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Sökning: L773:0954 0911

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1.
  • Andersson, Cristina, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Thermal cycling of lead-free Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu 388PBGA packages
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 21:2, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of different temperature cycling profiles on the reliability of lead-free 388 plastic ball grid array (PBGA) packages and to deeply understand crack initiation and propagation.Design/methodology/approach - Temperature cycling of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu PBGA packages was carried out at two temperature profiles, the first ranging between - 55 degrees C and 100 degrees C (TC1) and the second between 0 degrees C and 100 degrees C (TC2). Crack initiation and propagation was analyzed periodically and totally 7,000 cycles were run for TO and 14,500 for TC2. Finite element modeling (FEM), for the analysis of strain and stress, was used to corroborate the experimental results.Findings - The paper finds that TC1 had a characteristic life of 5,415 cycles and TC2 of 14,094 cycles, resulting in an acceleration factor of 2.6 between both profiles. Cracks were first visible for TC1, after 2,500 cycles, and only after 4,000 cycles for TC2. The crack propagation rate was faster for TC1 compared to TC2, and faster at the package side compared to the substrate side. The difference in crack propagation rate between the package side and substrate side was much larger for TC1 compared to TC2. Cracks developed first at the package side, and were also larger compared to the substrate side. The Cu tracks on the substrate side affected the crack propagation sites and behaved as SMD. All cracks propagated through the solder and crack propagation was mainly intergranular. Crack propagation was very random and did not follow the distance to neutral point (DNP) theory. FEM corroborated the experimental results, showing both the same critical location of highest creep strain and the independence of DNP.Originality/value - Such extensive work on the reliability assessment of Pb-free 388 PBGA packages has never been performed. This work also corroborates the results from other studies showing the difference in behavior between Pb-free and Pb-containing alloys.
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2.
  • Bailey, C., et al. (författare)
  • Coffin-Manson constant determination for a Sn-8Zn-3Bi Lead-Free Solder Joint
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 18:2, s. 4-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To determine the Coffin-Manson (CM) equation constants for fatigue life estimation of Sn-8Zn-3Bi solder joints, since Sn-8Zn-3Bi solder has a melting temperature of around 199°C which is close to that of the conventional Sn-Pb solder which has previously been used in the electronics assembly industry. Design/methodology/approach Three dimensional finite element (FE) simulation analysis was used for comparison with the experimentally measured data and to determine the CM constants. Low cycle fatigue tests and FE simulations were carried out for these lead-free solder joints, and eutectic Sn-37Pb solder was used as a reference. Findings The CM equation for Sn-8Zn-3Bi solder joints was fitted to the lifetimes measured and the shear strains simulated. The constants were determined to be 0.0294 for C, the proportional constant, and for the fatigue exponent, β, −2.833. Originality/value The CM equation can now be used to predict the reliability of Sn-8Zn-3Bi solder joints in electronics assembly and the knowledge base for the properties of the Sn-Zn solder system has been increased.
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3.
  • Chen, S., et al. (författare)
  • Coffin-Mansson equation of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 21:2, s. 48-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to fit Coffin-Manson equation of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu lead free solder joint by using results of solders joint reliability test and finite element analysis. Also to present a novel device for solder joint reliability test. Design/methodology/approach: Two-points bending test of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu lead free solder joint was carried out at three deflection levels by using a special bending tester that can control displacement exactly by a cam system. The failure criterion was defined as resistance of solder joint getting 10 percent increase. The X-section was done for all failure samples to observe crack initiation and propagation in solder joint. Finite element analysis was presented with ANSYS for obtaining shear strain range, analyzing distribution of stress and strain and supporting experimental results. Findings: The experimental results indicate that the fatigue life decreased obviously with the displacement increased. By using optical microscope and SEM photographs, two kinds of failure mode were found in solder joint. The majority failure mode took place at the bottom corner of solder joint under the termination of resistor initially, and propagated into the solder matrix. Another failure mode was delamination. It appeared at the interface between the termination of resistor and its ceramic body. The distribution status of stress and strain in solder joint and the calculation results of shear strain range at different deflection levels were obtained from simulation result. The Coffin-Manson equation of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu lead free solder joint was fitted by combining experimental data with result of finite element analysis. Originality/value: This paper presents Coffin-Manson equation of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joint with two-points bending test. An effective and economical device was designed and applied.
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4.
  • Chen, Si, 1981- (författare)
  • Ultra-short vertically aligned carbon nanofibers transfer and application as bonding material
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 25:4, s. 242-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The transferred carbon nanofibers (CNFs) can be applied in flip chip package as interconnect material, as an alternative to the conventional solder and conductive adhesive (CA) materials. Design/methodology/approach - The structure of CNFs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical performance of the vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) joint was measured by four points probe method and compared to conventional lead-free solder Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu, pure indium and silver CA. A shear test was carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical performance of VACNFs joint. After the shear test, the fracture surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Findings - The results showed a high success rate in the transfer of VACNFs from growth chip to target chip. The Au-coated CNF can be wetted well with melted indium during the transfer and bonding process. In-Au intermetallic compound (IMC) formed on the surface of CNF. The electrical and mechanical performance of VACNFs is comparable to that of the traditional interconnect materials. The fracture surface is located at the interface between VACNFs and chips. The stacked-cone structure of CNF can be confirmed from a cross-section of the break CNF by TEM. Originality/value - Ultra-short VACNFs were grown and first successfully transferred to the target chip using a process which required little pressure, low temperature and short time.
