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  • Resultat 1-10 av 23
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Small business innovation : firm level evidence from Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 37:5, s. 732-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines innovation among very small firms and provides new insights into both internal and external determinants of patenting. Applying a non-linear panel data approach to about 160,000 observations on manufacturing firms in Sweden for the period 2000-2006, the following facts emerge: (i) in contrast to larger firms, innovation in micro firms with 1-10 employees is not sensitive to variation in internal financial resources, (ii) skilled labour is even more important for innovation among micro firms compared to other firms, (iii) affiliation to a domestically owned multinational enterprise group increases the innovation capacity of small businesses, (iv) small firms' innovation is closely linked to participation in international trade and exports to the G7-countries, and (v) there is no statistically significant evidence that proximity to metropolitan areas, or presence in a specialized cluster, increases the innovativeness of the smallest firm.
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2.
  • Asheim, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Contextualising Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalising Learning Economy: On Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 31:1, s. 163-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to advance the understanding of which types of regional innovation system represent effective innovation support for what kinds of industry in different regions analyses must be contextualized by reference to the actual knowledge base of various industries as well as to the regional and national institutional framework, which strongly shape the innovation processes of firms. Of special importance is the linkage between the larger institutional frameworks of the national innovation and business systems, and the character of regional innovation systems. In making the arguments about a general correspondence between the macro-institutional characteristics of the economy and the dominant form and character of its regional innovation systems a link is provided to the literature on varieties of capitalism and national business systems.
3.
  • Asheim, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Regional innovation systems: The integration of local 'sticky' and global 'ubiquitous' knowledge
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 27:1, s. 77-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper examines how firms in three regional clusters in Norway dominated by shipbuilding, mechanical engineering and electronics industry, respectively exploit both place-specific local resources as well as external, world-class knowledge to strengthen their competitiveness. From these case-studies we make four points: (1) ideal-typical regional innovation systems, i.e., regional clusters "surrounded" by supporting local organisations, is rather uncommon in Norway; (2) external contacts, outside of the local industrial milieu, are crucial in innovation processes also in many SMEs; (3) innovation processes may nevertheless be regarded as regional phenomena in regional clusters, as regional resources and collaborative networks often have decisive significance for firms' innovation activity; and (4) regional resources include in particular place-specific, contextual knowledge of both tacit and codified nature, that, in combination, is rather geographically immobile.
4.
  • Braunerhjelm, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Labour as a knowledge carrier: how increased mobilityinfluences entrepreneurship
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer-Verlag New York. - 0892-9912. ; s. 1-19
  • Konstnärligt arbete (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to the knowledge-based spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE), entrepreneurship is positively associated with the knowledge endowment level. An increase in knowledge expands the opportunity set, which is then exploited by heterogeneous entrepreneurs. The objective of this paper is to empirically test the validity of the KSTE by employing a detailed database comprising more than 19 million observations for the period 2001–2008 at the level of individuals, firms and regions in Sweden. Knowledge is claimed to be partly embodied in labour, implying that an increase in labour mobility can be expected to influence knowledge endowment at the regional level. Our dependent variable is an individual who has remained in a region throughout the time period considered. Controlling for a number of other variables, inter-regional labour inflows and intra-regional mobility levels are shown to exert a strong positive effect on entrepreneurship. This contrasts with inter-regional outflows, which negatively affect entrepreneurial entry. Another noteworthy result is that the probability of exploiting an increased knowledge stock through entrepreneurship increases by 15 % points if the individual has previous experience in starting a firm.
5.
  • Broström, Anders (författare)
  • Firms' rationales for interaction with research universities and the principles for public co-funding
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 37:3, s. 313-329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • R&D managers at 50 firms who have formal relations with two research universities in Stockholm are interviewed about their rationales for collaboration. Drawing on this material, a distinctive typology of rationales for establishing cooperative relations is presented. While the typology demonstrates a considerable breadth of interaction rationales, rationales related to innovation, in terms of invented or improved products or processes, are found to be the main drivers for interaction. Based on this framework, we analyse which rationales for interaction are consistent with public rationales for supporting university-industry relationships. Public co-funding that allow firms to influence (part of) the academic agenda is identified as a particularly interesting case that requires further theoretical attention.
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6.
  • Criaco, Guiseppe, et al. (författare)
  • “To have and have not”: founders’ human capital and university start-up survival
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 39:4, s. 567-593
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to preserve innovation, knowledge development and diffusion, as well as the transfer of new technologies, the emergence of University Start-Ups (USU) and their survival as a particular dimension of performance represents a relevant research topic. As USU generally have scarce initial resources, the human capital of their founders is one of their main business assets. Although the survival of such firms is supposed to be heavily dependent on the human capital characteristics of their founders, this has not received enough attention in existing research. In this paper we investigate the contribution of founders’ specific human capital characteristics to the survival of USU, building on Gimeno et al. (Adm Sci Q 42:750–783, 1997) threshold model of entrepreneurial exit. We divide USU founders’ specific human capital into three components (entrepreneurship, industry and university) in order to better understand its impact on firm survival. Our theoretical model is empirically tested on a unique sample of Catalan USU through a logistic regression analysis. Coherently with our theoretical reasoning, the results show that industry human capital negatively affect USU survival, while university human capital and entrepreneurship human capital enhance the likelihood of USU survival.
7.
  • Czarnitzki, Dirk, et al. (författare)
  • Access to research inputs: open science versus the entrepreneurial university
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 40:6, s. 1050-1063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry.
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8.
  • Dachs, B., et al. (författare)
  • The Innovative Performance of Foreign-owned Enterprises in Small Open Economies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 33:4, s. 393-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper compares the innovative performance of foreign-owned and domestically owned enterprises in five European countries. We look at innovation inputs, outputs, and examine how strong foreign-owned enterprises are embedded in the innovations systems of their host countries. We find that foreign ownership is associated with similar levels of innovation input, but higher levels of innovation output and higher labour productivity compared to domestic ownership. In four of the five countries, affiliates of foreign multinationals show a similar or even a higher propensity to co-operate with domestic partners than domestically owned enterprises.
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9.
  • Goel, Rajeev K., et al. (författare)
  • Academics' entrepreneurship propensities and gender differences
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 40:1, s. 161-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using survey data from a large public research organization, this study examines entrepreneurship propensities of academic researchers, focusing on gender differences. Although sample means of female and male propensities toward entrepreneurship are fairly similar, regression estimates show significant gender differences in the association of several factors with propensities to start businesses. In particular, prior record of researchers' patenting and institutional leadership promote tendencies towards entrepreneurship among male researchers, but not among female researchers. Also, unlike the male scientists, doctoral degrees and preference for open access of research results do not significantly influence the entrepreneurial attitudes of female researchers. The results for the full sample are similar to those for the male subsample, with a negative coefficient on the variable identifying females.
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10.
  • Goel, Rajeev K., et al. (författare)
  • Nascent entrepreneurship and inventive activity: a somewhat new perspective
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 38:4, s. 471-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper focuses on the nexus between nascent entrepreneurship (NE) and inventive activity. It questions how NE affects inventive activity (including innovation and patenting) while analyzing the views and predictions that have used patenting as an indicator of entrepreneurial behavior. Using data on German researchers and controlling for their personal, professional and institutional attributes, the findings show that NE increases both patenting and innovation. Implications for technology policy are discussed.
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