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1.
  • Alhamidi, Sameer, et al. (författare)
  • The cultural background of the sustainability of the traditional farming system in the Ghouta, the oasis of Damascus, Syria
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Agriculture And Human Values. - 0889-048X .- 1572-8366. ; 20:3, s. 231-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper discusses them practical impact of a non-materialistic culture on sustainable farm management. Two elements are discussed: first, how deeply rooted religion is in this culture; second, the feasibility of using both human knowledge and experience, so-called tradition and divine guidance in management. Finally, the implications of the fusion of these two elements are drawn. The outcome is the capability of man to integrate ethical values into decisions and actions. This integration, when applied by skilled farmers, leads to a management of natural resources in an altruistic fashion and not merely to economic ends. Moreover, it makes agriculture meaningful and sustainable
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2.
  • Arora-Jonsson, Seema (författare)
  • Relational dynamics and strategies: Men and women in a forest community in Sweden
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Agriculture And Human Values. - 0889-048X .- 1572-8366. ; 21:4, s. 355-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article views gender dynamics and strategies for change in a small Swedish village from a systems perspective. In the context of the struggle for the communal management of forests, tensions arose in the relations among the people in the village who differed in their opinions as to how to approach village development. Some village women argued for the importance of issues other than only community forestry in the development of the community's future livelihoods and well-being. They also believed that linking these activities with each other are vital for the community. Co-operative inquiry with women in the village reveals that, in their view, the community's overall needs are the most meaningful point of departure and not just individual resource management initiatives. They believed that it was vital to link resource management with other developmental activities in the village. The inquiry process also shows how the differences that may arise between men and women are dependent on the context, their relationships, and the networks they activate rather than the differences emerging solely from gender roles or the structure. Attention to how women and men "draw boundaries" around their activities and relationships expands our understanding of the diverse means they use for reaching their objectives. It also highlights the role of innovators who cross these boundaries and work toward change
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3.
  • Boström, Magnus, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • State-centered versus nonstate-driven organic food standardization: A comparison of the US and Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Springer. - 0889-048X. ; 23:2, s. 163-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic food standardization is an increasingly important strategy for dealing with consumer concerns about the environment, animal welfare, health, and the economic structure of food production. But the ways in which this consumer-oriented strategy is introduced, organized, and debated vary considerably across countries. In Sweden, a nongovernmental organization [KRAV (Association for Control of Organic Production)] - consisting of social movement organizations, associations for conventional and organic farmers, and the food industry - has been quite successful in promoting organic food labeling as an eco-label. KRAV has developed a complementary position vis-a-vis the state and EU regulatory framework. In the US, the federal government controls standardization. The government frames the label as a "marketing label," thus rejecting the idea that organic food production would have any significant advantages for the environment or, indirectly, for human health. This framing is separate from the ones created by organic constituencies, leading to deeper controversies than in Sweden. The purpose of this paper is to examine why standardization has followed different patterns in the two settings. We analyze context factors (i.e., political culture, pre-regulatory arrangements, and organizational structures) and process factors (i.e., framing and organizing). What are the benefits of a state-centric versus a nonstate-driven approach regarding powerful standardization? The paper shows that both settings provide not only "threats of regulatory occupation" from actors not committed to organic principles but also avenues for substantial standardization in the future, albeit through different channels.
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4.
  • Boström, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • State-Centred versus Non-State-Driven Organic Food Standardization : A comparison of the U.S. and Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X. ; 23:2, s. 163-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic food standardization is an increasingly important strategy for dealing with consumer concerns about the environment, animal welfare, health, and the economic structure of food production. But the ways in which this consumer-oriented strategy is introduced, organized, and debated vary considerably across countries. In Sweden, a nongovernmental organization [KRAV (Association for Control of Organic Production)] – consisting of social movement organizations, associations for conventional and organic farmers, and the food industry – has been quite successful in promoting organic food labeling as an eco-label. KRAV has developed a complementary position vis-à-vis the state and EU regulatory framework. In the US, the federal government controls standardization. The government frames the label as a “marketing label,” thus rejecting the idea that organic food production would have any significant advantages for the environment or, indirectly, for human health. This framing is separate from the ones created by organic constituencies, leading to deeper controversies than in Sweden. The purpose of this paper is to examine why standardization has followed different patterns in the two settings. We analyze context factors (i.e., political culture, pre-regulatory arrangements, and organizational structures) and process factors (i.e., framing and organizing). What are the benefits of a state-centric versus a nonstate-driven approach regarding powerful standardization? The paper shows that both settings provide not only “threats of regulatory occupation” from actors not committed to organic principles but also avenues for substantial standardization in the future, albeit through different channels.
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5.
  • de Bont, Chris, 1990-, et al. (författare)
  • The fluid nature of water grabbing : the on-going contestation of water distribution between peasants and agribusinesses in Nduruma, Tanzania
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X. ; 33:3, s. 641-654
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article contributes to the contemporary debate on land and water grabbing through a detailed, qualitative case study of horticultural agribusinesses which have settled in Tanzania, disrupting patterns of land and water use. In this paper we analyse how capitalist settler farms and their upstream and downstream peasant neighbours along the Nduruma river, Tanzania, expand and defend their water use. The paper is based on 3 months of qualitative field work in Tanzania. We use the echelons of rights analysis framework combined with the concept of institutional bricolage to show how this contestation takes place over the full spectrum of actual abstractions, governance and discourses. We emphasise the role different (inter)national development narratives play in shaping day-to-day contestations over water shares and rule-making. Ultimately, we emphasise that water grabbing is not a one-time event, but rather an on-going struggle over different water resources. In addition, we show how a perceived beneficial development of agribusinesses switching to groundwater allows them to avoid peasant-controlled institutions, avoiding further negotiation between the different actors and improving their image among neighbouring communities. This development illustrates how complex and obscured processes of water re-allocation can be without becoming illegal per se.
