3 (2.0-14) in the highest dose category (greater than or equal to 3 nmol/mmol creatinine) compared with the lowest dose group (<0.5 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine). For women, the OR was 1.8 (0.65-5.3) in the dose group 0.53 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine. We conclude that exposure to low levels of cadmium is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.
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2.
  • Axelsson, Kristian F., et al. (författare)
  • Association between recurrent fracture risk and implementation of fracture liaison services in four Swedish hospitals : A cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 35:7, s. 1216-1223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Structured secondary preventions programs, called fracture liaison services (FLSs), increase the rate of evaluation with bone densitometry and use of osteoporosis medication after fracture. However, the evidence regarding the effect on the risk of recurrent fracture is insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate if implementation of FLS was associated with reduced risk of recurrent fractures. In this retrospective cohort study, electronic health records during 2012 to 2017 were used to identify a total of 21,083 patients from four hospitals in Western Sweden, two with FLS (n = 15,449) and two without (n = 5634). All patients aged 50 years or older (mean age 73.9 [SD 12.4] years, 76% women) with a major osteoporotic index fracture (hip, clinical spine, humerus, radius, and pelvis) were included. The primary outcome was recurrent major osteoporotic fracture. All patients with an index fracture during the FLS period (n = 13,946) were compared with all patients in the period before FLS implementation (n = 7137) in an intention-to-treat analysis. Time periods corresponding to the FLS hospitals were used for the non-FLS hospitals. In the hospitals with FLSs, there were 1247 recurrent fractures during a median follow-up time of 2.2 years (range 0–6 years). In an unadjusted Cox model, the risk of recurrent fracture was 18% lower in the FLS period compared with the control period (hazard ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73–0.92, p = 0.001), corresponding to a 3-year number needed to screen of 61, and did not change after adjustment for clinical risk factors. In the hospitals without FLSs, no change in recurrent fracture rate was observed. Treatment decisions were made according to the Swedish treatment guidelines. In conclusion, implementation of FLS was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent fracture, indicating that FLSs should be included routinely at hospitals treating fracture patients. 
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3.
  • Axelsson, Kristian F., et al. (författare)
  • Fracture risk after gastric bypass surgery – a retrospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 33:12, s. 2122-2131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gastric bypass surgery constitutes the most common and effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity. Gastric bypass leads to bone loss, but fracture risk following surgery has been insufficiently studied. Furthermore, the association between gastric bypass and fracture risk has not been studied in patients with diabetes, which is a risk factor for fracture and affected by surgery. In this retrospective cohort study using Swedish national databases, 38 971 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass were identified, 7758 with diabetes and 31 213 without. An equal amount of well-balanced controls were identified through multivariable 1:1 propensity score matching. The risk of fracture and fall injury was investigated using Cox proportional hazards and flexible parameter models. Fracture risk according to weight loss and degree of calcium and vitamin D supplementation one-year post- surgery was investigated. During a median follow-up time of 3.1 (IQR 1.7-4.6) years, gastric bypass was associated with increased risk of any fracture, in patients with and without diabetes using a multivariable Cox model (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05- 1.53 and HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47, respectively). Using flexible parameter models, the fracture risk appeared to increase with time. The risk of fall injury without fracture was also increased after gastric bypass. Larger weight loss or poor calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery were not associated with increased fracture risk. In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery is associated with an increased fracture risk, which appears to be increasing with time and not associated with degree of weight loss or calcium and vitamin D supplementation following surgery. An increased risk of fall injury was seen after surgery, which could contribute to the increased fracture risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Axelsson, Kristian F, et al. (författare)
  • Fracture Risk After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1523-4681 .- 0884-0431. ; 33:12, s. 2122-2131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gastric bypass surgery constitutes the most common and effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity. Gastric bypass leads to bone loss, but fracture risk following surgery has been insufficiently studied. Furthermore, the association between gastric bypass and fracture risk has not been studied in patients with diabetes, which is a risk factor for fracture and affected by surgery. In this retrospective cohort study using Swedish national databases, 38,971 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass were identified, 7758 with diabetes and 31,213 without. An equal amount of well-balanced controls were identified through multivariable 1:1 propensity score matching. The risk of fracture and fall injury was investigated using Cox proportional hazards and flexible parameter models. Fracture risk according to weight loss and degree of calcium and vitamin D supplementation 1-year postsurgery was investigated. During a median follow-up time of 3.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.7 to 4.6) years, gastric bypass was associated with increased risk of any fracture, in patients with and without diabetes using a multivariable Cox model (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.53; and HR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.47; respectively). Using flexible parameter models, the fracture risk appeared to increase with time. The risk of fall injury without fracture was also increased after gastric bypass. Larger weight loss or poor calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery were not associated with increased fracture risk. In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery is associated with an increased fracture risk, which appears to be increasing with time and not associated with degree of weight loss or calcium and vitamin D supplementation following surgery. An increased risk of fall injury was seen after surgery, which could contribute to the increased fracture risk. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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6.
