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  • Wennmalm, Kristian, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression in 16q is associated with survival and differs between Sørlie breast cancer subtypes
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - 1045-2257 .- 1098-2264. ; 46:1, s. 87-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have investigated the relationship between gene expression and chromosomal positions in 402 breast cancer patients. Using an overrepresentation approach based on Fisher's exact test, we identified disproportionate contributions of specific chromosomal positions to genes associated with survival. Our major finding is that the gene expression in the long arm of chromosome 16 stands out in its relationship to survival. This arm contributes 36 (18%) and 55 (11%) genes to lists negatively associated with recurrence-free survival (set to sizes 200 and 500). This is a highly disproportionate contribution from the 313 (2%) genes in this arm represented on the used Affymetrix U133A and B microarray platforms (Bonferroni corrected Fisher test: P < 2.2 x 10(-16)). We also demonstrate differential expression in 16q across tumor subtypes, which suggests that the ERBB2, basal, and luminal B tumors progress along a high grade-poor prognosis path, while luminal A and normal-like tumors progress along a low grade-good prognosis path, in accordance with a previously proposed model of tumor progression. We conclude that important biological information can be extracted from gene expression data in breast cancer by studying non-random connections between chromosomal positions and gene expression. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.
  • Håkansson, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression analysis of BCR/ABL1-dependent transcriptional response reveals enrichment for genes involved in negative feedback regulation.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 47:4, s. 267-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive leukemia is characterized by the BCR/ABL1 fusion protein that affects a wide range of signal transduction pathways. The knowledge about its downstream target genes is, however, still quite limited. To identify novel BCR/ABL1-regulated genes we used global gene expression profiling of several Ph-positive and Ph-negative cell lines treated with imatinib. Following imatinib treatment, the Ph-positive cells showed decreased growth, viability, and reduced phosphorylation of BCR/ABL1 and STAT5. In total, 142 genes were identified as being dependent on BCR/ABL1-mediated signaling, mainly including genes involved in signal transduction, e.g. the JAK/STAT, MAPK, TGFB, and insulin signaling pathways, and in regulation of metabolism. Interestingly, BCR/ABL1 was found to activate several genes involved in negative feedback regulation (CISH, SOCS2, SOCS3, PIM1, DUSP6, and TNFAIP3), which may act to indirectly suppress the tumor promoting effects exerted by BCR/ABL1. In addition, several genes identified as deregulated upon BCR/ABL1 expression could be assigned to the TGFB and NFkB signaling pathways, as well as to reflect the metabolic adjustments needed for rapidly growing cells. Apart from providing important pathogenetic insights into BCR/ABL1-mediated leukemogenesis, the present study also provides a number of pathways/individual genes that may provide attractive targets for future development of targeted therapies. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.
  • Forestier, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and cytogenetic features of pediatric dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2)-positive B-Cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias: A nordic series of 24 cases and review of the literature
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 47:2, s. 149-158
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2) is a characteristic abnormality in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (BCP ALL), little is known about its clinical impact or the type and frequency of additional aberrations it may occur together with. We here review the clinical and cytogenetic features of a Nordic pediatric series of 24 patients with dic(9;20)-positive BCP ALL diagnosed 1996-2006, constituting 1.3% of the BCP ALL, as well as 47 childhood cases from the literature. Consistent immunophenotypic features of the Nordic cases included positivity for HLA-DR, CID 10, CID19, CD20, and CD22 and negativity for T-cell and myeloid markers; no detailed immunophenotypes were reported for the previously published cases. In the entire cohort of 71 cases, the modal chromosome distribution was 45 (62%), 46 (21%), 47 (7%), 48 (4%), 49 (3%), 44 (1%), and 50 (1%). Additional changes were present in 63%, the most frequent of which were homozygous loss of CDKN2A (33%) and gains of chromosomes 21 (28%) and x (10%). The median patient age was 3 years, the female/male ratio was 2.0, the median white blood cell count was 24 x 10(9)/1, 11% had central nervous system involvement, and 5% had a mediastinal mass at diagnosis. Risk group stratification was nonstandard risk in 79%. The event-free survival and overall survival at 5 years for the 24 Nordic cases was 0.62 and 0.82, respectively. Thus, although relapses are quite common, postrelapse treatment of many patients is successful. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/ jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.
