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Sökning: L773:0903 1936 OR L773:1399 3003

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1.
  • Wang, Gang, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of chronic bronchitis and risk factors in young adults : results from BAMSE
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is associated with substantial morbidity among elderly adults, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in young adults. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and early life risk factors for chronic bronchitis in young adults. METHODS: Questionnaire data and clinical measures from the 24-year follow-up of the Swedish BAMSE cohort were used. We assessed chronic bronchitis (CB) as the combination of cough and mucus production in the morning during winter. Environmental and clinical data from birth and onwards were used for analyses of risk factors. RESULTS: At the 24-year follow-up, 75% (n=3064) participants completed the questionnaire and 2030 performed spirometry. The overall prevalence of CB was 5.5% (n=158) with similar estimates in males and females. Forty-nine percent of CB cases experienced more than 3 self-reported respiratory infections in the last year compared to 18% in non-CB subjects (p<0.001), and 37% of cases were current smokers (versus 19%). Statistically significant lower post-FEV(1)/FVC were observed in CB compared to non-CB subjects (mean z-score -0.06 versus 0.13, p=0.027). Daily smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR=3.85, p<0.001), air pollution exposure (black carbon during ages 1-4 years old, aOR=1.71 per 1 μg·m(3) increase, p=0.009) and exclusive breast-feeding during four months or more (aOR=0.66, p=0.044) were associated with CB. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis in young adults is associated with recurrent respiratory infections. Besides smoking, our results support role of early life exposures, such as air pollution and exclusive breast-feeding, for respiratory health later in life.
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2.
  • Nordenhäll, C, et al. (författare)
  • Airway inflammation following exposure to diesel exhaust : a study of time kinetics using induced sputum
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 15:6, s. 1046-1051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adverse health effects of particulate matter pollution are of increasing concern. In a recent bronchoscopic study in healthy volunteers, pronounced airway inflammation was detected following exposure to diesel exhaust (DE). The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the time kinetics of the inflammatory response following exposure to DE using induced sputum from healthy volunteers. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking volunteers were exposed to DE particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm 300 microg x m(-3) and air for 1 h on two separate occasions. Sputum induction with hypertonic saline was performed 6 and 24 h after each exposure. Analyses of sputum differential cell counts and soluble protein concentrations were performed. Six hours after exposure to DE, a significant increase was found in the percentage of sputum neutrophils (37.7 versus 26.2% p=0.002) together with increases in the concentrations of interleukin-6 (12.0 versus 6.3 pg x mL(-1), p=0.006) and methylhistamine (0.11 versus 0.12 microg x L(-1), p=0.024). Irrespective of exposure, a significant increase was found in the percentage of sputum neutrophils at 24 as compared to 6 h, indicating that the procedure of sputum induction itself may change the composition of sputum. This study demonstrates that exposure to diesel exhaust induces inflammatory response in healthy human airways, represented by an early increase in interleukin-6 and methylhistamine concentration and the percentage of neutrophils. Induced sputum provides a safe tool for the investigation of the inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust, but care must be taken when interpreting results from repeated sputum inductions.
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3.
  • Riikjarv, M.-A., et al. (författare)
  • Similar prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopy in estonian schoolchildren with changing lifestyle over 4 yrs
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 16:1, s. 86-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of allergic sensitization and clinical manifestations is low in Eastern Europe, despite a continuous increase in industrialized countries with a market economy. The aim of the present study was to study changes in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitization over time among schoolchildren in Estonia, in relation to environmental changes as the country transformed into a market economy. A cross-sectional study of 10-yr-old children was carried out between October 1996 and April 1997, employing a questionnaire regarding the prevalence of wheezing, rhinitis and itching rash (n=979) and skin-prick tests with seven inhalant allergens (n=640). The results were compared with those of a similar study performed in 19921993. The 12-month prevalence of wheeze was 8.3%, as compared to 9.4% in 1992-1993 (NS) and of asthma was 2.5 versus 3.2% (NS). The prevalence of a positive skin-prick test result was 14.3% in both studies. Furthermore, the prevalence of sensitivity to the individual allergens was similar, except for a significantly higher prevalence of dog sensitivity in 1996-1997 (4.7 versus 2.0%). The prevalence of respiratory and other potentially allergic symptoms, as well as the prevalence of atopic sensitization, remains low in Estonian 10-yr-old children, despite a changing lifestyle over the past 4 yrs. This could indicate that the time period was too short for environmental changes to affect the prevalence of allergy, or alternatively that risk factors associated with a 'western lifestyle' are of particular significance earlier in life. (C)ERS Journals Ltd 2000.
