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  • Durbeej, N., et al. (författare)
  • Substance abuse treatment as a predictor of criminal recidivism among psychiatrically examined Swedish offenders
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 25:Supplement 1, s. 32-32
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Substance abuse is clearly associated with criminal recidivism among offenders with and without mental disorder. Treatment for substance abuse correlates with lower rates of re-offending among participants in outpatient-based as well as institution-based substance abuse treatment programs. However, for offenders with mental disorder, research on the possible preventive effect of substance abuse treatment on criminal recidivism is sparse. This paper reports from on an ongoing naturalistic and prospective interview study on the relationship between post-release outpatient substance abuse treatment and re-offending. Methods. The Stockholm county sample comprises 246 offenders of both genders subjected to a forensic psychiatric assessment, who screened positive for substance abuse problems. Eighty-five percent (n=210) agreed to participate in the study. Baseline data and follow-up interview data, collected immediately on release from incarceration (prison/forensic hospital) and 6 and 12 months later, include self-reported substance abuse, treatment involvement and criminality. By February 2010, data will be available from the first follow-up for 150 participants, from the second follow-up for 80 individuals and from the third follow-up for 10 subjects. Results and conclusions. The focus of the presentation will be recidivism comparisons between substance abuse treatment utilizers and those who decline treatment. Data on ongoing levels of substance abuse, mental health problems and offending will serve as dependent variables. Additional analyses will present perceived benefit from and reasons for accepting or rejecting treatment.
  • Bejerot, Susanne, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - Paris, France : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 15:7, s. 395-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited through self-report questionnaires. Non-smokers were more easily fatigued, more inclined to worry, more remorseful, less self-confident, less impulsive and became uneasy more frequently when urged to speed up, than smokers with OCD. Additionally, non-smokers fulfilled significantly more obsessive-compulsive personality disorder criteria as compared to the smokers (P < 0.001). We propose a clinical subtype of OCD related to non-smoking, psychasthenia, anxiety, and pronounced obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.
  • Durbeej, N., et al. (författare)
  • P02-54 - Is outpatient-based substance abuse treatment a predictor of re-offending and other outcomes among Swedish offenders subjected to psychiatric assessment?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 25:Supplement 1, s. 674-674
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Substance abuse is associated with criminal recidivism. Substance abuse treatment has been found to correlate negatively with re-offending among treatment utilizers. However, for offenders with mental health problems and substance abuse, research on how substance abuse treatment affects re-offending is sparse. Objectives: The study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported outpatient-based substance abuse treatment and self-reported a) re-offending, b) substance use and c) psychiatric problems among offenders with mental health and substance use problems. Methods: Data were gathered from a naturalistic follow-up study with 208 participants, subjected to a court-ordered psychiatric assessment. This analysis covers 91 individuals who were followed-up after an average study period of 17 months. Among these, 68% had been sentenced to institutional imprisonment or forensic psychiatric care. Results: Offences, substance use and psychiatric problems declined between baseline and follow-up. However, the reduction was not associated with self-reported treatment utilization. Among participants who were sentenced to non-institutional corrections, more individuals had utilized outpatient-based treatment compared to individuals who were sentenced to imprisonment or forensic psychiatric care. Conclusions: A definitive conclusion about the effect of treatment is difficult to draw. For instance, self-reported data may not reflect actual treatment consumption. However, one interpretation is that participants naturally recovered over time. Institutional correction might also have resulted in positive outcomes equivalent to outpatient-based treatment.
  • Iliadis, Stavros I, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • 1843 – Depression in the peripartum period in association with salivary cortisol levels
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 28:Supplement 1, s. 1-1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionThe Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA axis) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many affective disorders. Peripartum depression is a condition that includes depressive episodes occurring during pregnancy and the postpartum period. During uncomplicated pregnancy, mean cortisol levels rise substantially, mostly due to high levels of corticotropin releasing hormone produced by the placenta (p-CRH). The latter also suppresses hypothalamic CRH, leading to hypo-cortisolemia after partus. Cortisol concentration is usually normalised within two weeks after delivery. Failure of the above process results in continuing hypo-cortisolemia, which might increase susceptibility to PPD.Objectives/aimsThe current study aims to investigate the relationship between evening salivary cortisol levels and depression during the peripartum period.MethodsThree hundred and forty six pregnant women were asked to participate in the study. They completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State version (STAI-S) at the 36th week of pregnancy and the 6th week after delivery. At both times, study subjects were also asked to collect evening salivary samples by using a mail-delivered kit. Moreover, they were interviewed at the 36th week of pregnancy using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).ResultsPreliminary results indicate significantly higher evening salivary cortisol levels in depressed women during late pregnancy compared to healthy controls. No difference in cortisol levels was found between women with postpartum depression and healthy controls.ConclusionsOur study results support the hypothesis that depression during pregnancy resembles melancholic depression characterized by hyperactivity of the HPA-axis and hyper-cortisolemia.
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