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Sökning: L773:0889 048X

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1.
  • Boström, Magnus, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • State-centered versus nonstate-driven organic food standardization: A comparison of the US and Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Springer. - 0889-048X. ; 23:2, s. 163-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic food standardization is an increasingly important strategy for dealing with consumer concerns about the environment, animal welfare, health, and the economic structure of food production. But the ways in which this consumer-oriented strategy is introduced, organized, and debated vary considerably across countries. In Sweden, a nongovernmental organization [KRAV (Association for Control of Organic Production)] - consisting of social movement organizations, associations for conventional and organic farmers, and the food industry - has been quite successful in promoting organic food labeling as an eco-label. KRAV has developed a complementary position vis-a-vis the state and EU regulatory framework. In the US, the federal government controls standardization. The government frames the label as a "marketing label," thus rejecting the idea that organic food production would have any significant advantages for the environment or, indirectly, for human health. This framing is separate from the ones created by organic constituencies, leading to deeper controversies than in Sweden. The purpose of this paper is to examine why standardization has followed different patterns in the two settings. We analyze context factors (i.e., political culture, pre-regulatory arrangements, and organizational structures) and process factors (i.e., framing and organizing). What are the benefits of a state-centric versus a nonstate-driven approach regarding powerful standardization? The paper shows that both settings provide not only "threats of regulatory occupation" from actors not committed to organic principles but also avenues for substantial standardization in the future, albeit through different channels.
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2.
  • Boström, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • State-Centred versus Non-State-Driven Organic Food Standardization : A comparison of the U.S. and Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X. ; 23:2, s. 163-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic food standardization is an increasingly important strategy for dealing with consumer concerns about the environment, animal welfare, health, and the economic structure of food production. But the ways in which this consumer-oriented strategy is introduced, organized, and debated vary considerably across countries. In Sweden, a nongovernmental organization [KRAV (Association for Control of Organic Production)] – consisting of social movement organizations, associations for conventional and organic farmers, and the food industry – has been quite successful in promoting organic food labeling as an eco-label. KRAV has developed a complementary position vis-à-vis the state and EU regulatory framework. In the US, the federal government controls standardization. The government frames the label as a “marketing label,” thus rejecting the idea that organic food production would have any significant advantages for the environment or, indirectly, for human health. This framing is separate from the ones created by organic constituencies, leading to deeper controversies than in Sweden. The purpose of this paper is to examine why standardization has followed different patterns in the two settings. We analyze context factors (i.e., political culture, pre-regulatory arrangements, and organizational structures) and process factors (i.e., framing and organizing). What are the benefits of a state-centric versus a nonstate-driven approach regarding powerful standardization? The paper shows that both settings provide not only “threats of regulatory occupation” from actors not committed to organic principles but also avenues for substantial standardization in the future, albeit through different channels.
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3.
  • de Bont, Chris, 1990-, et al. (författare)
  • The fluid nature of water grabbing : the on-going contestation of water distribution between peasants and agribusinesses in Nduruma, Tanzania
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X. ; 33:3, s. 641-654
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article contributes to the contemporary debate on land and water grabbing through a detailed, qualitative case study of horticultural agribusinesses which have settled in Tanzania, disrupting patterns of land and water use. In this paper we analyse how capitalist settler farms and their upstream and downstream peasant neighbours along the Nduruma river, Tanzania, expand and defend their water use. The paper is based on 3 months of qualitative field work in Tanzania. We use the echelons of rights analysis framework combined with the concept of institutional bricolage to show how this contestation takes place over the full spectrum of actual abstractions, governance and discourses. We emphasise the role different (inter)national development narratives play in shaping day-to-day contestations over water shares and rule-making. Ultimately, we emphasise that water grabbing is not a one-time event, but rather an on-going struggle over different water resources. In addition, we show how a perceived beneficial development of agribusinesses switching to groundwater allows them to avoid peasant-controlled institutions, avoiding further negotiation between the different actors and improving their image among neighbouring communities. This development illustrates how complex and obscured processes of water re-allocation can be without becoming illegal per se.
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4.
  • Dubois, Alexandre (författare)
  • Translocal practices and proximities in short quality food chains at the periphery: the case of North Swedish farmers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0889-048X .- 1572-8366. ; 36, s. 763-778
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines the social and organizational innovation processes undertaken by small-scale producers engaged in short food supply chains in the North Swedish region of Vasterbotten. The study uses the notion of proximity to empirically analyse and conceptually explore these phenomena. The paper illustrates the 'new associationalism' mobilized by producers in order to promote knowledge exchange and learning and highlights the role of translocal practices in sustaining this transition. The study found that open and trusted interactions with consumers are central to the development of 'quasi-organic' practices, and that producers belong to numerous motley associations of food professionals facilitating the creation of collective meanings about near-produced quality food. The paper contributes to the rapprochement between agri-food studies and human geography to understand the formation of local food systems from an evolutionary and relational perspective.
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5.
  • Gustafsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • The cultural background of the sustainability of the traditional farming system in the Ghouta, oasis of Damascus, Syria
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Kluwer Academic Publishers. - 0889-048X. ; 20:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper discusses the practical impact of a non-materialistic culture on sustainable farm management. Two elements are discussed: first, how deeply rooted religion is in this culture; second, the feasibility of using both human knowledge and experience, so-called tradition and divine guidance in management. Finally, the implications of the fusion of these two elements are drawn. The outcome is the capability of man to integrate ethical values into decisions and actions. This integration, when applied by skilled farmers, leads to a management of natural resources in an altruistic fashion and not merely to economic ends. Moreover, it makes agriculture meaningful and sustainable.
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6.
