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Sökning: L773:0959 8146

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  • Godbolt, Alison K. (författare)
  • Scandinavian solution
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 337, s. a2586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Johnsson, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Patients' refusal to consent to storage and use of samples in Swedish biobanks : cross sectional study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 337:7663, s. a345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesTo estimate how many people object to storage of biological samples collected in health care in Sweden and to their use in research and how many withdraw previous consent.DesignCross sectional study of register data.SettingBiobanks used in Swedish health care, 2005-6.PopulationData on refusal to consent were obtained for 1.4 million biobank samples per year from 20 of 21 counties.Main outcome measuresRates of preliminary refusal to consent, confirmed refusal, and withdrawal of consent.ResultsPatients refused consent to either storage or use of their samples in about 1 in 690 cases, about 1 in 1600 confirmed their decision by completing a dissent form. Rather than having the samples destroyed, about 1 in 6200 patients wanted to restrict their use. Of those who had previously consented, about 1 in 19 000 withdrew their consent.ConclusionsRefusal to consent to biobank research in Sweden is rare, and the interests of individuals and research interests need not be at odds. The Swedish healthcare organisation is currently obliged to obtain either consent or refusal to each potential use of each sample taken, and tack of consent to research is used as the default position. A system of presumed consent with straightforward opt out;would correspond with people's attitudes, as expressed in their actions, towards biobank research.
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  • Neovius, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effects of overweight and smoking in late adolescence on subsequent mortality : nationwide cohort study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 338, s. b496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the combined effects on adult mortality of overweight and smoking in late adolescence. DESIGN: Record linkage study with Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for muscle strength, socioeconomic position, and age. SETTING: Swedish military service conscription register, cause of death register, and census data. PARTICIPANTS: 45 920 Swedish men (mean age 18.7, SD 0.5) followed for 38 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index (underweight (BMI <18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), and obesity (>or=30)), muscle strength, and self reported smoking (non-smoker, light smoker (1-10 cigarettes/day), heavy smoker (>10/day)) at mandatory military conscription tests in 1969-70. All cause mortality. RESULTS: Over 1.7 million person years, 2897 men died. Compared with normal weight men (incidence rate 17/10 000 person years, 95% confidence interval 16 to 18), risk of mortality was increased in overweight (hazard ratio 1.33, 1.15 to 1.53; incidence rate 23, 20 to 26) and obese men (hazard ratio 2.14, 1.61 to 2.85; incidence rate 38, 27 to 48), with similar relative estimates in separate analyses of smokers and non-smokers. No increased risk was detected in underweight men (hazard ratio 0.97, 0.86 to 1.08; incidence rate 18, 16 to 19), though extreme underweight (BMI <17) was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.33, 1.07 to 1.64; incidence rate 24, 19 to 29). The relative excess risk due to interaction between BMI and smoking status was not significant in any stratum. Furthermore, all estimates of interaction were of small magnitude, except for the combination of obesity and heavy smoking (relative excess risk 1.5, -0.7 to 3.7). Compared with non-smokers (incidence rate 14, 13 to 15), risk was increased in both light (hazard ratio 1.54, 1.41 to 1.70; incidence rate 15, 14 to 16) and heavy smokers (hazard ratio 2.11, 1.92 to 2.31; incidence rate 26, 24 to 27). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of smoking status, overweight and obesity in late adolescence increases the risk of adult mortality. Obesity and overweight were as hazardous as heavy and light smoking, respectively, but there was no interaction between BMI and smoking status. The global obesity epidemic and smoking among adolescents remain important targets for intensified public health initiatives.
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8.
  • Odell, Annika, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Patients expectations and fulfilment of expectations before and after treatment for suspected coronary artery disease assessed with a newly developed questionnaire in combination with established health-related quality of life questionnaires
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Open Heart. - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Background Clinical decision-making is often based on evidence of outcome after a specific treatment. Healthcare providers and patients may, however, have different perceptions and expectations of what to achieve from a certain healthcare measure. Aims To evaluate patients’ expectations, perceptions and health related quality of life (HRQoL) before a care process including coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease and to evaluate the fulfilment of these expectations in relation to established patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) 6 months later. Furthermore, an aim was to try to define meaningful patient reported experience measures (PREMs) in this population. Methods 544 patients planned for coronary angiography completed a newly developed questionnaire to assess expectations and perceptions of treatment, the expectation questionnaire (ExpQ) and two established HRQoL questionnaires together with the established generic Short-Form 36 (SF36) and the disease specific Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). Results Patients had before the intervention, in general, high expectations of improvement after investigation and treatment and there was a positive attitude towards life style changes, medication and participation in decision-making regarding their own treatment. Only, 56.4% of the patients, however, reported fulfilment of treatment expectations. Fulfilment of treatment expectations correlated strongly with improvement in HRQoL after the care process. Conclusions To measure patients’ expectations and fulfilments of these may offer simple and meaningful outcomes to evaluate a healthcare process from a patient’s perspective. To approach patients’ expectations may also strengthen patient involvement in the care process with the possibilities of both higher patient satisfaction and medical results of the treatment.
