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1.
  • Batyrbekova, Nurgul, et al. (författare)
  • Hepatitis C virus infection and the temporal trends in the risk of liver cancer : a national register-based cohort study in Sweden
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 29:1, s. 63-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> In many countries, including Sweden, the birth cohorts with the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have now reached the ages with high risk of primary liver cancer (PLC). The aims were to investigate the temporal trends in PLC incidence and the relative risks of PLC among people diagnosed with HCV-infection between 1990 and 2015.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> The HCV-cohort (n: 52,853) was compared with a matched non-HCV comparison-cohort (n: 523,649). Both the Cancer (CR) and Death registers (DR) were used for follow-up. The crude and age-standardised PLC incidence rates were calculated. The relative risk was estimated as standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and as hazard ratios (HR) using stratified Cox hazards regression.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> There were 1,609 with PLC-diagnosis in the HCV-cohort, the annual number increased continuously with the crude incidence rate reaching 4.56 per 1,000 person-years in 2013, while remaining low and stable in the comparison-cohort. In the HCV-cohort, the age-standardised PLC incidence rates per 1,000 person-years remained relatively constant at 2.64 (95% CI: 1.54, 3.75) in 2000 and 3.31 (2.51, 4.12) in 2014. The highest SIR was 73 (65.9, 79.5) among those infected for 35-40 years; and the highest HR was 65.9 (55.9, 77.6) for men and 62.2 (31.9, 121.1) for women.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> There was a considerable increase in PLC-incidence over time and an extremely high relative risk in the population with HCV-infection for more than 35 years.</p><p><strong>IMPACT:</strong> The national HCV-associated PLC-incidence should be monitored in future studies to evaluate the effect of DAA-treatment.</p>
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2.
  • Xu, Xing, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms at the Microseminoprotein-beta locus associated with physiologic variation in beta-microseminoprotein and prostate-specific antigen levels
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 19:8, s. 2035-2042
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> rs10993994, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the genetic locus encoding β-microseminoprotein (β-MSP), is associated with both prostate cancer risk and levels of blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker used in prostate cancer screening. Therefore, we wished to determine the association between SNPs at <em>MSMB</em>, the gene encoding β-MSP, and the levels of prostate-produced biomarkers β-MSP, PSA, and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) in blood and semen.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Blood and semen from 304 healthy young Swedish men (ages 18-21) were assayed for β-MSP, PSA, and hK2. SNPs around <em>MSMB</em> were genotyped from matched DNA and analyzed for quantitative association with biomarker levels. Empirical <em>P</em> values were multiple test–corrected and the independence of each SNP's effect was determined.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> rs10993994 was significantly associated with the blood and semen levels of β-MSP (both <em>P</em> &lt; 1.0 × 10<sup>−7</sup>) and PSA (<em>P</em> = 0.00014 and <em>P</em> = 0.0019), and semen levels of hK2 (<em>P</em> = 0.00027). Additional copies of the prostate cancer risk allele resulted in lower β-MSP but higher PSA levels, and singly explained 23% and 5% of the variation seen in semen β-MSP and PSA, respectively. Additional SNPs at <em>MSMB</em> are associated with β-MSP and PSA independently of rs10993994.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> SNPs at <em>MSMB</em> correlate with physiologic variation in β-MSP and PSA levels in the blood and semen of healthy young Swedish men. In particular, rs10993994 has a strong effect on β-MSP levels.</p><p><strong>Impact:</strong> Our results suggest a mechanism by which rs10993994 might predispose to prostate cancer and raise the possibility that genetic variation might need to be considered in interpreting the levels of these biomarkers.</p>
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3.
  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).</p><p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p &lt;0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.</p><p><strong>IMPACT:</strong> The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.</p>
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4.
  • Ahlin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclin A is a proliferative marker with good prognostic value in node-negative breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 18:9, s. 2501-2506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Proliferative markers are not recommended as prognostic   factors for clinical use in breast cancer due to lack of   standardization in methodology. However, proliferation is driving   several gene expression signatures emphasizing the need for a reliable   proliferative marker IF or clinical use. Studies suggest that cyclin A   is a prognostic marker with satisfying reproducibility. We investigated   cyclin A as a prognostic marker in node-negative breast cancer using   previously defined cutoff values.   Patients and Methods: In a case-control study, we defined 190 women who   died from breast cancer as cases and 190 women alive at the time for   the corresponding case's death as controls. Inclusion criteria were   tumor size &lt;= 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no adjuvant   chemotherapy. Tumor tissues were immunostained for cyclin A using   commercially available antibodies.   Results: We found a statistically significant association between   expression of cyclin A and breast cancer death in a univariate model:   odds ratio for cyclin A(ave) 2.7 [95% confidence interval (CI),   1.7-4.3] and cyclin A(max) 3.4 (CI, 2.1-5.5). Corresponding odds ratio   for Ki67 were Ki67(ave) 1.9 (CI, 1.2-3.1) and Ki67(max) 1.7 (CI,   1.1-2.7) and for grade 3.1 (CI, 1.8-5.1). Cyclin A was strongly   correlated to Ki67 and grade why a model including all was not   appropriate.   Conclusions: Cyclin A is a prognostic factor for breast cancer death in   node-negative patients using standardized methodology regarding scoring   and cutoff values. Adding cyclin A as a proliferative marker to established clinicopathologic factors will improve the separation of  low and high risk breast cancer.</p>
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5.
