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Sökning: L773:1050 9631 OR L773:1098 1063

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  • [1]2345Nästa
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1.
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2.
  • Björefeldt, Andreas, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • Human cerebrospinal fluid promotes spontaneous gamma oscillations in the hippocampus in vitro
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 30:2, s. 101-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz) are fast network activity patterns frequently linked to cognition. They are commonly studied in hippocampal brain slices in vitro, where they can be evoked via pharmacological activation of various receptor families. One limitation of this approach is that neuronal activity is studied in a highly artificial extracellular fluid environment, as provided by artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). Here, we examine the influence of human cerebrospinal fluid (hCSF) on kainate-evoked and spontaneous gamma oscillations in mouse hippocampus. We show that hCSF, as compared to aCSF of matched electrolyte and glucose composition, increases the power of kainate-evoked gamma oscillations and induces spontaneous gamma activity in areas CA3 and CA1 that is reversed by washout. Bath application of atropine entirely abolished hCSF-induced gamma oscillations, indicating critical contribution from muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated signaling. In separate whole-cell patch clamp recordings from rat hippocampus, hCSF increased theta resonance frequency and strength in pyramidal cells along with enhancement of h-current (I-h) amplitude. We found no evidence of intrinsic gamma frequency resonance at baseline (aCSF) among fast-spiking interneurons, and this was not altered by hCSF. However, hCSF increased the excitability of fast-spiking interneurons, which likely contributed to gamma rhythmogenesis. Our findings show that hCSF promotes network gamma oscillations in the hippocampus in vitro and suggest that neuromodulators distributed in CSF could have significant influence on neuronal network activity in vivo.
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3.
  • Ferreira, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • The interactive effect of demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume : A multicohort study on 1958 cognitively normal individuals
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 27:6, s. 653-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease is characterized by hippocampal atrophy. Other factors also influence the hippocampal volume, but their interactive effect has not been investigated before in cognitively healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interactive effect of key demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume, in contrast to previous studies frequently investigating these factors in a separate manner. Also, to investigate how comparable the control groups from ADNI, AIBL, and AddNeuroMed are with five population-based cohorts. In this study, 1958 participants were included (100 AddNeuroMed, 226 ADNI, 155 AIBL, 59 BRC, 295 GENIC, 279 BioFiNDER, 398 PIVUS, and 446 SNAC-K). ANOVA and random forest were used for testing between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables. Multiple regression was used to study the influence of demographic-clinical variables on hippocampal volume. ANCOVA was used to analyze whether between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables explained between-cohort differences in hippocampal volume. Age and global brain atrophy were the most important variables in explaining variability in hippocampal volume. These variables were not only important themselves but also in interaction with gender, education, MMSE, and total intracranial volume. AddNeuroMed, ADNI, and AIBL differed from the population-based cohorts in several demographic-clinical variables that had a significant effect on hippocampal volume. Variability in hippocampal volume in individuals with normal cognition is high. Differences that previously tended to be related to disease mechanisms could also be partly explained by demographic and clinical factors independent from the disease. Furthermore, cognitively normal individuals especially from ADNI and AIBL are not representative of the general population. These findings may have important implications for future research and clinical trials, translating imaging biomarkers to the general population, and validating current diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and predementia stages.
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4.
  • Fransén, Erik, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Ionic mechanisms in the generation of subthreshold oscillations and action potential clustering in entorhinal layer II stellate neurons
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 14:3, s. 368-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A multi compartmental biophysical model of entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells was developed to analyze the ionic basis of physiological properties, such as subthreshold membrane potential oscillations, action potential clustering, and the medium afterhyperpolarization. In particular, the simulation illustrates the interaction of the persistent sodium current (I-NaP) and the hyperpolarization activated inward current (I-h) in the generation of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations. The potential role of I-h in contributing to the medium hyperpolarization (mAHP) and rebound spiking was studied. The role of I-h and the slow calcium-activated potassium current I-K(AHP) in action potential clustering was also studied. Representations of I-h and I-NaP were developed with parameters based on voltage-clamp data from whole-cell patch and single channel recordings of stellate cells (Dickson et A, J Neurophysiol 83:2562-2579, 2000; Magistretti and Alonso, J Gen Physiol 114:491-509, 1999; Magistretti et al., J Physiol 521:629-636, 1999a; J Neurosci 19:7334-7341, 1999b). These currents interacted to generate robust subthreshold membrane potentials with amplitude and frequency corresponding to data observed in the whole cell patch recordings. The model was also able to account for effects of pharmacological manipulations, including blockade of I-h with ZD7288, partial blockade with cesium, and the influence of barium on oscillations. In a model with a wider range of currents, the transition from oscillations to single spiking, to spike clustering, and finally tonic firing could be replicated. In agreement with experiment, blockade of calcium channels in the model strongly reduced clustering. In the voltage interval during which no data are available, the model predicts that the slow component of I-h does not follow the fast component down to very short time constants. The model also predicts that the fast component of I-h is responsible for the involvement in the generation of subthreshold oscillations, and the slow component dominates in the generation of spike clusters.