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9.
  • Raaschou, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, and risk of malignant melanoma : nationwide population based prospective cohort study from Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential association between tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment and malignant melanomas in rheumatoid arthritis, melanoma risks in rheumatoid arthritis patients not treated with biological drugs, and risk of all site cancer with TNF inhibitors as used in rheumatoid arthritis.DESIGN: Population based cohort study.SETTING: Prospectively recorded data from national clinical, health, and demographic registers in Sweden 2001-10. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated (n = 10,878) or not (n = 42,198) with TNF inhibitors and matched general population comparators (n = 162,743).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was first invasive melanoma in people without any history of invasive cancer of any type. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression, comparing non-biological drug treated rheumatoid arthritis patients with the general population comparator and TNF inhibitor treated rheumatoid arthritis patients with those not treated with biological drugs. Secondary outcomes included in situ melanomas, second primary melanomas, and all site cancer.RESULTS: 113 first invasive melanomas occurred in rheumatoid arthritis patients not treated with biological drugs, and 393 occurred in the general population comparator cohort. Rheumatoid arthritis patients not treated with biological drugs were not at significantly increased risk of melanoma compared with the general population (hazard ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.5). 38 first invasive melanomas occurred in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with TNF inhibitors; these patients had an increased risk of melanoma compared with rheumatoid arthritis patients not treated with biological drugs (hazard ratio 1.5, 1.0 to 2.2; 20 additional cases per 100,000 person years). The risk of a second primary melanoma was non-significantly increased (hazard ratio 3.2, 0.8 to 13.1; n=3 v 10) in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with TNF inhibitors compared with those not treated with biological drugs.CONCLUSION: Overall, patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have not been treated with biological drugs are not at increased risk of invasive melanoma compared with the general population. Rheumatoid arthritis patients selected for TNF inhibitor treatment are not at increased overall risk for cancer but have a 50% increased relative risk of invasive melanoma. Given the small increase in absolute risk, these finding may not markedly shift the overall risk-benefit balance of TNF inhibitors as used in clinical practice but might do so in patients at high risk of melanoma for other reasons.
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10.
  • Santavirta, Torsten, et al. (författare)
  • Long term mental health outcomes of Finnish children evacuated to Swedish families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings : cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - 0959-8146 .- 0959-535X. ; 350, s. g7753
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To compare the risks of admission to hospital for any type of psychiatric disorder and for four specific psychiatric disorders among adults who as children were evacuated to Swedish foster families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings, and to evaluate whether these risks differ between the sexes.Design Cohort study.Setting National child evacuation scheme in Finland during the second world war.Participants Children born in Finland between 1933 and 1944 who were later included in a 10% sample of the 1950 Finnish census ascertained in 1997 (n=45 463; women: n=22 021; men: n=23 442). Evacuees in the sample were identified from war time government records.Main outcome measure Adults admitted to hospital for psychiatric disorders recorded between 1971 and 2011 in the Finnish hospital discharge register.Methods We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between evacuation to temporary foster care in Sweden during the second world war and admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder between ages 38 and 78 years. Fixed effects methods were employed to control for all unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared among siblings.Results Among men and women combined, the risk of admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder did not differ between Finnish adults evacuated to Swedish foster families and their non-evacuated siblings (hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.26). Evidence suggested a lower risk of admission for any mental disorder (0.67, 0.44 to 1.03) among evacuated men, whereas for women there was no association between evacuation and the overall risk of admission for a psychiatric disorder (1.21, 0.80 to 1.83). When admissions for individual psychiatric disorders were analyzed, evacuated girls were significantly more likely than their non-evacuated sisters to be admitted to hospital for a mood disorder as an adult (2.19, 1.10 to 4.33).Conclusions The Finnish evacuation policy was not associated with an increased overall risk of admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder in adulthood among former evacuees. In fact, evacuation was associated with a marginally reduced risk of admission for any psychiatric disorder among men. Among women who had been evacuated, however, the risk of being admitted to hospital for a mood disorder was increased.
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