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  • Ejerblad, E., et al. (författare)
  • Association between smoking and chronic renal failure in a nationwide population-based case-control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. - 1046-6673 (Print) 1046-6673 (Linking) ; 15:8, s. 2178-2185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For determining whether smoking is associated with an increased risk for chronic renal failure (CRF) overall and by type of renal disease, smoking data were analyzed from a nationwide population-based case-control study. Eligible as cases were native 18- to 74-yr-old Swedes whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women). A total of 926 cases (78% of all eligible) and 998 control subjects (75% of 1330 randomly selected subjects from the source population), frequency matched to the cases by gender and age within 10 yr, were included. A face-to-face interview and a self-administered questionnaire provided information about smoking habits and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk for disease-specific types of CRF among smokers compared with never-smokers. Despite a modest and nonsignificant overall association, the risk increased with high daily doses (OR among smokers of >20 cigarettes/d, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.15), long duration (OR among smokers for >40 yr, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.09), and a high cumulative dose (OR among smokers with >30 pack-years, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.14). Smoking increased risk most strongly for CRF classified as nephrosclerosis (OR among smokers with >20 pack-years, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.8), but significant positive associations were also noted with glomerulonephritis. This study thus suggests that heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of CRF for both men and women, at least CRF classified as nephrosclerosis and glomerulonephritis.
  • Ejerblad, E., et al. (författare)
  • Obesity and risk for chronic renal failure
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. - 1046-6673 (Print) 1046-6673 (Linking) ; 17:6, s. 1695-1702
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few large-scale epidemiologic studies have quantified the possible link between obesity and chronic renal failure (CRF). This study analyzed anthropometric data from a nationwide, population-based, case-control study of incident, moderately severe CRF. Eligible as cases were all native Swedes who were aged 18 to 74 yr and had CRF and whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women) during the study period. A total of 926 case patients and 998 control subjects, randomly drawn from the study base, were enrolled. Face-to-face interviews, supplemented with self-administered questionnaires, provided information about anthropometric measures and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models with adjustments for several co-factors estimated the relative risk for CRF in relation to body mass index (BMI). Overweight (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) at age 20 was associated with a significant three-fold excess risk for CRF, relative to BMI<25. Obesity (BMI>or=30) among men and morbid obesity (BMI>or=35) among women anytime during lifetime was linked to three- to four-fold increases in risk. The strongest association was with diabetic nephropathy, but two- to three-fold risk elevations were observed for all major subtypes of CRF. Analyses that were confined to strata without hypertension or diabetes revealed a three-fold increased risk among patients who were overweight at age 20, whereas the two-fold observed risk elevation among those who had a highest lifetime BMI of >35 was statistically nonsignificant. Obesity seems to be an important-and potentially preventable-risk factor for CRF. Although hypertension and type 2 diabetes are important mediators, additional pathways also may exist.
  • Fored, C. M., et al. (författare)
  • Absence of association between organic solvent exposure and risk of chronic renal failure : a nationwide population-based case-control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. - 1046-6673 (Print) 1046-6673 (Linking) ; 15:1, s. 180-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to organic solvents has been suggested to cause or exacerbate renal disease, but methodologic concerns regarding previous studies preclude firm conclusions. We examined the role of organic solvents in a population-based case-control study of early-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). All native Swedish residents aged 18 to 74 yr, living in Sweden between May 1996 and May 1998, formed the source population. Incident cases of CRF in a pre-uremic stage (n = 926) and control subjects (n = 998), randomly selected from the study base, underwent personal interviews that included a detailed occupational history. Expert rating by a certified occupational hygienist was used to assess organic solvent exposure intensity and duration. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR) in logistic regression models, with adjustment for potentially important covariates. The overall risk for CRF among subjects ever exposed to organic solvents was virtually identical to that among never-exposed (OR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.25). No dose-response relationships were observed for lifetime cumulative solvent exposure, average dose, or exposure frequency or duration. The absence of association pertained to all subgroups of CRF: glomerulonephritis (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.34), diabetic nephropathy (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.41), renal vascular disease (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.75), and other renal CRF (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.27). The results from a nationwide, population-based study do not support the hypothesis of an adverse effect of organic solvents on CRF development, in general. Detrimental effects from subclasses of solvents or on specific renal diseases cannot be ruled out.
