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  • Resultat 1-10 av 32
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  • Albahari, Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • Science and Technology Parks : A study of value creation for park tenants
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer-Verlag New York. - 0892-9912.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The literature on Science and Technology Parks (STPs) is growing rapidly and, despite the positive impact of STPs on firms found by many studies, it remains unclear how STPs create value for tenants. In this paper, we study the STP supply side through a case study in a Swedish region. We identify two components of the business support provided by parks: a configuration-oriented component, and a process-oriented component. The former refers to the static design of the business support, and the latter to the active, hands-on support provided by parks’ management. Both components must be planned carefully in order to deliver value to tenants. We also discuss some implications for policy and managers.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Small business innovation : firm level evidence from Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 37:5, s. 732-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines innovation among very small firms and provides new insights into both internal and external determinants of patenting. Applying a non-linear panel data approach to about 160,000 observations on manufacturing firms in Sweden for the period 2000-2006, the following facts emerge: (i) in contrast to larger firms, innovation in micro firms with 1-10 employees is not sensitive to variation in internal financial resources, (ii) skilled labour is even more important for innovation among micro firms compared to other firms, (iii) affiliation to a domestically owned multinational enterprise group increases the innovation capacity of small businesses, (iv) small firms' innovation is closely linked to participation in international trade and exports to the G7-countries, and (v) there is no statistically significant evidence that proximity to metropolitan areas, or presence in a specialized cluster, increases the innovativeness of the smallest firm.
  • Antonelli, Cristiano, et al. (författare)
  • The cliometrics of academic chairs. Scientific knowledge and economic growth : The evidence across the Italian Regions 1900-1959
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 38:5, s. 537-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper elaborates and tests two hypotheses. First, that knowledge is not a homogeneous activity, but rather a bundle of highly differentiated disciplines that have different characteristics, both in terms of generation and exploitation, that bear a differentiated impact on economic growth. Advances in scientific knowledge that can be converted into technological knowledge with high levels of fungibility, appropriability, cumulability and complementarity have a higher chance to affect economic growth. Second, that academic chairs are a reliable indicator of the amount and types of knowledge being generated by the academic system. Hence the analysis of the evolution of the academic chairs of an academic system is a promising area of investigation. In this paper the exploration of the evolution of the size and the disciplinary composition of the stock of academic chairs in five Italian macro-regions in the years 1900-1959 provides an opportunity to understand the contribution of scientific knowledge to economic growth in each regional system. The econometric analysis confirms that advances in engineering and chemistry, as proxied by the number of chairs, had much a stronger effect on the regional economic growth than advances in other scientific fields. These results have important implications for research policy, as they highlight the differences in the economic effects of academic disciplines, and for the economics of science, as they support the hypothesis that academic chairs can be used as reliable indicators of on-going research activities in the different types of scientific knowledge.
  • Asheim, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Contextualising Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalising Learning Economy: On Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 31:1, s. 163-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to advance the understanding of which types of regional innovation system represent effective innovation support for what kinds of industry in different regions analyses must be contextualized by reference to the actual knowledge base of various industries as well as to the regional and national institutional framework, which strongly shape the innovation processes of firms. Of special importance is the linkage between the larger institutional frameworks of the national innovation and business systems, and the character of regional innovation systems. In making the arguments about a general correspondence between the macro-institutional characteristics of the economy and the dominant form and character of its regional innovation systems a link is provided to the literature on varieties of capitalism and national business systems.
  • Asheim, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Regional innovation systems: The integration of local 'sticky' and global 'ubiquitous' knowledge
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 27:1, s. 77-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper examines how firms in three regional clusters in Norway dominated by shipbuilding, mechanical engineering and electronics industry, respectively exploit both place-specific local resources as well as external, world-class knowledge to strengthen their competitiveness. From these case-studies we make four points: (1) ideal-typical regional innovation systems, i.e., regional clusters "surrounded" by supporting local organisations, is rather uncommon in Norway; (2) external contacts, outside of the local industrial milieu, are crucial in innovation processes also in many SMEs; (3) innovation processes may nevertheless be regarded as regional phenomena in regional clusters, as regional resources and collaborative networks often have decisive significance for firms' innovation activity; and (4) regional resources include in particular place-specific, contextual knowledge of both tacit and codified nature, that, in combination, is rather geographically immobile.
