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1.
  • Altmae, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Interactome of Human Embryo Implantation : Identification of Gene Expression Pathways, Regulation, and Integrated Regulatory Networks
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 26:1, s. 203-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prerequisite for successful embryo implantation is adequate preparation of receptive endometrium and the establishment and maintenance of a viable embryo. The success of implantation further relies upon a two-way dialogue between the embryo and uterus. However, molecular bases of these preimplantation and implantation processes in humans are not well known. We performed genome expression analyses of humanembryos (n = 128) andhumanendometria (n = 8). We integrated these data with protein-protein interactions in order to identify molecular networks within the endometrium and the embryo, and potential embryo-endometrium interactions at the time of implantation. For that, we applied a novel network profiling algorithm HyperModules, which combines topological module identification and functional enrichment analysis. We found a major wave of transcriptional down-regulation in preimplantation embryos. In receptive-stage endometrium, several genes and signaling pathways were identified, including JAK-STAT signaling and inflammatory pathways. The main curated embryo-endometrium interaction network highlighted the importance of cell adhesion molecules in the implantation process. We also identified cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions involved in implantation, where osteopontin (SPP1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and leptin (LEP) pathways were intertwining. Further, we identified a number of novel players in human embryo-endometrium interactions, such as apolipoprotein D (APOD), endothelin 1 (END1), fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7), gastrin (GAST), kringle containing trnasmembrane protein 1 (KREMEN1), neuropilin 1 (NRP1), serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 3 (SERPINA3), versican (VCAN), and others. Our findings provide a fundamental resource for better understanding of the genetic network that leads to successful embryo implantation. We demonstrate the first systems biology approach into the complex molecular network of the implantation process in humans.
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2.
  • Alvarez-Baron, Claudia P, et al. (författare)
  • The two-pore domain potassium channel KCNK5 : induction by estrogen receptor alpha and role in proliferation of breast cancer cells.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 25:8, s. 1326-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The growth of many human breast tumors requires the proliferative effect of estrogen acting via the estrogen receptor α (ERα). ERα signaling is therefore a clinically important target for breast cancer prevention and therapeutics. Although extensively studied, the mechanism by which ERα promotes proliferation remains to be fully established. We observed an up-regulation of transcript encoding the pH-sensitive two-pore domain potassium channel KCNK5 in a screen for genes stimulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in the ERα(+) breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. KCNK5 mRNA increased starting 1 h after the onset of E2 treatment, and protein levels followed after 12 h. Estrogen-responsive elements are found in the enhancer region of KCNK5, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed binding of ERα to the KCNK5 enhancer in E2-treated MCF-7 cells. Cells treated with E2 also showed increases in the amplitude of pH-sensitive potassium currents, as assessed by whole-cell recordings. These currents are blocked by clofilium. Although confocal microscopy suggested that most of the channels are located in intracellular compartments, the increase in macroscopic currents suggests that E2 treatment increases the number of active channels at the cell surface. Application of small interfering RNA specific for KCNK5 decreased pH-sensitive potassium currents and also reduced the estrogen-induced proliferation of T47D cells. We conclude that E2 induces the expression of KCNK5 via ERα(+) in breast cancer cells, and this channel plays a role in regulating proliferation in these cell lines. KCNK5 may therefore represent a useful target for treatment, for example, of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.
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3.
  • Ammoun, Sylwia, et al. (författare)
  • OX1 orexin receptors activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase in Chinese hamster ovary cells via multiple mechanisms : the role of Ca2+ influx in OX1 receptor signaling
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 20:1, s. 80-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activation of OX1 orexin receptors heterologously expressedin Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells led to a rapid, strong,and long-lasting increase in ERK phosphorylation (activation).Dissection of the signal pathways to ERK using multiple inhibitorsand dominant-negative constructs indicated involvement of Ras,protein kinase C, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, and Src. Most interestingly,Ca2+ influx appeared central for the ERK response in CHO cells,and the same was indicated in recombinant neuro-2a cells andcultured rat striatal neurons. Detailed investigations in CHOcells showed that inhibition of the receptor- and store-operatedCa2+ influx pathways could fully attenuate the response, whereasinhibition of the store-operated Ca2+ influx pathway alone orthe Ca2+ release was ineffective. If the receptor-operated pathwaywas blocked, an exogenously activated store-operated pathwaycould take its place and restore the coupling of OX1 receptorsto ERK. Further experiments suggested that Ca2+ influx, as such,may not be required for ERK phosphorylation, but that Ca2+,elevated via influx, acts as a switch enabling OX1 receptorsto couple to cascades leading to ERK phosphorylation, cAMP elevation,and phospholipase C activation. In conclusion, the data suggestthat the primary coupling of orexin receptors to Ca2+ influxallows them to couple to other signal pathways; in the absenceof coupling to Ca2+ influx, orexin receptors can act as signalintegrators by taking advantage of other Ca2+ influx pathways.