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6.
  • Adam, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE : a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 41:5, s. 38-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.
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8.
  • Alahmadi, Fahad, et al. (författare)
  • Measures of adherence in patients with severe asthma prescribed systemic steroids in the U-BIOPRED cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Rates of sub-optimal adherence to medications in asthma range up to 70%; the impact in severe asthma is likely to be particularly high. We measured self-reported adherence in participants in the U-BIOPRED cohort prescribed daily prednisolone using the Medication Adherence Response Scale (MARS), and compared to measured urinary prednisolone and metabolites in order to determine: 1. the prevalence of suboptimal adherence by each method; 2. the ability of MARS to predict urinary steroid detection.Methods: Participants completed the MARS, and/or provided urine samples (analysed for prednisolone and metabolites by LCMS). The performance characteristics of the MARS predicting undetected urinary steroid were calculated in the subgroup having both tests.Results: 181 participants currently taking regular oral corticosteroids were included, 59% female, mean (SD) age 54(12)yrs, FEV1 64.7(20.4)% predicted. Sub-optimal adherence (MARS score < 4.5) was reported in 62 participants, and 76 did not have detectable urinary prednisolone or metabolites. Good adherence by both methods was detected in only 52 participants (34%, see table). There was no difference in daily prednisolone dose between detectable and undetectable metabolites groups (p=0.848).Conclusion: Low levels of adherence to treatment in severe asthma is a common problem, when measured either directly or self-reported. There was very poor agreement (48% concordance) between these two methods, and we suggest that, for now both approaches should be used.
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9.
  • Albrecht, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Telomere length in circulating leukocytes is associated with lung function and disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 43:4, s. 983-992
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several clinical studies suggest the involvement of premature ageing processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using an epidemiological approach, we studied whether accelerated ageing indicated by telomere length, a marker of biological age, is associated with COPD and asthma, and whether intrinsic age-related processes contribute to the interindividual variability of lung function. Our meta-analysis of 14 studies included 934 COPD cases with 15 846 controls defined according to the Global Lungs Initiative (GLI) criteria (or 1189 COPD cases according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria), 2834 asthma cases with 28 195 controls, and spirometric parameters (forced expiratory volume in is (FEV1), forced vital capacity (PVC) and FEV1/FVC) of 12 595 individuals. Associations with telomere length were tested by linear regression, adjusting for age, sex and smoking status. We observed negative associations between telomere length and asthma (beta= -0.0452, p= 0.024) as well as COPD (beta= -0.0982, p=0.001), with associations being stronger and more significant when using GLI criteria than those of GOLD. In both diseases, effects were stronger in females than males. The investigation of spirometric indices showed positive associations between telomere length and FEV1 (p=1.07 x 10(-7)), FVC (p=2.07 x 10(-5)), and FEV1/FVC (p =5.27 x 10(-3)). The effect was somewhat weaker in apparently healthy subjects than in COPD or asthma patients. Our results provide indirect evidence for the hypothesis that cellular senescence may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD and asthma, and that lung function may reflect biological ageing primarily due to intrinsic processes, which are likely to be aggravated in lung diseases.
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10.
  • Allinson, James, et al. (författare)
  • Collating data from major European population studies - The CADSET (Chronic airway disease early stratification) clinical research collaboration
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: European population cohorts continue to expand our understanding of chronic airways disease and inter-study collaboration may help address the inevitable limitations of study size, duration, era and geography. Towards this aim, CADSET has collated data from ten major general population European cohorts: Asklepios; Copenhagen City Heart Study; Copenhagen General Population Study; ECRHS; HUNT; LEAD; Lifelines, OLIN, Rotterdam Study and WSAS. We included males and females aged 20 to 95 years with baseline demographic and spirometry data.Results: Data from 262,829 individuals (44% male) from multiple European countries provided good coverage across all adult ages (Fig.1A). Recruitment occurred in every year from 1976 through 2020. 23% were current-smokers and 42% were never-smokers, a pattern varying with advancing age (Fig.1B). The prevalence of airflow limitation varied according to whether lower limit of normal (LLN) or <0.70 thresholds were applied, increasing with age if the latter was used (Fig.1C).Interpretation: These results fit with previous reports, however the size, geographical reach and span of recruitment provided by this collaboration provides a unique opportunity to explore chronic airways disease development. Together, we are now pursuing research questions previously beyond the scope of individual cohort studies.
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