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Sökning: L773:0956 7976 OR L773:1467 9280

  • Resultat 1-10 av 63
  • [1]234567Nästa
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  • Latvala, Antti, et al. (författare)
  • Paternal antisocial behavior and sons' cognitive ability : a population-based quasiexperimental study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychological science. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0956-7976. ; 26:1, s. 78-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parents’ antisocial behavior is associated with developmental risks for the offspring but effects on cognitive ability are unknown. We used linked Swedish register data for a large sample of adolescent men (N = 1,177,173) and their parents to estimate associations between fathers’ criminal convictions and sons’ cognitive ability assessed at compulsory military conscription. Mechanisms behind the association were tested in children-of-siblings models across three types of sibling fathers (half-siblings, full-siblings, and monozygotic twins) with increasing genetic relatedness, and in quantitative genetic models. Fathers’ convictions associated with lower cognitive ability in sons (any crime: Cohen’s d = -.28; violent crimes: Cohen’s d = -.49). Adjusting for more genetic factors gradually reduced and eventually eliminated the association. Nuclear family environmental factors did not contribute to the association. Our results suggest that the association between paternal antisocial behavior and offspring cognitive ability is not causal but mostly due to underlying genetic factors.
  • Peters, Ellen, et al. (författare)
  • Numeracy and decision making
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 17:5, s. 407-413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A series of four studies explored how the ability to comprehend and transform probability numbers relates to performance on judgment and decision tasks. On the surface, the tasks in the four studies appear to be widely different; at a conceptual level, however, they all involve processing numbers and the potential to show an influence of affect. Findings were consistent with highly numerate individuals being more likely to retrieve and use appropriate numerical principles, thus making themselves less susceptible to framing effects, compared with less numerate individuals. In addition, the highly numerate tended to draw different (generally stronger or more precise) affective meaning from numbers and numerical comparisons, and their affective responses were more precise. Although generally helpful, this tendency may sometimes lead to worse decisions. The less numerate were influenced more by competing, irrelevant affective considerations. Analyses showed that the effect of numeracy was not due to general intelligence. Numerical ability appears to matter to judgments and decisions in important ways.
  • Evans, GW, et al. (författare)
  • Chronic noise exposure and physiological response : A prospective study of children living under environmental stress
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 9:1, s. 75-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic exposure to aircraft noise elevated psychophysiological stress (resting blood pressure and overnight epinephrine and norepinephrine) and depressed quality-of-life indicators over a 2-year period among 9- to 11-year-old children. Data collected before and after the inauguration of a major new international airport in noise-impacted and comparison communities show that noise significantly elevates stress among children at ambient levels far below those necessary to produce hearing damage.
  • Hygge, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective study of some effects of aircraft noise on cognitive performance in schoolchildren
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 13:5, s. 469-474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Before the opening of the new Munich International Airport and the termination of the old airport, children near both sites were recruited into aircraft-noise groups (aircraft noise at present or pending) and control groups with no aircraft noise (closely matched for socioeconomic status). A total of 326 children (mean age = 10.4 years) took part in three data-collection waves, one before and two after the switch-over of the airports. After the switch, long-term memory and reading were impaired in the noise group at the new airport. and improved in the formerly noise-exposed group at the old airport. Short-term memory also improved in the latter group after the old airport was closed. At the new airport, speech perception was impaired in the newly noise-exposed group. Mediational analyses suggest that poorer reading was not mediated by speech perception, and that impaired recall was in part mediated by reading.
  • Elwin, Ebba, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Constructivist Coding : Learning from Selective Feedback
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 18:2, s. 105-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although much learning in real-life environments relies on highly selective feedback about outcomes, virtually all cognitive models of learning, judgment, and categorization assume complete and representative feedback. We investigated empirically the effect of selective feedback on decision making and how people code experience with selective feedback. The results showed that, in contrast to a commonly raised concern, performance was not impaired following learning with selective and biased feedback. Furthermore, even in a simple decision task, the experience that people acquired was not a mere recording of the observed outcomes, but rather a reconstruction from general task knowledge.