  • Panagopoulos, Ioannis, et al. (författare)
  • A PCR/restriction digestion assay for the detection of the transcript variants 1 and 2 of POU5F1.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 47, s. 521-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • POU5F1 has two alternatively spliced transcripts: a long (variant 1, NM_002701) and a short (variant 2, NM_203289) transcript. Only variant 1 is a key regulator of pluripotency. Hence, it is important to be able to distinguish this transcript from variant 2 and from the many pseudogenes present in the genome. Previous studies on the expression of POU5F1 were, however, usually carried out without considering the existence of the two transcripts and the pseudogenes which could be the source of false positive RT-PCR amplification. Here, we establish an RT-PCR/restriction digestion analysis to distinguish variant 1 of POU5F1 from variant 2 and all its currently known pseudogenes. Variant 1 has ApaI and Tsp45I restriction sites, which are not present in the pseudogenes or in variant 2. Thus, ApaI- and Tsp45I- digestions of POU5F1 PCR fragment, amplified with primers flanking these sites, are sufficient to identify the true variant 1 of POU5F1. To study the expression of variant 2 of POU5F1, two forward primers in the 5'-region that are not present in variant 1 were combined with reverse primers located in exon 3 of POU5F1 common to both transcripts. The assay was applied on 10 samples from peripheral blood leukocytes and commercially available ready-cDNAs from leukocytes and testis. We found that only variant 2 was expressed in leukocytes and testis and that the extracted RNA was not completely DNA free, despite DNAse treatment. This trace amount of DNA is a source of false positive RT-PCR amplifications. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Adamovic, Tatjana, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of novel carcinogen-mediated mammary tumor susceptibility loci in the rat using the chromosome substitution technique
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - Hoboken, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 49:11, s. 1035-1045
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We here report the genetic basis for susceptibility and resistance to carcinogen-mediated [7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA)] mammary tumorigenesis using the full panel of SS/BN consomic rat strains, in which substitutions of individual chromosomes from the resistant BN strain onto the genomic background of the susceptible SS strain were made. Analysis of 252 consomic females identified rat mammary Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) affecting tumor incidence on chromosomes 3 and 5, latency on chromosomes 3, 9, 14, and 19, and multiplicity on chromosomes 13, 16, and 19. In addition, we unexpectedly identified a novel QTL on chromosome 6 controlling a lethal toxic phenotype in response to DMBA. Upon further investigation with chromosomes 6 and 13 congenic lines, in which an additional 114 rats were investigated, we mapped (1) a novel mammary tumor QTL to a region of 27.1 Mbp in the distal part of RNO6, a region that is entirely separated from the toxicity phenotype, and (2) a novel and powerful mammary tumor susceptibility locus of 4.5 Mbp that mapped to the proximal q-arm of RNO13. Comparison of genetic strain differences using existing rat genome databases enabled us to further construct priority lists containing single breast cancer candidate genes within the defined QTLs, serving as potential functional variants for future testing.
  • Adamovic, Tatjana, et al. (författare)
  • Nonrandom pattern of chromosome aberrations in 17beta-estradiol-induced rat mammary tumors: indications of distinct pathways for tumor development.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genes, chromosomes & cancer. - 1045-2257. ; 46:5, s. 459-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogens play an important role in breast cancer etiology and the ACI rat provides a novel animal model for defining the mechanisms through which estrogens contribute to mammary cancer development. In crossing experiments between the susceptible ACI strain and two resistant strains, COP (Copenhagen) and BN (Brown Norway), several quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect development of 17b-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary tumors have been defined. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we have analyzed cytogenetic aberrations in E2-induced mammary cancers and have found clear patterns of nonrandom chromosomal involvement. Approximately two thirds of the tumors exhibited copy number changes. Losses of rat chromosome 5 (RNO5) and RNO20 were particularly common, and it was found that these two aberrations often occurred together. A third recurrent aberration involving proximal gain and distal loss in RNO6 probably defined a distinct subgroup of tumors, since it never occurred in combination with RNO5 loss. Interestingly, QTL with powerful effects on mammary cancer development have been mapped to RNO5 and RNO6. These findings suggest that there were at least two genetic pathways to tumor formation in this rat model of E2-induced mammary cancer. By performing CGH on mammary tumors from ACI rats, F1 rats from crosses between the ACI and COP or BN strains and ACI.BN-Emca8 congenic rats, which carry the BN allele of the Emca8 QTL on RNO5 on the ACI genetic background, we were able to determine that the constitution of the germ line influences the pattern of chromosomal aberrations.