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6.
  • Gustafsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • The cultural background of the sustainability of the traditional farming system in the Ghouta, oasis of Damascus, Syria
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Kluwer Academic Publishers. - 0889-048X. ; 20:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper discusses the practical impact of a non-materialistic culture on sustainable farm management. Two elements are discussed: first, how deeply rooted religion is in this culture; second, the feasibility of using both human knowledge and experience, so-called tradition and divine guidance in management. Finally, the implications of the fusion of these two elements are drawn. The outcome is the capability of man to integrate ethical values into decisions and actions. This integration, when applied by skilled farmers, leads to a management of natural resources in an altruistic fashion and not merely to economic ends. Moreover, it makes agriculture meaningful and sustainable.
  •  
7.
  • Lundström, Markus, 1980- (författare)
  • “We do this because the market demands it” alternative meat production and the speciesist logic
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X. ; 36:1, s. 127-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The past decades’ substantial growth in globalized meat consumption continues to shape the international political economy of food and agriculture. This political economy of meat composes a site of contention; in Brazil, where livestock production is particularly thriving, large agri-food corporations are being challenged by alternative food networks. This article analyzes experiential and experimental accounts of such an actor—a collectivized pork cooperative tied to Brazil’s Landless Movement—which seeks to navigate the political economy of meat. The ethnographic case study documents these livestock farmers’ ambiguity towards complying with the capitalist commodification process, required by the intensifying meat market. Moreover, undertaking an intersectional approach, the article theorizes how animal-into-food commodification in turn depends on the speciesist logic, a normative human/non-human divide that endorses the meat commodity. Hence the article demonstrates how alternative food networks at once navigate confines of capitalist commodification and the speciesist logic that impels the political economy of meat.
8.
  • Marquardt, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Improved fallows: a case study of an adaptive response in Amazonian swidden farming systems
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Agriculture And Human Values. - 0889-048X .- 1572-8366. ; 30:3, s. 417-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many smallholders in the Amazon employ swidden (slash-and-burn) farming systems in which forest or forest fallows are the primary source of natural soil enrichment. With decreasing opportunities to claim natural forests for agriculture and shrinking landholdings, rotational agriculture on smaller holdings allows insufficient time for fallow to regenerate naturally into secondary forest. This case study examines how Peruvian farmers use "improved fallows" as an adaptive response to a situation of decreasing soil fertility and how the farmers describe the rationale underlying the various actions taken in these modified fallow systems. The results indicate that farmers establish improved fallows using contextual ecological knowledge and various techniques to introduce a large diversity of tree species. This practice is also used to restore degraded land to agricultural production. The tasks of maintaining productivity on agricultural land and reforesting degraded areas is becoming increasingly urgent in the Amazon, making agricultural practices that involve reforestation and tree management highly relevant. Since swidden farming systems are the basis for the livelihoods of most Amazon smallholders, good farming practices elaborated by swidden farmers are important for sustainable small-scale family farming systems in the Amazon.
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9.
  • Pétursson, Jón Þór (författare)
  • Organic intimacy : emotional practices at an organic store
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - Springer. - 0889-048X. ; 35:3, s. 581-594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article tells the story of the rise and fall of the organic store Yggdrasill in Iceland. That story features humble founders, caring customers, dedicated staff, as well as anonymous investment funds, and it describes the conversion of organics from a niche market to mainstream consumption. Through an ethnographic account of everyday life at the organic store, the article analyzes how intimacy within the modern food chain is established through emotional practices. Staff and customers share feelings of reciprocity, not only towards organic producers, but also towards each other through acts of selling and buying organic products, forming intimate attachment and creating trust to counter the fears and anonymity of the modern food chain. Drawing on theories of affect and emotional practices and combining ethnography with narrative analysis, the article explores the role of emotions and how the doing of emotions makes organic food consumption meaningful within the industrial food system.
10.
  • Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina, 1979- (författare)
  • Weed control practices on Costa Rican coffee farms : is herbicide use necessary for small-scale producers?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Agriculture and Human Values. - 0889-048X. ; 28:2, s. 167-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents research conducted duringtwo coffee farming seasons in Costa Rica. The studyexamined coffee farmers’ weed management practices andis presented in the form of a case study of small-scalefarmers’ use of labor and herbicides in weed managementpractices. Over 200 structured interviews were conductedwith coffee farmers concerning their use of hired labor andfamily labor, weed management activities, support services,and expectations about the future of their coffeeproduction. ANOVA and regression analyses describe therelationships between farm size, labor, and herbicide use,and three farm types (i.e., conventional, semi-conventional,and organic). Based on findings regarding the amount oflabor used to manually control weeds on different types offarms (large farms, small conventional, semi-conventional,and organic farms) I am able to challenge small conventionalfarmers’ perceived need for herbicide use. Semistructuredinterviews of coffee farmers and extensionworkers further revealed a dominant role played by agrochemicalcompanies in assisting farmers with productionproblems, and documented a high transaction cost forinformation provided from elsewhere. Chemical companieshire extension workers to visit farmers at their farms, freeof charge, to offer recommendations on how to treat differentpest problems, while government and cooperativeextension agents charge for the service. There is a need toincrease the amount of resources available to the NationalCoffee Institute to fund one-on-one farmer support servicesin order to balance the influence of agro-chemical companyrepresentatives and allow farmers to make better decisionsregarding weed management.
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