  • Braunerhjelm, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Labour as a knowledge carrier how increased mobilityinfluences entrepreneurship
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer-Verlag New York. - 0892-9912. ; 41:6, s. 1308-1326
  • Konstnärligt arbete (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to the knowledge-based spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE), entrepreneurship is positively associated with the knowledge endowment level. An increase in knowledge expands the opportunity set, which is then exploited by heterogeneous entrepreneurs. The objective of this paper is to empirically test the validity of the KSTE by employing a detailed database comprising more than 19 million observations for the period 2001–2008 at the level of individuals, firms and regions in Sweden. Knowledge is claimed to be partly embodied in labour, implying that an increase in labour mobility can be expected to influence knowledge endowment at the regional level. Our dependent variable is an individual who has remained in a region throughout the time period considered. Controlling for a number of other variables, inter-regional labour inflows and intra-regional mobility levels are shown to exert a strong positive effect on entrepreneurship. This contrasts with inter-regional outflows, which negatively affect entrepreneurial entry. Another noteworthy result is that the probability of exploiting an increased knowledge stock through entrepreneurship increases by 15 % points if the individual has previous experience in starting a firm.
  • Broström, Anders (författare)
  • Firms' rationales for interaction with research universities and the principles for public co-funding
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 37:3, s. 313-329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • R&D managers at 50 firms who have formal relations with two research universities in Stockholm are interviewed about their rationales for collaboration. Drawing on this material, a distinctive typology of rationales for establishing cooperative relations is presented. While the typology demonstrates a considerable breadth of interaction rationales, rationales related to innovation, in terms of invented or improved products or processes, are found to be the main drivers for interaction. Based on this framework, we analyse which rationales for interaction are consistent with public rationales for supporting university-industry relationships. Public co-funding that allow firms to influence (part of) the academic agenda is identified as a particularly interesting case that requires further theoretical attention.
  • Criaco, Guiseppe, et al. (författare)
  • “To have and have not”: founders’ human capital and university start-up survival
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 39:4, s. 567-593
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to preserve innovation, knowledge development and diffusion, as well as the transfer of new technologies, the emergence of University Start-Ups (USU) and their survival as a particular dimension of performance represents a relevant research topic. As USU generally have scarce initial resources, the human capital of their founders is one of their main business assets. Although the survival of such firms is supposed to be heavily dependent on the human capital characteristics of their founders, this has not received enough attention in existing research. In this paper we investigate the contribution of founders’ specific human capital characteristics to the survival of USU, building on Gimeno et al. (Adm Sci Q 42:750–783, 1997) threshold model of entrepreneurial exit. We divide USU founders’ specific human capital into three components (entrepreneurship, industry and university) in order to better understand its impact on firm survival. Our theoretical model is empirically tested on a unique sample of Catalan USU through a logistic regression analysis. Coherently with our theoretical reasoning, the results show that industry human capital negatively affect USU survival, while university human capital and entrepreneurship human capital enhance the likelihood of USU survival.
  • Czarnitzki, Dirk, et al. (författare)
  • Access to research inputs: open science versus the entrepreneurial university
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - Springer. - 0892-9912. ; 40:6, s. 1050-1063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry.
  • Dachs, B., et al. (författare)
  • The Innovative Performance of Foreign-owned Enterprises in Small Open Economies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Technology Transfer. - 0892-9912. ; 33:4, s. 393-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper compares the innovative performance of foreign-owned and domestically owned enterprises in five European countries. We look at innovation inputs, outputs, and examine how strong foreign-owned enterprises are embedded in the innovations systems of their host countries. We find that foreign ownership is associated with similar levels of innovation input, but higher levels of innovation output and higher labour productivity compared to domestic ownership. In four of the five countries, affiliates of foreign multinationals show a similar or even a higher propensity to co-operate with domestic partners than domestically owned enterprises.
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