  • Baird, Denis A., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of Novel Loci Associated With Hip Shape : A Meta-Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 34:2, s. 241-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10-9 , adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look-up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3-2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis-regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2  > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC-seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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7.
  • Benetou, Vassiliki, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Hip Fracture Incidence in Older Men and Women : The CHANCES Project
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 31:9, s. 1743-1752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to fracture prevention during adulthood and beyond is not adequately understood. We investigated the potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and hip fracture incidence in a large sample of elderly from Europe and United States. A total of 142,018 individuals (among which 116,509 women), aged ≥60 years old, from five cohorts, were followed-up prospectively for 1,911,482 person-years accumulating 5,552 hip fractures. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires. Ηip fractures were ascertained through national patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) derived by Cox proportional-hazards regression were estimated for each cohort and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Intake of ≤ 1 servings/day of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with 39% higher hip fracture risk [pooled adjusted HR:1.39, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs): 1.20, 1.58] in comparison to moderate intake (>3 and ≤5 servings/day) (pfor heterogeneity  = 0.505), whereas higher intakes (>5 servings/day) were not associated with lower risk in comparison to the same reference. Associations were more evident among women. We concluded that a daily intake of one or less servings of fruits and vegetables was associated with increased hip fracture risk in relation to moderate daily intakes. Older adults with such low fruit and vegetable consumption may benefit from raising their intakes to moderate amounts in order to reduce their hip fracture risk. 
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8.
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10.
  • Byberg, Liisa, et al. (författare)
  • Birth Weight is not Associated with Risk of Fracture : Results From Two Swedish Cohort Studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 29:10, s. 2152-2160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Development and growth in utero has been suggested to influence bone health. However, the relationship with risk of fracture in old age is largely unknown. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we studied the association between birth weight and fractures at ages 50-94 among 10,893 men and women (48% women) from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study (UBCoS, born 1915-29) and 1,334 men from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM, born 1920-24). Measured birth weight was collected from hospital or midwives' records and fractures from the Swedish National Patient Register. We observed 2,796 fractures (717 of these were hip fractures) in UBCoS and 335 fractures (102 hip fractures) in ULSAM. In UBCoS, the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 kg increase in birth weight, adjusted for sex and socioeconomic status at birth, was 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.09) for any fracture and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.91-1.23) for hip fracture. Estimates in ULSAM were similar. We did not observe a differential association of birth weight with fractures occurring before age 70 or after age 70 years. Neither birth weight standardized for gestational age nor gestational duration was associated with fracture rate. In linear regression, birth weight was not associated with bone mineral density among 303 82-year-old men in ULSAM but showed positive associations with total body bone mineral content (β per kg increase in birth weight, adjusted for social class and age, 133; 95% CI, 30-227). This association was attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index and height (β, 41; 95% CI, -43 to 126). We conclude that birth weight is associated with bone mineral content but this association does not translate into an association with risk of fracture in men and women aged 50-94 years.
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