  • Abedini, Sadollah, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammation in renal transplantation
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 4:7, s. 1246-1254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Renal transplant recipients experience premature cardiovascular disease and death. The association of inflammation, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients has not been examined in a large prospective controlled trial. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: ALERT was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of fluvastatin on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 2102 renal transplant recipients. Patients initially randomized to fluvastatin or placebo in the 5- to 6-yr trial were offered open-label fluvastatin in a 2-yr extension to the original study. The association between inflammation markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and IL-6 on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality was investigated. RESULTS: The baseline IL-6 value was 2.9 +/- 1.9 pg/ml (n = 1751) and that of hsCRP was 3.8 +/- 6.7 mg/L (n = 1910). After adjustment for baseline values for established risk factors, the hazard ratios for a major cardiac event and all-cause mortality for IL-6 were 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.15, P = 0.018] and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.18, P < 0.001), respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for hsCRP for a cardiovascular event was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20, P = 0.027) and for all-cause mortality was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.1.25, P = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: The inflammation markers IL-6 and hsCRP are independently associated with major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients.
  • Annuk, Margus, et al. (författare)
  • Oxidative stress and endothelial function in chronic renal failure
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 12:12, s. 2747-2752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Thirty-seven patients with CRF underwent evaluation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelium-independent vasodilation by means of forearm blood flow measurements with venous occlusion plethysmography during local intra-arterial infusions of methacholine (evaluating endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and sodium nitroprusside (evaluating endothelium-independent vasodilation). Lag phase of lipoprotein fraction to oxidation, total antioxidative activity, diene conjugates, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxide, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH (GSSG), and the GSH redox ratio (GSSG/GSH) were all measured as markers of oxidative stress. Two groups of healthy subjects (61 and 37 subjects, respectively) were used as controls. In one group, oxidative stress markers were measured, whereas endothelium-dependent vasodilation and endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed in the other group. Compared with controls, the patients with renal insufficiency had an impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a shorter lag phase of lipoprotein fraction, and higher levels of diene conjugates, lipid hydroperoxide, and GSSG levels. The GSSG/GSH ratio was lower in patients with CRF. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was positively correlated with total antioxidative activity (r = 0.41, P = 0.016), GSH (r = 0.44, P < 0.0098), and lag phase of LDL (r = 0.35, P = 0.036) and negatively correlated with GSSG (r = -0.40, P < 0.018), GSSG/GSH (r = -0.47, P = 0.0057), and diene conjugates (r = -0.53 P < 0.0015) in patients with CRF. These results show that an impaired endothelium vasodilation function and oxidative stress are related to each other in patients with CRF.
  • Boeger, Carsten A., et al. (författare)
  • CUBN Is a Gene Locus for Albuminuria
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 22:3, s. 555-570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of genetic risk factors for albuminuria may alter strategies for early prevention of CKD progression, particularly among patients with diabetes. Little is known about the influence of common genetic variants on albuminuria in both general and diabetic populations. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 63,153 individuals of European ancestry with genotype information from genome-wide association studies (CKDGen Consortium) and from a large candidate gene study (CARe Consortium) to identify susceptibility loci for the quantitative trait urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the clinical diagnosis microalbuminuria. We identified an association between a missense variant (I2984V) in the CUBN gene, which encodes cubilin, and both UACR (P = 1.1 x 10(-11)) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.001). We observed similar associations among 6981 African Americans in the CARe Consortium. The associations between this variant and both UACR and microalbuminuria were significant in individuals of European ancestry regardless of diabetes status. Finally, this variant associated with a 41% increased risk for the development of persistent microalbuminuria during 20 years of follow-up among 1304 participants with type 1 diabetes in the prospective DCCT/EDIC Study. In summary, we identified a missense CUBN variant that associates with levels of albuminuria in both the general population and in individuals with diabetes.
  • Bruck, Katharina, et al. (författare)
  • CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 27:7, s. 2135-2147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% Cl, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.