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5.
  • Fransén, Erik, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Role of A-type potassium currents in excitability, network synchronicity, and epilepsy
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 20:7, s. 877-887
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A range of ionic currents have been suggested to be involved in distinct aspects of epileptogenesis. Based on pharmacological and genetic studies, potassium currents have been implicated, in particular the transient A-type potassium current (K-A). Epileptogenic activity comprises a rich repertoire of characteristics, one of which is synchronized activity of principal cells as revealed by occurrences of for instance fast ripples. Synchronized activity of this kind is particularly efficient in driving target cells into spiking. In the recipient cell, this synchronized input generates large brief compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). The fast activation and inactivation of K-A lead us to hypothesize a potential role in suppression of such EPSPs. In this work, using computational modeling, we have studied the activation of K-A by synaptic inputs of different levels of synchronicity. We find that K-A participates particularly in suppressing inputs of high synchronicity. We also show that the selective suppression stems from the current's ability to become activated by potentials with high slopes. We further show that K-A suppresses input mimicking the activity of a fast ripple. Finally, we show that the degree of selectivity of K-A can be modified by changes to its kinetic parameters, changes of the type that are produced by the modulatory action of KChIPs and DPPs. We suggest that the wealth of modulators affecting K-A might be explained by a need to control cellular excitability in general and suppression of responses to synchronicity in particular. We also suggest that compounds changing K-A-kinetics may be used to pharmacologically improve epileptic status.
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6.
  • Hilscher, Markus M, et al. (författare)
  • Chrna2-OLM interneurons display different membrane properties and h-current magnitude depending on dorsoventral location
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 29:12, s. 1224-1237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampus is an extended structure displaying heterogeneous anatomical cell layers along its dorsoventral axis. It is known that dorsal and ventral regions show different integrity when it comes to functionality, innervation, gene expression, and pyramidal cell properties. Still, whether hippocampal interneurons exhibit different properties along the dorsoventral axis is not known. Here, we report electrophysiological properties of dorsal and ventral oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells from coronal sections of the Chrna2-cre mouse line. We found dorsal OLM cells to exhibit a significantly more depolarized resting membrane potential compared to ventral OLM cells, while action potential properties were similar between the two groups. We found ventral OLM cells to show a higher initial firing frequency in response to depolarizing current injections but also to exhibit a higher spike-frequency adaptation than dorsal OLM cells. Additionally, dorsal OLM cells displayed large membrane sags in response to negative current injections correlating with our results showing that dorsal OLM cells have more hyperpolarization-activated current (I-h) compared to ventral OLM cells. Immunohistochemical examination indicates the h-current to correspond to hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated subunit 2 (HCN2) channels. Computational studies suggest that I-h in OLM cells is essential for theta oscillations in hippocampal circuits, and here we found dorsal OLM cells to present a higher membrane resonance frequency than ventral OLM cells. Thus, our results highlight regional differences in membrane properties between dorsal and ventral OLM cells allowing this interneuron to differently participate in the generation of hippocampal theta rhythms depending on spatial location along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus.
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7.