  • Ahlin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclin A is a proliferative marker with good prognostic value in node-negative breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 18:9, s. 2501-2506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Proliferative markers are not recommended as prognostic factors for clinical use in breast cancer due to lack of standardization in methodology. However, proliferation is driving several gene expression signatures emphasizing the need for a reliable proliferative marker IF or clinical use. Studies suggest that cyclin A is a prognostic marker with satisfying reproducibility. We investigated cyclin A as a prognostic marker in node-negative breast cancer using previously defined cutoff values. Patients and Methods: In a case-control study, we defined 190 women who died from breast cancer as cases and 190 women alive at the time for the corresponding case's death as controls. Inclusion criteria were tumor size &lt;= 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no adjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor tissues were immunostained for cyclin A using commercially available antibodies. Results: We found a statistically significant association between expression of cyclin A and breast cancer death in a univariate model: odds ratio for cyclin A(ave) 2.7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-4.3] and cyclin A(max) 3.4 (CI, 2.1-5.5). Corresponding odds ratio for Ki67 were Ki67(ave) 1.9 (CI, 1.2-3.1) and Ki67(max) 1.7 (CI, 1.1-2.7) and for grade 3.1 (CI, 1.8-5.1). Cyclin A was strongly correlated to Ki67 and grade why a model including all was not appropriate. Conclusions: Cyclin A is a prognostic factor for breast cancer death in node-negative patients using standardized methodology regarding scoring and cutoff values. Adding cyclin A as a proliferative marker to established clinicopathologic factors will improve the separation of low and high risk breast cancer. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(9):2501-6)</p>
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6.
  • Ali, Alaa M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis : A Literature-Based Meta-analysis and Collaborative Analysis of Data for 29,239 Cases
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 23:6, s. 934-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. Methods: A MEDLINE search to identify studies published up to January 2013 was performed. We combined published estimates of survival time for "moderate drinkers" versus nondrinkers. An analysis of individual participant data using Cox regression was carried out using data from 11 case cohorts. Results: We identified 11 published studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption was not associated with overall survival [HR, 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.05], but there was some evidence of better survival associated with prediagnosis consumption (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.88). Individual data on alcohol consumption for 29,239 cases with 4,839 deaths were available from the 11 case cohorts, all of which had data on estrogen receptor (ER) status. For women with ER-positive disease, there was little evidence that pre-or postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. Conclusion: There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-negative disease. Impact: Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a major adverse effect on the survival of women with breast cancer.</p>
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7.
  • Amirian, E. Susan, et al. (författare)
  • Approaching a Scientific Consensus on the Association between Allergies and Glioma Risk : a report from the Glioma International Case-Control Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 25:2, s. 282-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Several previous studies have found inverse associations between glioma susceptibility and a history of allergies or other atopic conditions. Some evidence indicates that respiratory allergies are likely to be particularly relevant with regard to glioma risk. Using data from the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), we examined the effects of respiratory allergies and other atopic conditions on glioma risk. Methods: The GICC contains detailed information on history of atopic conditions for 4,533 cases and 4,171 controls, recruited from 14 study sites across five countries. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling to calculate meta-analysis ORs, we examined the associations between glioma and allergy status, respiratory allergy status, asthma, and eczema. Results: Having a history of respiratory allergies was associated with an approximately 30% lower glioma risk, compared with not having respiratory allergies (mOR, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.90). This association was similar when restricting to high-grade glioma cases. Asthma and eczema were also significantly protective against glioma. Conclusion: A substantial amount of data on the inverse association between atopic conditions and glioma has accumulated, and findings from the GICC study further strengthen the existing evidence that the relationship between atopy and glioma is unlikely to be coincidental. Impact: As the literature approaches a consensus on the impact of allergies in glioma risk, future research can begin to shift focus to what the underlying biologic mechanism behind this association may be, which could, in turn, yield new opportunities for immunotherapy or cancer prevention. (C) 2016 AACR.</p>
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8.