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5.
  • Luo, Xin, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Surface oxide analysis of lead-free solder particles
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 25:1, s. 39-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The composition and thickness of surface oxide of solder particles is extremely important to the quality of interconnect and reliability of packaged system. The purpose of this paper is to develop an observable measurement to research the issue. Design/methodology/approach - AES (Auger electron spectroscopy), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) were employed to examine the oxide layer on microscale solder powders. Conventional techniques and FIB (Focus Ion Beam) were employed for the TEM sample preparation. High angle annular dark field (HAADF) pattern was applied to distinguish the oxide layer and the solder matrix by the contrast of average atomic number. The results were confirmed by AES and XPS measurement. Findings - The solder powders were exposed to air (70% relative humidity) at 150 degrees C for 0, 120 and 240 h for the accelerated growth of oxide. The surface oxide thickness was 6 nm and 50 nm measured by TEM for Oh and 120 h samples, respectively. It was found that the increase in surface oxide thickness of solder particles is proportional to the rooting of time. The elemental distribution along the oxide was quantified by line scanning using STEM and the atomic ratio of Sn to O in the oxide layer nearer to the outer, the middle, and the inner (adjacent to the solder matrix) was found to be 1:2, 2:3 and 1:1, respectively. The result was validated using XPS which gave Sn to O ratio of 1:2 at 5 nm depth of surface oxide. Originality/value - This is the first time FIB technology has been used to prepare TEM specimens for solder particles and TEM pictures shown of their surface oxide layer. Though requiring more care in sample preparation, the measurements by TEM and STEM are believed to be more direct and precise.
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6.
  • Vachaparambil, Kurian J., et al. (författare)
  • Rheological characterization of non-Brownian suspensions based on structure kinetics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 30:1, s. 57-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to characterize the rheological behaviour of macroscopic non-Brownian suspensions, like solder paste, based on microstructural evolution. Design/methodology/approach - A structure-based kinetics model, whose parameters are derived analytically based on assumptions valid for any macroscopic suspension, is developed to describe the rheological behaviour of a given fluid. The values of the parameters are then determined based on experiments conducted at a constant shear rate. The parameter values, obtained from the model, are then adjusted using an optimization algorithm using the mean deviation from experiments as the cost function to replicate the measured rheology. A commercially available solder paste is used as the test fluid for the proposed method. Findings - The initial parameter values obtained through the analytical model indicates a structural breakdown that is much slower than observations. But optimizing the parameter values, especially the ones associated with the structural breakdown, replicates the thixotropic behaviour of the solder paste reasonably well, but it fails to capture the structure build-up during the three interval thixotropy test. Research limitations/implications - The structural kinetics model tends to under-predict the structure build-up rate. Practical implications - This study details a more realistic prediction of the rheological behaviour of macroscopic suspensions like solder paste, thermal interface materials and other functional materials. The proposed model can be used to characterize different solder pastes and other functional fluids based on the structure build-up and breakdown rates. The model can also be used as the viscosity definitions in numerical simulations instead of simpler models like Carreau-Yasuda and cross-viscosity models. Originality/value - The rheological description of the solder paste is critical in determining its validity for a given application. The methodology described in the paper provides a better description of thixotropy without relying on the existing rheological measurements or the behaviour predicted by a standard power-law model. The proposed model can also provide transient viscosity predictions when shear rates vary in time.
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7.
  • Vachaparambil, Kurian J., et al. (författare)
  • Rheological characterization of non-Brownian suspensions based on structure kinetics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Soldering & surface mount technology. - Emerald Group Publishing Limited. - 0954-0911 .- 1758-6836. ; 30:1, s. 57-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to characterize the rheological behaviour of macroscopic non-Brownian suspensions, like solder paste, based on microstructural evolution. Design/methodology/approach - A structure-based kinetics model, whose parameters are derived analytically based on assumptions valid for any macroscopic suspension, is developed to describe the rheological behaviour of a given fluid. The values of the parameters are then determined based on experiments conducted at a constant shear rate. The parameter values, obtained from the model, are then adjusted using an optimization algorithm using the mean deviation from experiments as the cost function to replicate the measured rheology. A commercially available solder paste is used as the test fluid for the proposed method. Findings - The initial parameter values obtained through the analytical model indicates a structural breakdown that is much slower than observations. But optimizing the parameter values, especially the ones associated with the structural breakdown, replicates the thixotropic behaviour of the solder paste reasonably well, but it fails to capture the structure build-up during the three interval thixotropy test. Research limitations/implications - The structural kinetics model tends to under-predict the structure build-up rate. Practical implications - This study details a more realistic prediction of the rheological behaviour of macroscopic suspensions like solder paste, thermal interface materials and other functional materials. The proposed model can be used to characterize different solder pastes and other functional fluids based on the structure build-up and breakdown rates. The model can also be used as the viscosity definitions in numerical simulations instead of simpler models like Carreau-Yasuda and cross-viscosity models. Originality/value - The rheological description of the solder paste is critical in determining its validity for a given application. The methodology described in the paper provides a better description of thixotropy without relying on the existing rheological measurements or the behaviour predicted by a standard power-law model. The proposed model can also provide transient viscosity predictions when shear rates vary in time.</p>
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8.
