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Sökning: L773:0940 1334 OR L773:1433 8491

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1.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • d-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA) variation affects cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy Caucasians
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 262:7, s. 549-556
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The d-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) protein regulates the function of d-amino oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of d-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (D-DOPA) and d-serine. D-DOPA is converted to l-3,4-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, whereas d-serine participates in glutamatergic transmission. We hypothesized that DAOA polymorphisms are associated with dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline turnover in the human brain. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, previously reported to be associated with schizophrenia, were genotyped. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were drawn by lumbar puncture, and the concentrations of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the major noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured. Two of the investigated polymorphisms, rs3918342 and rs1421292, were significantly associated with CSF HVA concentrations. Rs3918342 was found to be nominally associated with CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. None of the polymorphisms were significantly associated with MHPG concentrations. Our results indicate that DAOA gene variation affects dopamine turnover in healthy individuals, suggesting that disturbed dopamine turnover is a possible mechanism behind the observed associations between genetic variation in DAOA and behavioral phenotypes in humans.
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2.
  • Chotai, Jayanti, et al. (författare)
  • Converging evidence suggests that monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in human adults is associated with their season of birth.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 252:3, s. 130-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Separate studies on adults, including those in suicidology and another regarding personality in the general population, have indicated associations with their season of birth. We analyse each of these studies by multiple nonlinear regression employing a cosine function for the month of birth, and compare these studies regarding the birth months giving the maxima and minima. The method of suicide in suicide studies shows a significant month-of-birth variation similar to that for the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA in the separate study on cerebrospinal fluid, with a peak around the birth month September and a nadir around birth in March. When comparing the personality study with the study on cerebrospinal fluid, the trait novelty seeking varies similar to that for the dopamine metabolite HVA or the norepinephrine metabolite MHPG, and the trait reward dependence varies similar to that for HVA. The trait self-transcendence varies similar to the ratio of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites. Dopamine turnover in adults thus shows a peak around the birth months November-December, and a nadir around the birth months May-June, suggesting a possible involvement of the length of photoperiod during their perinatal period. These results provide strong evidence for the influence of season of birth on adult monoamine neurotransmitter turnover, and give further support for the monoaminergic modulation of the temperament and character traits.
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3.
  • Edvinsson, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Six-Year Outcome in Subjects Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 268:4, s. 337-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are very few studies on the long-term outcome in subjects diagnosed with ADHD as adults. The objective of the present study was to assess this and relate the outcome to whether there was current medication or not and to other potential predictors of favourable outcome. A prospective clinical cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation (n = 124; mean age 42 years, 51% males). ADHD symptom trajectories were assessed as well as medication, global functioning, disability, health-related quality of life, and alcohol and drug consumption at follow-up. Ninety percent of those diagnosed were initially treated pharmacologically and half of them discontinued treatment. One-third reported remission, defined as not fulfilling any ADHD subtype and a GAF-value last year ≥ 70, which was not affected by comorbidity at baseline. Current medication was not associated with remission. Subjects evaluated and first diagnosed with ADHD as adults are functionally improved at follow-up 6 years later despite a high percentage of psychiatric comorbidity at baseline. Half dropped out of medication, and there was no difference in ADHD remission between subjects with on-going medication at follow-up or subjects without medication, although current medication was related to a higher degree of self-reported global improvement.
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4.
  • Heinisch, C., et al. (författare)
  • Self-face recognition in schizophrenia is related to insight
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - : Springer. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 263:8, s. 655-662
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A core feature of schizophrenia is the breakdown of the sense of self. A widespread clinical consequence of impaired self-awareness is a lack of insight. Self-face recognition is regarded as one aspect of self-awareness; how this relates to other self-referential processes such as insight into the disorder is as yet unknown. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia performed a facial recognition task using video morphings during which an average face gradually transformed into one’s own, a famous or an unfamiliar face (and vice versa). Reaction times to detect faces during the transitions were compared between patients and a matched control group. In the patient group, we also examined correlations between face recognition and insight, psychopathology, and self-evaluation. Both patients with schizophrenia and controls recognised their own faces faster than unfamiliar faces. Whereas healthy subjects recognised a famous face at an intermediate speed that did not differ significantly from the recognition of one’s own and unfamiliar faces, schizophrenia patients recognised the famous face, similar to their own face, significantly faster than an unfamiliar face. Moreover, in the patient group, higher insight correlated with faster reaction times in distinguishing one’s own from famous faces. Patients with schizophrenia seem to distinguish less than controls between their own and a famous face relative to an unfamiliar face. Patients with good insight into the disorder, however, were better able to differentiate between their own and a famous face. This study supports the view that self-face recognition is an indicator for higher-order self-awareness.
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5.
