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Sökning: L773:0959 8146

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  • Källén, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal trends in multiple births after in vitro fertilisation in Sweden, 1982-2001: a register study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: BMJ. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0959-8138. ; 331:7513, s. 382-383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the 20 years since the first child was born in Sweden after in vitro fertilisation, clinical policy has changed. During the early 1990s, the clinics performing in vitro fertilisation and the National Board of Health and Welfare agreed to reduce the number of embryos transferred to the uterus during in vitro fertilisation from three to two. Here, we describe the changes in multiple birth rates that have resulted from this change and their impact on the rate of preterm birth. In future papers we intend to describe maternal and child characteristics in greater detail.
  • Virtanen, Marianna, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours and alcohol use : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1756-1833 .- 0959-8138. ; 350, s. Art. no. g7772-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies.REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression.RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
  • Andersson, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping on neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months : A randomised controlled trial
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Online). - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 343, s. d7157-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with early clamping, on infant iron status at 4 months of age in a European setting. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Swedish county hospital. Participants: 400 full term infants born after a low risk pregnancy. Intervention: Infants were randomised to delayed umbilical cord clamping (≥180 seconds after delivery) or early clamping (≤10 seconds after delivery). Main outcome measures: Haemoglobin and iron status at 4 months of age with the power estimate based on serum ferritin levels. Secondary outcomes included neonatal anaemia, early respiratory symptoms, polycythaemia, and need for phototherapy. Results: At 4 months of age, infants showed no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration between the groups, but infants subjected to delayed cord clamping had 45% (95% confidence interval 23% to 71%) higher mean ferritin concentration (117 μg/L v 81 μg/L, P<0.001) and a lower prevalence of iron deficiency (1 (0.6%) v 10 (5.7%), P=0.01, relative risk reduction 0.90; number needed to treat=20 (17 to 67)). As for secondary outcomes, the delayed cord clamping group had lower prevalence of neonatal anaemia at 2 days of age (2 (1.2%) v 10 (6.3%), P=0.02, relative risk reduction 0.80, number needed to treat 20 (15 to 111)). There were no significant differences between groups in postnatal respiratory symptoms, polycythaemia, or hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy. Conclusions: Delayed cord clamping, compared with early clamping, resulted in improved iron status and reduced prevalence of iron deficiency at 4 months of age, and reduced prevalence of neonatal anaemia, without demonstrable adverse effects. As iron deficiency in infants even without anaemia has been associated with impaired development, delayed cord clamping seems to benefit full term infants even in regions with a relatively low prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia. Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT01245296.
  • Boman, Magnus (författare)
  • Commentary : The joy of mesh
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 337, s. a2500-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Godbolt, Alison K. (författare)
  • Scandinavian solution
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 337, s. a2586-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Hoff, Geir, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of colorectal cancer seven years after flexible sigmoidoscopy screening : randomised controlled trial
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 338, s. b1846-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of colorectal cancer after screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Population based screening in two areas in Norway-city of Oslo and Telemark county (urban and mixed urban and rural populations). PARTICIPANTS: 55 736 men and women aged 55-64 years. INTERVENTION: Once only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening with or without a single round of faecal occult blood testing (n=13 823) compared with no screening (n=41 913). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Planned end points were cumulative incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer after 5, 10, and 15 years. This first report from the study presents cumulative incidence after 7 years of follow-up and hazard ratio for mortality after 6 years. RESULTS: No difference was found in the 7 year cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer between the screening and control groups (134.5 v 131.9 cases per 100 000 person years). In intention to screen analysis, a trend towards reduced colorectal cancer mortality was found (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.13, P=0.16). For attenders compared with controls, a statistically significant reduction in mortality was apparent for both total colorectal cancer (hazard ratio 0.41, 0.21 to 0.82, P=0.011) and rectosigmoidal cancer (0.24, 0.08 to 0.76, P=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in incidence of colorectal cancer with flexible sigmoidoscopy screening could not be shown after 7 years' follow-up. Mortality from colorectal cancer was not significantly reduced in the screening group but seemed to be lower for attenders, with a reduction of 59% for any location of colorectal cancer and 76% for rectosigmoidal cancer in per protocol analysis, an analysis prone to selection bias. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials NCT00119912.
  • Holmgren, Theresa, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of specific exercise strategy on need for surgery in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome : randomised controlled study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 344, s. e787-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a specific exercise strategy, targeting the rotator cuff and scapula stabilisers, improves shoulder function and pain more than unspecific exercises in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, thereby decreasing the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression.DESIGN: Randomised, participant and single assessor blinded, controlled study.SETTING: Department of orthopaedics in a Swedish university hospital.PARTICIPANTS: 102 patients with long standing (over six months) persistent subacromial impingement syndrome in whom earlier conservative treatment had failed, recruited through orthopaedic specialists.INTERVENTIONS: The specific exercise strategy consisted of strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers in combination with manual mobilisation. The control exercise programme consisted of unspecific movement exercises for the neck and shoulder. Patients in both groups received five to six individual guided treatment sessions during 12 weeks. In between these supervised sessions the participants performed home exercises once or twice a day for 12 weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment score evaluating shoulder function and pain. Secondary outcomes were patients' global impression of change because of treatment and decision regarding surgery.RESULTS: Most (97, 95%) participants completed the 12 week study. There was a significantly greater improvement in the Constant-Murley score in the specific exercise group than in the control exercise group (24 points (95% confidence interval 19 to 28.0) v 9 points (5 to 13); mean difference between group: 15 points (8.5 to 20.6)). Significantly more patients in the specific exercise group reported successful outcome (defined as large improvement or recovered) in the patients' global assessment of change because of treatment: 69% (35/51) v 24% (11/46); odds ratio 7.6, 3.1 to 18.9; P<0.001. A significantly lower proportion of patients in the specific exercise group subsequently chose to undergo surgery: 20% (10/51) v 63% (29/46); odds ratio 7.7, 3.1 to 19.4; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: A specific exercise strategy, focusing on strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers, is effective in reducing pain and improving shoulder function in patients with persistent subacromial impingement syndrome. By extension, this exercise strategy reduces the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression within the three month timeframe used in the study.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials NCT01037673.
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