  • Zhang, Q., et al. (författare)
  • Mechanical property and reliability of bimodal nano-silver paste with Ag-coated SiC particles
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 31:4, s. 193-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: This study aims to develop a bimodal nano-silver paste with improved mechanical property and reliability. Silicon carbide (SiC) particles coated with Ag were introduced in nano-silver paste to improve bonding strength between SiC and Ag particles and enhance high-temperature stability of bimodal nano-silver paste. The effect of sintering parameters such as sintering temperature, sintering time and the proportion of SiC particles on mechanical property and reliability of sintered bimodal nano-silver structure were investigated. Design/methodology/approach: Sandwich structures consist of dummy chips and copper substrates with nickel and silver coating bonded by nano-silver paste were designed for shear testing. Shear strength testing was conducted to study the influence of SiC particles proportions on the mechanical property of sintered nano-silver joints. The reliability of the bimodal nano-silver paste was evaluated experimentally by means of shear test for samples subjected to thermal aging test at 150°C and humidity and temperature testing at 85°C and 85 per cent RH, respectively. Findings: Shear strength was enhanced obviously with the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time. The maximum shear strength was achieved for nano-silver paste sintered at 260°C for 10 min. There was a negative correlation between the proportion of SiC particles and shear strength. After thermal aging testing and humidity and temperature testing for 240 h, the shear strength decreased a little. High-temperature stability and high-hydrothermal stability were improved by the addition of SiC particles. Originality/value: Submicron-scale SiC particles coated with Ag were used as alternative materials to replace part of nano-silver particles to prepare bimodal nano-silver paste due to its high thermal conductivity and excellent mechanical property.
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9.
  • Zhang, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of nano-enhanced interconnect materials for fine pitch assembly
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 26:1, s. 12-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - Multiple fillers are adopted to study the filler influences on electrical and mechanical properties of the conductive adhesives. The performances of the developed nano-enhanced interconnect materials in printing process are also evaluated. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Micron-sized silver flakes are used as the basic fillers, and submicro- and nano-sized silver spheres and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are adopted to obtain conductive adhesives with multiple fillers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurement is carried out to characterize the curing behavior of the samples with different fillers, four-probe method is used to obtain the bulk resistivity, shear test is conducted for adhesive strength, and environmental loading test is also involved. Furthermore, printing trials with different patterns have been carried out. Findings -The electrical resistivity of the adhesives with submicro-sized silver spheres does not monotonically change with the increasing sphere proportion, and there exists an optimized value for the ratio of silver flakes to spheres. Samples with relatively small amount of CNT additives show improved electrical properties, while their mechanical strengths tend to decrease. For the printing application, the adhesives with 18.3 volume% filler content behave much better than those with lower filler content of 6 percent. The presence of the nano-particles makes a slight improvement in the printing results. Research limitations/implications - More detailed printing performance and reliability test of the samples need to be carried out in the future. Originality/value - The conductive adhesives as interconnect materials exhibit some improved properties with optimized bimodal or trimodal fillers. The additive of the nano-fillers affects slightly on the printing quality of the bimodal conductive adhesives.
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10.
  • Zou, C.-D., et al. (författare)
  • Melting temperature depression of Sn-0.4Co-0.7Cu lead-free solder nanoparticles
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Soldering and Surface Mount Technology. - 0954-0911. ; 21:2, s. 9-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the melting temperature of the nanoparticles of the new developed Sn-0.4Co-0.7Cu (wt%) lead-free solder alloy.Design/methodology/approach - Nanoparticles of Sn-0.4Co-0.7Cu lead-free solder alloy were prepared by the self-developed consumable-electrode direct current arc technique, where ultrasonic vibration was applied during the manufacturing of the particles. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope were employed to analyze the crystal structure and morphology of the nanopartiles, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the melting temperature of both the bulk alloy and as-prepared nanoparticles.Findings - The melting temperature of the nanoparticles was approximately 5 degrees C lower compared to that of the bulk alloy.Originality/value - As a novel developed lead-free solder alloy, the Sn-0.4Co0.7Cu (wt%) alloy provides a cost advantage compared to the extensively used Sn-Ag-Cu system. Some limitations still exist, however, mainly due to its relatively higher melting temperature compared to that of eutectic Sn-37Pb solder. In view of this situation, the attempt to lower its melting temperature has recently attracted more attention based on the knowledge that the melting temperature for pure metals is reduced when the particle size is decreased down to a few tens of nanometers.
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