  • Moulin, Thiago C., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic in vivo optogenetic stimulation modulates neuronal excitability, spine morphology, and Hebbian plasticity in the mouse hippocampus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 29:8, s. 755-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prolonged increases in excitation can trigger cell‐wide homeostatic responses in neurons, altering membrane channels, promoting morphological changes, and ultimately reducing synaptic weights. However, how synaptic downscaling interacts with classical forms of Hebbian plasticity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether chronic optogenetic stimulation of hippocampus CA1 pyramidal neurons in freely moving mice could (a) cause morphological changes reminiscent of homeostatic scaling, (b) modulate synaptic currents that might compensate for chronic excitation, and (c) lead to alterations in Hebbian plasticity. After 24 hr of stimulation with 15‐ms blue light pulses every 90 s, dendritic spine density and area were reduced in the CA1 region of mice expressing channelrhodopsin‐2 (ChR2) when compared to controls. This protocol also reduced the amplitude of mEPSCs for both the AMPA and NMDA components in ex vivo slices obtained from ChR2‐expressing mice immediately after the end of stimulation. Finally, chronic stimulation impaired the induction of LTP and facilitated that of LTD in these slices. Our results indicate that neuronal responses to prolonged network excitation can modulate subsequent Hebbian plasticity in the hippocampus.
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8.
  • Nordin, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Structural whole-brain covariance of the anterior and posterior hippocampus : Associations with age and memory
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 28:2, s. 151-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampus (HC) interacts with distributed brain regions to support memory and shows significant volume reductions in aging, but little is known about age effects on hippocampal whole-brain structural covariance. It is also unclear whether the anterior and posterior HC show similar or distinct patterns of whole-brain covariance and to what extent these are related to memory functions organized along the hippocampal longitudinal axis. Using the multivariate approach partial least squares, we assessed structural whole-brain covariance of the HC in addition to regional volume, in young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 221), and assessed associations with episodic and spatial memory. Based on findings of sex differences in both memory and brain aging, we further considered sex as a potential modulating factor of age effects. There were two main covariance patterns: one capturing common anterior and posterior covariance, and one differentiating the two regions by capturing anterior-specific covariance only. These patterns were differentially related to associative memory while unrelated to measures of single-item memory and spatial memory. Although patterns were qualitatively comparable across age groups, participants' expression of both patterns decreased with age, independently of sex. The results suggest that the organization of hippocampal structural whole-brain covariance remains stable across age, but that the integrity of these networks decreases as the brain undergoes age-related alterations.
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9.
  • Persson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Hippocampal hemispheric and long-axis differentiation of stimulus content during episodic memory encoding and retrieval : An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 25:12, s. 1614-1631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While there is ample evidence that the hippocampus is functionally heterogeneous along its longitudinal axis, there is still no consensus regarding its exact organization. Whereas spatial memory tasks frequently engage the posterior hippocampus, the regions engaged during episodic memory are more varying and may depend on the specific nature of the stimuli. Here, we investigate the effect of stimulus content on the location of hippocampal recruitment during episodic memory encoding and retrieval of pictorial and verbal material with a meta-analysis approach, using activation likelihood estimation and restricting the analysis to the hippocampus. Verbal material was associated with left-lateralized anterior activation, compared to pictorial material that recruited a more posterior aspect of the hippocampus, primarily within the right hemisphere. This effect held for encoding of both single items and item-item associations but was less clear during retrieval. The findings lend further support to a functional subdivision of the hippocampus along its longitudinal axis and indicate that the content of episodic memories is one factor that determines the location of hippocampal recruitment.
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10.
  • Persson, Jonas, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting episodic and spatial memory performance from hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity : Evidence for an anterior-posterior division of function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 28:1, s. 53-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • fMRI studies have identified distinct resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) networks associated with the anterior and posterior hippocampus. However, the functional relevance of these two networks is still largely unknown. Hippocampal lesion studies and task-related fMRI point to a role for the anterior hippocampus in non-spatial episodic memory and the posterior hippocampus in spatial memory. We used Relevance Vector Regression (RVR), a machine-learning method that enables predictions of continuous outcome measures from multivariate patterns of brain imaging data, to test the hypothesis that patterns of whole-brain RSFC associated with the anterior hippocampus predict episodic memory performance, while patterns of whole-brain RSFC associated with the posterior hippocampus predict spatial memory performance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory assessment took place at two separate occasions. The anterior and posterior RSFC largely corresponded with previous findings, and showed no effect of laterality. Supporting the hypothesis, RVR produced accurate predictions of episodic performance from anterior, but not posterior, RSFC, and accurate predictions of spatial performance from posterior, but not anterior, RSFC. In contrast, a univariate approach could not predict performance from resting-state connectivity. This supports a functional dissociation between the anterior and posterior hippocampus, and indicates a multivariate relationship between intrinsic functional networks and cognitive performance within specific domains, that is relatively stable over time.
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