  • Evans, GW, et al. (författare)
  • Chronic noise and psychological stress.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 6:6, s. 333-338
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article illustrates the value of incorporating psychological principles into the environmental sciences. Psycho-physiological, cognitive, motivational, and affective indices of stress were monitored among elementary school children chronically exposed to aircraft noise. We demonstrate for the first time that chronic noise exposure is associated with elevated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures, muted cardiovascular reactivity to a task presented under acute noise, deficits in a standardized reading test administered under quiet conditions, poorer long-term memory, and diminished quality of life on a standardized index. Children in high-noise areas also showed evidence of poor persistence on challenging tasks and habituation to auditory distraction on a signal-to-noise task. They reported considerable annoyance with community noise levels, as measured utilizing a calibration procedure that adjusts for individual differences in rating criteria for annoyance judgments.
  • Haeffel, Gerald J., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Polymorphisms in the Dopamine Transporter Gene and Depression : Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in a Sample of Juvenile Detainees
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 19:1, s. 62-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has generated examples of how genetic and environmental factors can interact to create risk for psychopathology. Using a gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction design, we tested whether three polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, also referred to as SLC6A3, located at 5p15.33) interacted with maternal parenting style to predict first-onset episodes of depression. Participants were male adolescents (N= 176) recruited from a juvenile detention center in northern Russia. As hypothesized, one of the polymorphisms (rs40184) moderated the effect of perceived maternal rejection on the onset of major depressive disorder, as well as on suicidal ideation. Further, this G × E interaction was specific to depression; it did not predict clinically significant anxiety. These results highlight the need for further research investigating the moderating effects of dopaminergic genes on depression.
  • Koivisto, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • How meaning shapes seeing
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - : Sage Publications. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 18:10, s. 845-849
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • yInattentional blindness refers to the failure to see an unexpected object that one may be looking at directly when one's attention is elsewhere. We studied whether a stimulus whose meaning is relevant to the attentional goals of the observer will capture attention and escape inattentional blindness. The results showed that an unexpected stimulus belonging to the attended semantic category but not sharing physical features with the attended stimuli was detected more often than a semantically unrelated stimulus. This effect was larger when the unexpected stimuli were words than when they were pictures. The results imply that the semantic relation between the observer's attentional set and the unexpected stimulus plays a crucial role in inattentional blindness: An unexpected stimulus semantically related to the observer's current interests is likely to be seen, whereas unrelated unexpected stimuli are unseen. Attentional selection may thus be driven by purely semantic features: Meaning may determine whether or not one sees a stimulus.
  • Persson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Gaining Control : Training Executive Function and Far Transfer of the Ability to Resolve Interference [retracted]
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 19:9, s. 881-888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Functional brain-imaging data document overlapping sites of activation in prefrontal cortex across memory tasks, suggesting that these tasks may share common executive components. We leveraged this evidence to develop a training regimen and a set of transfer tasks to examine the trainability of a putative executive-control process: interference resolution. Eight days of training on high-interference versions of three different working memory tasks increased the efficiency with which proactive interference was resolved on those particular tasks. Moreover, an improved ability to resolve interference was also transferred to different working memory, semantic memory, and episodic memory tasks, a demonstration of far-transfer effects from process-specific training. Participants trained with noninterference versions of the tasks did not exhibit transfer. We infer that the transfer we demonstrated resulted from increased efficiency of the interference-resolution process. Therefore, this aspect of executive control is plastic and adaptive, and can be improved by training.
  • Akrami, Nazar, et al. (författare)
  • Generalized Prejudice : Common and Specific Components
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Psychological Science. - 0956-7976 .- 1467-9280. ; 22:1, s. 57-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This research examined the personality-prejudice relationship and whether personality and social psychological factors predict different aspects of prejudice. We proposed a distinction between a common component of prejudice that is mainly explained by personality and a specific component mainly explained by situational and group-specific variables. Whereas the former consists of the shared variance of prejudice toward different targets, the latter taps the variance that is unique to a certain type of prejudice. Statistically separating the two components of prejudice toward four target groups, we found that personality variables (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) explained a substantial portion of the variance of the common but a small share of the specific component. We also found group membership (gender) to be more closely associated with the specific than the common component of sexism. The results support our proposed distinction and suggest that personality and social psychological variables explain distinct aspects of prejudice.
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