  • Burlaka, Ievgeniia, et al. (författare)
  • Ouabain Protects against Shiga Toxin-Triggered Apoptosis by Reversing the Imbalance between Bax and Bcl-xL
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - : American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 24:9, s. 1413-1423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a life-threatening disease often accompanied by acute renal failure, usually occurs after gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing Escherichia coli. Stx2 binds to the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide receptor, expressed by renal epithelial cells, and triggers apoptosis by activating the apoptotic factor Bax. Signaling via the ouabain/Na,K-ATPase/IP3R/NF-B pathway increases expression of Bcl-xL, an inhibitor of Bax, suggesting that ouabain might protect renal cells from Stx2-triggered apoptosis. Here, exposing rat proximal tubular cells to Stx2 in vitro resulted in massive apoptosis, upregulation of the apoptotic factor Bax, increased cleaved caspase-3, and downregulation of the survival factor Bcl-xL; co-incubation with ouabain prevented all of these effects. Ouabain activated the NF-B antiapoptotic subunit p65, and the inhibition of p65 DNA binding abolished the antiapoptotic effect of ouabain in Stx2-exposed tubular cells. Furthermore, in vivo, administration of ouabain reversed the imbalance between Bax and Bcl-xL in Stx2-treated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ouabain can protect the kidney from the apoptotic effects of Stx2.
  • Cameron-Christie, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Exome-Based Rare-Variant Analyses in CKD
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - : AMER SOC NEPHROLOGY. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 30:6, s. 1109-1122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Studies have identified many common genetic associations that influence renal function and all-cause CKD, but these explain only a small fraction of variance in these traits. The contribution of rare variants has not been systematically examined. Methods We performed exome sequencing of 3150 individuals, who collectively encompassed diverse CKD subtypes, and 9563 controls. To detect causal genes and evaluate the contribution of rare variants we used collapsing analysis, in which we compared the proportion of cases and controls carrying rare variants per gene. Results The analyses captured five established monogenic causes of CKD: variants in PKD1, PKD2, and COL4A5 achieved study-wide significance, and we observed suggestive case enrichment for COL4A4 and COL4A3. Beyond known disease-associated genes, collapsing analyses incorporating regional variant intolerance identified suggestive dominant signals in CPT2 and several other candidate genes. Biallelic mutations in CPT2 cause carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, sometimes associated with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal injury. Genetic modifier analysis among cases with APOL1 risk genotypes identified a suggestive signal in AHDC1, implicated in Xia-Gibbs syndrome, which involves intellectual disability and other features. On the basis of the observed distribution of rare variants, we estimate that a two-to three-fold larger cohort would provide 80% power to implicate new genes for all-cause CKD. Conclusions This study demonstrates that rare-variant collapsing analyses can validate known genes and identify candidate genes and modifiers for kidney disease. In so doing, these findings provide a motivation for larger-scale investigation of rare-variant risk contributions across major clinical CKD categories.
  • Campistol, Josep M., et al. (författare)
  • Sirolimus therapy after early cyclosporine withdrawal reduces the risk for cancer in adult renal transplantation
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. ; 17:2, s. 581-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sirolimus (SRL) is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that, in contrast to cyclosporine (CsA), has been shown to inhibit rather than promote cancers in experimental models. At 3 mo +/- 2 wk after renal transplantation, 430 of 525 enrolled patients were randomly assigned to remain on SRL-CsA-steroids (ST) or to have CsA withdrawn and SRL troughs increased two-fold (SRL-ST). Median times to first skin and nonskin malignancies were compared between treatments using a survival analysis. Mean annualized rates of skin malignancy were calculated, and the relative risk was determined using a Poisson model. Malignancy-free survival rates for nonskin malignancies were compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates and the log-rank test. At 5 yr, the median time to a first skin carcinoma was delayed (491 versus 1126 d; log-rank test, P = 0.007), and the risk for an event was significantly lower with SRL-ST therapy (relative risk SRL-ST to SRL-CsA-ST 0.346; 95% confidence interval 0.227 to 0.526; P < 0.001, intention-to-treat analysis). The relative risks for both basal and squamous cell carcinomas were significantly reduced. Kaplan-Meier estimates of nonskin cancer were 9.6 versus 4.0% (SRL-CsA-ST versus SRL-ST; P = 0.032, intention-to-treat analysis). Nonskin cancers included those of the lung, larynx, oropharynx, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, breast, thyroid, and cervix as well as glioma, liposarcoma, astrocytoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Patients who received SRL-based, calcineurin inhibitor-free therapy after CsA withdrawal at month 3 had a reduced incidence of both skin and nonskin malignancies at 5 yr after renal transplantation compared with those who received SRL therapy combined with CsA. Longer follow-up and additional trials are needed to confirm these promising results.
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