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4.
  • Dey, Prasenjit, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen receptors β1 and β2 have opposing roles in regulating proliferation and bone metastasis genes in the prostate cancer cell line PC3
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 26:12, s. 1991-2003
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The estrogen receptor (ER)β1 is successively lost during cancer progression, whereas its splice variant, ERβ2, is expressed in advanced prostate cancer. The latter form of cancer often metastasizes to bone, and we wanted to investigate whether the loss of ERβ1 and/or the expression of ERβ2 affect such signaling pathways in prostate cancer. Using PC3 and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell lines that stably express ERβ1 or ERβ2, we found that the ERβ variants differentially regulate genes known to affect tumor behavior. We found that ERβ1 repressed the expression of the bone metastasis regulator Runx2 in PC3 cells. By contrast, RUNX2 expression was up-regulated at the mRNA level by ERβ2 in PC3 cells, whereas Slug was up-regulated by ERβ2 in both PC3 and 22Rv1 cells. In addition, the expression of Twist1, a factor whose expression strongly correlates with high Gleason grade prostate carcinoma, was increased by ERβ2. In agreement with the increased Twist1 expression, we found increased expression of Dickkopf homolog 1; Dickkopf homolog 1 is a factor that has been shown to increase the RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio and enhance osteoclastogenesis, indicating that the expression of ERβ2 can cause osteolytic cancer. Furthermore, we found that only ERβ1 inhibited proliferation, whereas ERβ2 increased proliferation. The expression of the proliferation markers Cyclin E, c-Myc, and p45(Skp2) was differentially affected by ERβ1 and ERβ2 expression. In addition, nuclear β-catenin protein and its mRNA levels were reduced by ERβ1 expression. In conclusion, we found that ERβ1 inhibited proliferation and factors known to be involved in bone metastasis, whereas ERβ2 increased proliferation and up-regulated factors involved in bone metastasis. Thus, in prostate cancer cells, ERβ2 has oncogenic abilities that are in strong contrast to the tumor-suppressing effects of ERβ1.
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5.
  • Edvardsson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen receptor β induces antiinflammatory and antitumorigenic networks in colon cancer cells.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 25:6, s. 969-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies suggest estrogen to be protective against the development of colon cancer. Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is the predominant estrogen receptor expressed in colorectal epithelium and is the main candidate to mediate the protective effects. We have previously shown that expression of ERβ reduces growth of colorectal cancer in xenografts. Little is known of the actions of ERβ and its effect on gene transcription in colon cancers. To dissect the processes that ERβ mediates and to investigate cell-specific mechanisms, we reexpressed ERβ in three colorectal cancer cell lines (SW480, HT29, and HCT-116) and conducted genome-wide expression studies in combination with gene-pathway analyses and cross-correlation to ERβ-chromatin-binding sites. Although induced gene regulation was cell specific, overrepresentation analysis of functional classes indicated that the same biological themes, including apoptosis, cell differentiation, and regulation of the cell cycle, were affected in all three cell lines. Novel findings include a strong ERβ-mediated down-regulation of IL-6 and downstream networks with significant implications for inflammatory mechanisms involved in colon carcinogenesis. We also discovered cross talk between the suggested nuclear receptor coregulator PROX1 and ERβ, demonstrating that ERβ both regulates and shares target genes with PROX1. The influence of ERβ on apoptosis was further explored using functional studies, which suggested an increased DNA-repair capacity. We conclude that reexpression of ERβ induces transcriptome changes that, through several parallel pathways, converge into antitumorigenic capabilities in all three cell lines. We propose that enhancing ERβ action has potential as a novel therapeutic approach for prevention and/or treatment of colon cancer.
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6.
  • Jia, X C, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor : interaction with LH and chorionic gonadotropin from human but not equine, rat, and ovine species.
