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  • Andersson, Rolf, et al. (författare)
  • Structures of two novel, serologically nonrelated core oligosaccharides of Yokenella regensburgei lipopolysaccharides differing only by a single hexose substitution
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option B. - 0959-6658 .- 1460-2423. ; 20, s. 207-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunochemical analysis of the Yokenella regensburgei lipopolysaccharides (LPS) indicated the presence of the core oligosaccharide-related immunotypes among the investigated strains. The structure of the core oligosaccharide segment of the Y. regensburgei LPS has been investigated using chemical methods, mass spectrometry, and (1)H, (13)C NMR spectroscopy. It was concluded that the core oligosaccharides of the strains PCM 2476 and PCM 2477 are composed of an undecasaccharide. The combined data revealed two immunotypes of the core oligosaccharide recognized by antibodies against the whole bacterial cells. The structural differences between the core oligosaccharides are limited to the outermost terminal hexopyranose residue. In the core oligosaccharide of the strain PCM 2476, it was identified as alpha-D-Glcp and in that of the strain PCM 2477 as alpha-D-Galp. This subtle difference between the glycoforms of the LPS core appeared to be essential for formation of the epitopes recognized by the specific antibodies directed against the Y. regensburgei whole bacterial cells. The oligosaccharides are not substituted by phosphate groups. Instead, the carboxyl groups of Kdo and galacturonic acid residues present in the core provide the negative charges. The undecasaccharides represent a novel core type of bacterial LPS, which is characteristic for Y. regensburgei.
  • Axelsson, Magnus A. B., et al. (författare)
  • Neutralization of pH in the Golgi apparatus causes redistribution of glycosyltransferases and changes in the O-glycosylation of mucins.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - 0959-6658 .- 1460-2423. ; 11:8, s. 633-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Addition of the weak base ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or the proton pump inhibitor bafilomycin A1 to cultured HeLa and LS 174T cells effectively neutralized the pH gradient of the secretory pathway. This resulted in relocalization of the three studied glycosyltransferases, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2, beta1,2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, and beta1,4 galactosyltransferase 1, normally localized to the Golgi stack, the medial/trans-Golgi and the trans-Golgi/TGN, respectively. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and subcellular fractionation of the tagged or native glycosyltransferases showed that NH4Cl caused a relocalization of the enzymes mainly to vesicles of endosomal type, whereas bafilomycin A1 gave mainly cell surface staining. The general morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus was retained as judged from immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies. When the O-glycans on the guanidinium chloride insoluble gel-forming mucins from the LS 174T cells were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after neutralization of the secretory pathway pH by NH4Cl over 10 days shorter O-glycans were observed. However, no decrease in the number of oligosaccharide chains was indicated. Together, the results suggest that pH is a contributing factor for proper steady-state distribution of glycosyltransferases over the Golgi apparatus and that altered pH may cause alterations in glycosylation possibly due to a relocalization of glycosyltransferases.
  • Broeker, N. K., et al. (författare)
  • Single amino acid exchange in bacteriophage HK620 tailspike protein results in thousand-fold increase of its oligosaccharide affinity
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - 0959-6658 .- 1460-2423. ; 23:1, s. 59-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacteriophage HK620 recognizes and cleaves the O-antigen polysaccharide of Escherichia coli serogroup O18A1 with its tailspike protein (TSP). HK620TSP binds hexasaccharide fragments with low affinity, but single amino acid exchanges generated a set of high-affinity mutants with submicromolar dissociation constants. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that only small amounts of heat were released upon complex formation via a large number of direct and solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds between carbohydrate and protein. At room temperature, association was both enthalpy- and entropy-driven emphasizing major solvent rearrangements upon complex formation. Crystal structure analysis showed identical protein and sugar conformers in the TSP complexes regardless of their hexasaccharide affinity. Only in one case, a TSP mutant bound a different hexasaccharide conformer. The extended sugar binding site could be dissected in two regions: first, a hydrophobic pocket at the reducing end with minor affinity contributions. Access to this site could be blocked by a single aspartate to asparagine exchange without major loss in hexasaccharide affinity. Second, a region where the specific exchange of glutamate for glutamine created a site for an additional water molecule. Side-chain rearrangements upon sugar binding led to desolvation and additional hydrogen bonding which define this region of the binding site as the high-affinity scaffold.
  • Carlsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Affinity of galectin-8 and its carbohydrate recognition domains for ligands in solution and at the cell surface.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0959-6658 .- 1460-2423. ; 17:6, s. 663-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Galectin-8 has two different carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), the N-terminal Gal-8N and the C-terminal Gal-8C linked by a peptide, and has various effects on cell adhesion and signaling. To understand the mechanism for these effects further, we compared the binding activities of galectin-8 in solution with its binding and activation of cells. We used glycan array analysis to broaden the specificity profile of the two galectin-8 CRDs, as well as intact galectin-8s (short and long linker), confirming the unique preference for sulfated and sialylated glycans of Gal-8N. Using a fluorescence anisotropy assay, we examined the solution affinities for a subset of these glycans, the highest being 50 nM for NeuAcalpha2,3Lac by Gal-8N. Thus, carbohydrate-protein interactions can be of high affinity without requiring multivalency. More importantly, using fluorescence polarization, we also gained information on how the affinity is built by multiple weak interactions between different fragments of the glycan and its carrier molecule and the galectin CRD subsites (A-E). In intact galectin-8 proteins, the two domains act independently of each other in solution, whereas at a surface they act together. Ligands with moderate or weak affinity for the isolated CRDs on the array are bound strongly by intact galectin-8s. Also galectin-8 binding and signaling at cell surfaces can be explained by combined binding of the two CRDs to low or medium affinity ligands, and their highest affinity ligands, such as sialylated galactosides, are not required.
  • Cherian, Reeja Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Shiga-like toxin binds with high avidity to multivalent O-linked blood group P1 determinants on mucin-type fusion proteins
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - 0959-6658 .- 1460-2423. ; 24:1, s. 26-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The binding of Shiga-like toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga-like toxin 2 (Stx2) to a mucin-like fusion protein, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1/mouse IgG(2b) (PSGL-1/mIgG(2b)), carrying multiple copies of the blood group P1 determinant on O-glycans was investigated with western blot and the biosensor Biacore. Chinese hamster ovary K-1 (CHO-K1) cells were stably transfected with linearized plasmids encoding the PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) fusion protein, the pigeon alpha 1,4-galactosyltransferase (alpha 4Gal-T) and the core 2 beta 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT-I). Western blot analyses of purified PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of released O-glycans confirmed the presence of the P1 determinant. Western blot analysis indicated strong binding of Stx1, but not Stx2, to PSGL-1/mIgG(2b). In a Biacore assay, Stx1 and Stx2 were immobilized on a dextran chip and the binding of purified PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) and a P-k-albumin neoglycoprotein was analyzed. Stx1 and Stx2 bound with high avidity to both PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) and P-k-albumin, while the Stx1 binding was the strongest. In summary, we have shown that the pigeon alpha 4Gal-T can be aberrantly expressed in CHO cells together with the core 2 enzyme to generate multiple, O-linked P1 determinants on a simultaneously expressed mucin-type fusion protein. P1-decorated PSGL-1/mIgG(2b) bound with high avidity to both Stx1 and Stx2, and as such constitutes a potential therapeutic inhibitor of these toxins.
  • Conze, Tim, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • MUC2 mucin is a major carrier of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen in intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinomas
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - 0959-6658 .- 1460-2423. ; 20:2, s. 199-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Changes in mucin protein expression and in glycosylation are common features in pre-neoplastic lesions and cancer and are therefore used as cancer-associated markers. De novo expression of intestinal mucin MUC2 and cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen are frequently observed in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer. However, despite that these antigens often co-localize, MUC2 has not been demonstrated to be a carrier of sialyl-Tn. By using the in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), we herein could show that MUC2 is a major carrier of the sialyl-Tn antigen in all IM cases and in most gastric carcinoma cases. The requirement by in situ PLA for the presence of both antigens in close proximity increases the selectivity compared to measurement of co-localization, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Identification of the mucin which is the carrier of a carbohydrate structure offers unique advantages for future development of more accurate diagnostic and prognostic markers.
  • Cui, Hao, et al. (författare)
  • Glucuronyl C5-epimerase is crucial for epithelial cell maturation during embryonic lung development
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - 0959-6658 .- 1460-2423. ; 31:3, s. 223-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate that is a sulfated polysaccharide expressed on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix of alveolar walls and blood vessels. Targeted interruption of the Hsepi gene, Glce, in mice resulted in neonatal lethality, which is most likely due to lung atelectasis. In this study, we examined the potential mechanisms behind the defect in lung development. Histological analysis of the lungs from embryos revealed no difference in the morphology between wild-type and mutant animals up to E16.5. This suggests that the initial events leading to formation of the lung primordium and branching morphogenesis are not disturbed. However, the distal lung of E17.5-18.5 mutants is still populated by epithelial tubules, lacking the typical saccular structural characteristic of a normal E17.5 lung. Immunostaining revealed strong signals of surfactant protein-C, but a weaker signal of T1 alpha in the mutant lungs in comparison to WT littermates, suggesting differentiation of type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT1) is impaired. One of the parameters contributed to the failure of AT1 maturation is reduced vascularization in the developing lungs.
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