  • Adamovic, Tatjana, et al. (författare)
  • Oncogene amplification in the proximal part of chromosome 6 in rat endometrial adenocarcinoma as revealed by combined BAC/PAC FISH, chromosome painting, zoo-FISH, and allelotyping.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Genes, chromosomes & cancer. - 1045-2257. ; 44:2, s. 139-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The inbred BDII rat is a valuable experimental model for the genetic analysis of endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC). One common aberration detected by comparative genomic hybridization in rat EAC was gain/amplification affecting the proximal part of rat chromosome 6 (RNO6). We applied rat and mouse chromosome painting probes onto tumor cell metaphase preparations in order to detect and characterize gross RNO6 aberrations. In addition, the RNO6q11-q16 segment was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes representing 12 cancer-related genes in the region. The analysis revealed that seven tumors contained large RNO6-derived homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) in addition to several normal or near-normal RNO6 chromosomes. Five tumors (two of which also had HSRs) exhibited a selective increase of the RNO6q11-q16 segment, sometimes in conjunction with moderate amplification of one or a few genes. Most commonly, the amplification affected the region centered around band 6q16 and included the Mycn, Ddx1, and Rrm2 genes. A second region, centering around Slc8a1 and Xdh, also was affected by gene amplification but to a lesser extent. The aberrations in the proximal part of RNO6 were further analyzed using allelotyping of microsatellite markers in all tumors from animals that were heterozygous in the proximal RNO6 region. We could detect allelic imbalance (AI) in 12 of 20 informative tumors, 6 of which were in addition to those already analyzed by molecular cytogenetic methods as described. Our findings suggest that increase/amplification of genes in this chromosome region contribute to the development of this hormone-dependent tumor.
  • Ageberg, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a novel and myeloid specific role of the leukemia-associated fusion protein DEK-NUP214 leading to increased protein synthesis.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 47, s. 276-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The t(6;9)(p22;q34) chromosomal translocation is found in a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The translocation results in a fusion between the nuclear phosphoprotein DEK and the nucleoporin NUP214 (previously CAN). The mechanism by which the fusion protein DEK-NUP214 contributes to leukemia development has not been identified, and disruptions of normal cellular functions by DEK-NUP214 have previously not been described. In the present study, a novel effect of the DEK-NUP214 fusion protein is demonstrated. Our findings reveal a substantial increase in global protein synthesis in DEK-NUP214 expressing cells. Furthermore, we conclude that this effect is not the result of dysregulated transcription but merely due to increased translation. Consistent with the association with AML, the increased protein synthesis mediated by DEK-NUP214 is restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Analysis of potential mechanisms for regulating protein synthesis shows that expression of DEK-NUP214 correlates to the phosphorylation of the translation initiation protein, EIF4E. The present data provide evidence that increase of translational activity constitutes a mechanism by which the leukemogenic effect of DEK-NUP124 may be mediated. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Andersen, MK, et al. (författare)
  • Balanced chromosome abnormalities inv(16) and t(15;17) in therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes and acute leukemia: Report from an international workshop
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 33:4, s. 395-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Workshop identified 48 unselected patients with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (t-MIDS/t-AML) and inv(16), and 41 patients with t(15; 17) after chemotherapy (CT) and/or radiotherapy (RT) for a malignant or nonmalignant disease. The primary diseases were: breast cancer, 33 patients; lymphomas, 24 patients; various other solid tumors, 30 patients; and nonmalignant diseases, 2 patients. The general type of previous therapy was RT only in 10 patients with an inv(16) and in 12 patients with a t(15; 17), alkylating agents plus topoisomerase 11 inhibitors in 24 patients with an inv (16) and in 18 patients with a t(15; 17), topoisomerase 11 inhibitors only in 5 patients with an inv(16) and in 2 patients with a t(15; 17), alkylating agents only in 6 patients in each subgroup, and other types of chemotherapy in 3 patients in each subgroup. Most CT-treated patients (69%) also received RT. The latency period to development of t-MDS/t-AML was short: a median of 22 months in patients with inv(16) and 29 months in patients with t(15; 17). Twenty-six patients (54%) with an inv(16) and 17 patients (41%) with a t(15; 17) had additional cytogenetic abnormalities, which were unrelated to age and survival in both subgroups. Trisomy of chromosomes 8, 21, and 22 and del(7q) were the most frequent additional abnormalities in the inv(16) subgroup, whereas +8, -5, and del(16q) were most frequent in the t(15; 17) subgroup. The disease was overt t-AML in 38/48 patients (79%) with an inv(16) and in 38/41 patients (93%) with a t(15; 17). Thirty-three of 39 intensively treated patients (85%) with an inv(16) obtained a complete remission, whereas 24 of 35 intensively treated patients (69%) with a t(15; 17) obtained a complete remission. The median overall survival of intensively treated patients was 29 months in both cytogenetic subgroups. In the inv(16) subgroup, patients younger than 55 years of age had a longer survival when compared with older patients (P = 0.006). The study supports the observation that t-MDS/t-AML with inv(16) and t(15; 17) is often associated with prior therapy with topoisomerase 11 inhibitors; however, a notable finding was the high frequency of treatment with only radiotherapy, 29% of t(15; 17) and 21 % of inv(16). Response rates to intensive chemotherapy in this study were comparable to those of de novo disease.
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