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 5:6, s. 759-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies on human LH receptors are difficult due to the limited availability of clinical samples. Recent cloning of rat and porcine LH receptor cDNAs indicated that these binding sites are single polypeptides of the G-protein-coupled receptor family with seven transmembrane domains. Based on the conserved sequences of rat and porcine receptors, we performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, using human ovarian mRNA as template and obtained partial human LH receptor cDNA clones. Further screening of a human ovary cDNA library and subsequent ligation of individual cDNA clones generated a human LH receptor cDNA containing the entire amino acid-coding region. Sequence analysis indicated that the human receptor cDNA displays 89% and 82% homology at the nucleotide level with its porcine and rat counterparts, respectively. A region spanning the second extracellular and third transmembrane domains is highly conserved among the human LH, FSH, and TSH receptors. The ovarian LH receptor clone is, however, significantly different from an incompletely spliced LH receptor cDNA recently obtained from a human thyroid library. Unlike the thyroid clone, the ovarian LH receptor cDNA could be expressed in the human fetal kidney cell line (293), and radioligand receptor assay identified high affinity (Kd, 1.2 x 10(-10) M) LH/hCG-binding sites on the plasma membrane. Binding specificity of the human LH receptor was studied using recombinant human CG, LH, and FSH secreted by CHO cells transfected with the respective genes. Human CG and LH displaced [125I]hCG binding with an ED50 of 4.3 and 4.8 ng/ml, respectively. In contrast, recombinant FSH was not effective. Treatment of transfected cells with recombinant gonadotropins also induced dose-dependent increases in extracellular cAMP production (hCG = LH much greater than FSH; ED50 25, 10, and greater than 3000 ng/ml). Although equine, rat, and ovine LH as well as equine CG competed effectively for rat testicular LH receptor binding, these hormones were unable to displace [125I]hCG binding to the human receptor, suggesting evolutionary changes in receptor binding specificity and the importance of using human receptors for clinical studies. Thus, the cloning and expression of the human LH receptor cDNA allowed analysis of interactions between human LH receptor and gonadotropins from diverse species. The present work should provide the basis for future design of therapeutic agents capable of interacting with the human receptor and for understanding the structural basis for LH receptor binding to different gonadotropins.
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7.
  • Jonsson, Philip, et al. (författare)
  • Single-Molecule Sequencing Reveals Estrogen-Regulated Clinically Relevant lncRNAs in Breast Cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 29:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor (ER)α-positive tumors are commonly treated with ERα antagonists or inhibitors of estrogen synthesis, but most tumors develop resistance, and we need to better understand the pathways that underlie the proliferative and tumorigenic role of this estrogen-activated transcription factor. We here present the first single-molecule sequencing of the estradiol-induced ERα transcriptome in the luminal A-type human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D. Sequencing libraries were prepared from the polyadenylated RNA fraction after 8 hours of estrogen or vehicle treatment. Single-molecule sequencing was carried out in biological and technical replicates and differentially expressed genes were defined and analyzed for enriched processes. Correlation analysis with clinical expression and survival were performed, and follow-up experiments carried out using time series, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time PCR. We uncovered that ERα in addition to regulating approximately 2000 protein-coding genes, also regulated up to 1000 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Most of these were up-regulated, and 178 lncRNAs were regulated in both cell lines. We demonstrate that Long Intergenic Non-protein Coding RNA 1016 (LINC01016) and LINC00160 are direct transcriptional targets of ERα, correlate with ERα expression in clinical samples, and show prognostic significance in relation to breast cancer survival. We show that silencing of LINC00160 results in reduced proliferation, demonstrating that lncRNA expression have functional consequences. Our findings suggest that ERα regulation of lncRNAs is clinically relevant and that their functions and potential use as biomarkers for endocrine response are important to explore.
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8.
  • Nagaraj, Vini, et al. (författare)
  • Elevated basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes caused by reduced plasma membrane cholesterol
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - : The Endocrine Society. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 30:10, s. 1059-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ spike frequency and Ca2+ influx and explained by enhanced single Ca2+ channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes.
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9.
  • Ohlsson, M, et al. (författare)
  • Hormonal regulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator messenger ribonucleic acid levels in rat granulosa cells : mechanisms of induction by follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone.
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 2:9, s. 854-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • FSH and GnRH both stimulate rat granulosa cells to produce tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). We have studied the molecular mechanisms involved in the action of these hormones by measuring tPA mRNA levels in primary cultures of rat granulosa cells. When granulosa cells were cultured in the presence of FSH or GnRH the level of tPA mRNA was increased 20- and 12-fold, respectively. The induction of tPA mRNA by FSH and GnRH was additive and the kinetics of induction differed. The effect of FSH could be mimicked by bromo-cAMP or forskolin, and was drastically enhanced by cotreatment with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. These findings are consistent with the notion that FSH mediates its effect through the protein kinase A pathway. GnRH is believed to augment phospholipid turnover in granulosa cells, leading to the activation of the protein kinase C pathway. Like GnRH, the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate also induced tPA mRNA in granulosa cells. In the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, FSH-stimulated tPA message levels were enhanced by 30-fold, revealing superinduction of tPA mRNA levels by this pathway. In contrast the induction of tPA mRNA by GnRH was inhibited by cycloheximide indicating that the synthesis of an intermediate protein is required for the GnRH effect. Our data suggest that FSH and GnRH increase the tPA mRNA levels by two distinct pathways in cultured granulosa cells, providing a model system for studying the hormonal regulation of tPA gene expression.
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10.
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