  • Arslan, Alan A., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Estrogen Metabolites and Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 23:7, s. 1290-1297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: It has been hypothesized that predominance of the 2-hydroxylation estrogen metabolism pathway over the 16 alpha-hydroxylation pathway may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: We examined the associations of invasive breast cancer risk with circulating 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone (16 alpha-OHE1), and the 2-OHE1: 16 alpha-OHE1 ratio in a case-control study of postmenopausal women nested within two prospective cohorts: the New York University Women's Health Study (NYUWHS) and the Northern Sweden Mammary Screening Cohort (NSMSC), with adjustment for circulating levels of estrone, and additional analyses by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status. Levels of 2-OHE1 and 16 alpha-OHE1 were measured using ESTRAMET 2/16 assay in stored serum or plasma samples from 499 incident breast cancer cases and 499 controls, who were matched on cohort, age, and date of blood donation. Results: Overall, no significant associations were observed between breast cancer risk and circulating levels of 2-OHE1, 16 alpha-OHE1, or their ratio in either cohort and in combined analyses. For 2-OHE1, there was evidence of heterogeneity by ER status in models adjusting for estrone (P &lt;= 0.03). We observed a protective association of 2-OHE1 with ER + breast cancer [multivariate-adjusted OR for a doubling of 2-OHE1, 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.94; P = 0.02)]. Conclusions: In this study, higher levels of 2-OHE1 were associated with reduced risk of ER + breast cancer in postmenopausal women after adjustment for circulating estrone. Impact: These results suggest that taking into account the levels of parent estrogens and ER status is important in studies of estrogen metabolites and breast cancer.</p>
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9.
  • Assi, Nada, et al. (författare)
  • Are Metabolic Signatures Mediating the Relationship between Lifestyle Factors and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk? Results from a Nested Case–Control Study in EPIC
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 27:5, s. 531-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> The "meeting-in-the-middle" (MITM) is a principle to identify exposure biomarkers that are also predictors of disease. The MITM statistical framework was applied in a nested case-control study of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), where healthy lifestyle index (HLI) variables were related to targeted serum metabolites.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> Lifestyle and targeted metabolomic data were available from 147 incident HCC cases and 147 matched controls. Partial least squares analysis related 7 lifestyle variables from a modified HLI to a set of 132 serum-measured metabolites and a liver function score. Mediation analysis evaluated whether metabolic profiles mediated the relationship between each lifestyle exposure and HCC risk.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Exposure-related metabolic signatures were identified. Particularly, the body mass index (BMI)-associated metabolic component was positively related to glutamic acid, tyrosine, PC aaC38:3, and liver function score and negatively to lysoPC aC17:0 and aC18:2. The lifetime alcohol-specific signature had negative loadings on sphingomyelins (SM C16:1, C18:1, SM(OH) C14:1, C16:1 and C22:2). Both exposures were associated with increased HCC with total effects (TE) = 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 0.93-1.62) and 1.40 (1.14-1.72), respectively, for BMI and alcohol consumption. Both metabolic signatures mediated the association between BMI and lifetime alcohol consumption and HCC with natural indirect effects, respectively, equal to 1.56 (1.24-1.96) and 1.09 (1.03-1.15), accounting for a proportion mediated of 100% and 24%.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In a refined MITM framework, relevant metabolic signatures were identified as mediators in the relationship between lifestyle exposures and HCC risk.</p><p><strong>Impact:</strong> The understanding of the biological basis for the relationship between modifiable exposures and cancer would pave avenues for clinical and public health interventions on metabolic mediators.</p>
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10.
  • Baltar, Valéria Troncoso, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking, secondhand smoke, and cotinine levels in a subset of EPIC cohort
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 20:5, s. 869-875
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum cotinine levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> From a study on lung cancer in the EPIC cohort, questionnaire information on smoking was collected at enrolment, and cotinine was measured in serum. Three statistical models were applied by using samples available in a cross-section design: (i) cotinine levels by categories combining smoking and SHS (<em>n</em> = 859); (ii) the effect of hours of passive smoking exposure in nonsmokers only (<em>n</em> = 107); (iii) the effect of the number of cigarettes consumed per day in current smokers only (<em>n</em> = 832). All models were adjusted for country, sex, age, and body mass index.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among nonsmokers, passive smokers presented significant differences in cotinine compared with nonexposed, with a marked (but not significant) difference among former-smokers. A one hour per day increment of SHS gave rise to a significant 2.58 nmol/L (0.45 ng/mL) increase in mean serum cotinine (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001). In current smokers, a one cigarette per day increment gave rise to a significant 22.44 nmol/L (3.95 ng/mL) increase in cotinine mean (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There is clear evidence that not only tobacco smoking but also involuntary exposure increases cotinine levels.</p> <p><strong>Impact:</strong> This study strengthens the evidence for the benefits of a smoking ban in public places.</p>
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