  • Haider, L. Jamila, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of development interventions on biocultural diversity : a case study from the Pamir Mountains
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between nature and culture in biocultural landscapes runs deep, where everyday practices and rituals have coevolved with the environment over millennia. Such tightly intertwined social-ecological systems are, however, often in the world's poorest regions and commonly subject to development interventions which effect biocultural diversity. This paper investigates the social and ecological implications of an introduced wheat seed in the Pamir Mountains. We examine contrasting responses to the intervention through participatory observation of food practices around a New Year ritual, and interviews in two communities. Our results show how one community fostered biocultural diversity, while the other did not, resulting in divergent processes of social and cultural change. In the former, ritual is practiced with traditional seed varieties, involving reciprocal exchange and is characterised by little outmigration of youth. In contrast, the second community celebrates the ritual with replaced store-bought ingredients, no longer cultivates any grain crops and where circular migration to Russia is the main livelihood strategy. Coevolution as an analytical lens enables us to understand these divergent pathways as processes of dynamically changing social-ecological relations. The paper suggests that a deeper understanding of social-ecological relationships in landscapes offers a dynamic and process-oriented understanding of development interventions and can help identify endogenous responses to local, regional and global change-thereby empowering more appropriate and effective development pathways.
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7.
  • Lundström, Markus, 1980- (författare)
  • “We do this because the market demands it” alternative meat production and the speciesist logic
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X. ; 36:1, s. 127-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The past decades’ substantial growth in globalized meat consumption continues to shape the international political economy of food and agriculture. This political economy of meat composes a site of contention; in Brazil, where livestock production is particularly thriving, large agri-food corporations are being challenged by alternative food networks. This article analyzes experiential and experimental accounts of such an actor—a collectivized pork cooperative tied to Brazil’s Landless Movement—which seeks to navigate the political economy of meat. The ethnographic case study documents these livestock farmers’ ambiguity towards complying with the capitalist commodification process, required by the intensifying meat market. Moreover, undertaking an intersectional approach, the article theorizes how animal-into-food commodification in turn depends on the speciesist logic, a normative human/non-human divide that endorses the meat commodity. Hence the article demonstrates how alternative food networks at once navigate confines of capitalist commodification and the speciesist logic that impels the political economy of meat.
8.
  • Lundström, Markus, 1980- (författare)
  • “We do this because the market demands it” alternative meat production and the speciesist logic
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X .- 1572-8366. ; 36:1, s. 127-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The past decades’ substantial growth in globalized meat consumption continues to shape the international political economy of food and agriculture. This political economy of meat composes a site of contention; in Brazil, where livestock production is particularly thriving, large agri-food corporations are being challenged by alternative food networks. This article analyzes experiential and experimental accounts of such an actor—a collectivized pork cooperative tied to Brazil’s Landless Movement—which seeks to navigate the political economy of meat. The ethnographic case study documents these livestock farmers’ ambiguity towards complying with the capitalist commodification process, required by the intensifying meat market. Moreover, undertaking an intersectional approach, the article theorizes how animal-into-food commodification in turn depends on the speciesist logic, a normative human/non-human divide that endorses the meat commodity. Hence the article demonstrates how alternative food networks at once navigate confines of capitalist commodification and the speciesist logic that impels the political economy of meat.
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9.
  • Marquardt, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Improved fallows: a case study of an adaptive response in Amazonian swidden farming systems
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0889-048X .- 1572-8366. ; 30, s. 417-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many smallholders in the Amazon employ swidden (slash-and-burn) farming systems in which forest or forest fallows are the primary source of natural soil enrichment. With decreasing opportunities to claim natural forests for agriculture and shrinking landholdings, rotational agriculture on smaller holdings allows insufficient time for fallow to regenerate naturally into secondary forest. This case study examines how Peruvian farmers use "improved fallows" as an adaptive response to a situation of decreasing soil fertility and how the farmers describe the rationale underlying the various actions taken in these modified fallow systems. The results indicate that farmers establish improved fallows using contextual ecological knowledge and various techniques to introduce a large diversity of tree species. This practice is also used to restore degraded land to agricultural production. The tasks of maintaining productivity on agricultural land and reforesting degraded areas is becoming increasingly urgent in the Amazon, making agricultural practices that involve reforestation and tree management highly relevant. Since swidden farming systems are the basis for the livelihoods of most Amazon smallholders, good farming practices elaborated by swidden farmers are important for sustainable small-scale family farming systems in the Amazon.
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10.
  • Marquardt, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Improved fallows: A case study of an adaptive response in Amazonian swidden farming systems
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Springer. - 0889-048X .- 1572-8366. ; :30, s. 417-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many smallholders in the Amazon employ swidden (slash-and-burn) farming systems in which forest or forest fallows are the primary source of natural soil enrichment. With decreasing opportunities to claim natural forests for agriculture and shrinking landholdings, rotational agriculture on smaller holdings allows insufficient time for fallow to regenerate naturally into secondary forest. This case study examines how Peruvian farmers use "improved fallows" as an adaptive response to a situation of decreasing soil fertility and how the farmers describe the rationale underlying the various actions taken in these modified fallow systems. The results indicate that farmers establish improved fallows using contextual ecological knowledge and various techniques to introduce a large diversity of tree species. This practice is also used to restore degraded land to agricultural production. The tasks of maintaining productivity on agricultural land and reforesting degraded areas is becoming increasingly urgent in the Amazon, making agricultural practices that involve reforestation and tree management highly relevant. Since swidden farming systems are the basis for the livelihoods of most Amazon smallholders, good farming practices elaborated by swidden farmers are important for sustainable small-scale family farming systems in the Amazon.
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