  • Hoelscher, Frank, et al. (författare)
  • Differences between men and women in the course of opiate dependence : is there a telescoping effect?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 260:3, s. 235-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to the so-called telescoping effect, there is a gender-specific course of alcohol dependence with women starting alcohol use later than men and having a faster development of harmful consequences. There are inconsistent data regarding a telescoping effect in opiate dependence. In each of six European centres, 100 opiate addicts were investigated by a structured interview (mainly the EuropASI and CIDI) at admission to various kinds of treatment (TREAT project). In a secondary analysis of the TREAT data, women and men were compared regarding age at onset of heroin use and the current severity of addiction. In addition, a comparison of female (n = 140) and male (n = 140) addicts matched for age and study centre were carried out. Eventually, multiple logistic and linear regressions were done with the interaction term of gender and time of regular consumption as predictor for the severity of dependence, besides, other sociodemographic variables. There was no difference between genders regarding the age at onset of regular heroin consumption. Up to 4 years of regular consumption, there are gender-specific differences in the course of opiate dependence, e. g. a faster progression of legal problems in men and social problems in women. There were no differences in the severity of dependence other than more economic problems for women. A telescoping effect could only partially be observed in this large sample of opiate addicts. A gender-specific course was limited to the first years of consumption, and included domains with a faster progression for men. It has to be assumed that opiate dependence is a rapidly developing disorder with early chronification. Afterwards, only individual courses with influences of the national treatment system were observed.
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6.
  • Illi, Ari, et al. (författare)
  • Is 5-HTTLPR linked to the response of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in MDD?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 261:2, s. 95-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of a functional polymorphism in the transcriptional control region of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, SERTPR) has been studied intensively in major depression and in the response to selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRIs) in major depression. The findings have been contradictory, although majority of the studies indicate that the short allele is associated with poor response to SSRIs in major depression. In the present study, we evaluated the association of 5-HTTLPR with treatment response to SSRI medication in Finnish Caucasian MDD patients. A secondary purpose was to study the possible association of this particular polymorphism with major depressive disorder. The aim of the study was to replicate the previous findings in this area. Primary outcomes of the treatment were remission, defined by an exit score of seven or less, and response, defined by a reduction of at least 50% on the MADRS. We had also a control population of 375 healthy blood donors, as a secondary objective was to evaluate the possible association of this particular polymorphism with major depressive disorder. Twenty-nine of the 85 (34.1%) patients reached the remission and 58.8% achieved the predefined response criteria. The l/l genotype of 5-HTTLPR was presented in 51.7% of those patients who achieved remission vs. 25.0% in the non-remitters (P = 0.03). The result remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, gender, medication and MADRS points at the study entry. However, the small sample size limits the reliability of this result.
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7.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring possible association between D beta H genotype (C1021T), early onset of conduct disorder and psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 266:8, s. 771-773
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early onset of conduct disorder (CD) with callous-unemotional traits has been linked to low levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), an enzyme involved in dopamine turnover. The C1021T polymorphism in the DβH gene is a major quantitative-trait locus, regulating the level of DβH. In this study of juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia (n = 180), the polymorphism at -1021 was associated neither with early-onset CD nor with psychopathic traits. Association was found between psychopathic traits and early-onset CD, ADHD and mania.
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8.
  • Isaksson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring possible association between DβH genotype (C1021T), early onset of conduct disorder and psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 266:8, s. 771-773
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early onset of conduct disorder (CD) with callous-unemotional traits has been linked to low levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), an enzyme involved in dopamine turnover. The C1021T polymorphism in the DβH gene is a major quantitative-trait locus, regulating the level of DβH. In this study of juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia (n = 180), the polymorphism at -1021 was associated neither with early-onset CD nor with psychopathic traits. Association was found between psychopathic traits and early-onset CD, ADHD and mania.
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9.
  • Jansson, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Needs assessed by psychiatric health care and social services in a defined cohort of clients with mental disabilities
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 255:1, s. 57-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The identification of needs forsupport and service in clients with long-term mentaldisabilities is usually not done by staff personnel fromboth psychiatric care and social services.However, sucha process is probably necessary in order to provide adequatepsychiatric care and social services. Aims To estimatethe prevalence of mentally disabled clients and investigatewhether staff from psychiatric care and socialservices identified the same individuals and the samenumber of needs in the same areas. Methods Clientsfrom a defined catchment area were identified during athree-month period. A questionnaire was developed tocollect socio-demographic information and to assessneeds for support and service. Results The study identified1,290 clients with needs with a prevalence of5.72/1000 inhabitants. More than half of the clientsneeded support in activities of daily living. Only 18.1%of the clients were identified by both organizations. Ingeneral, the staff from psychiatric care and social servicesidentified the same needs at a group level. However,at the individual level, agreement was quite low.Conclusions The staffs from both psychiatric care andsocial services are necessary to evaluate the needs ofsupport and services in clients with mental disabilities.
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10.
  • Jensen, Jimmy, et al. (författare)
  • Neurocognitive and psychopathological correlates of self-monitoring ability in schizophrenia.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - : Springer. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 254:5, s. 312-317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a previous study reported by our group one salient finding was that many patients with schizophrenia appeared to be unable to judge their own quality of life (QoL) and that this inability was associated with negative symptoms. The association between negative symptoms, poor self-monitoring capacity and lack of insight might be explained by a common underlying factor, i.e. neurocognitive impairment. Fifty schizophrenic patients were examined by symptom ratings and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The cognitive performance of the patients was very poor. The major findings of the present study were the association between clinically rated Lack of judgement (PANSS G12) and 1) a set of standard performance and executive indices of the computerised tests, and 2) difference scores between objective performance/strategies and self-ratings of the same attributes. There appears to be a substantial contribution of cognitive and executive problems to the poor judgement and lack of insight of schizophrenic patients, and these problems can to some extent be assessed objectively.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 66
  • [1]234567Nästa

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