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1.
  • Syvänen, Ann-Christine (författare)
  • From gels to chips : "Minisequencing" primer extension for analysis of point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 13:1, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the minisequencing primer extension reaction, a DNA polymerase is used specifically to extend a primer that anneals immediately adjacent to the nucleotide position to be analyzed with a single labeled nucleoside triphospate complementary to the nucleotide at the variant site. The reaction allows highly specific detection of point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because all SNPs can be analyzed with high specificty at the same reaction conditions, minisequencing is a promising reaction principle for multiplex high-throughput genotyping assays. It is also a useful tool for accurate quantitative PCR-based analysis. This review discusses the different approaches, ranging from traditional gel-based formats to multiplex detection on microarrays that have been developed and applied to minisequencing assays.
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2.
  • Bjursell, Cecilia, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • PMM2 mutation spectrum, including 10 novel mutations, in a large CDG type 1A family material with a focus on Scandinavian families.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Human mutation. - 1098-1004 .- 1059-7794. ; 16:5, s. 395-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type IA (CDG IA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by severe involvement of the central and peripheral nervous system, and biochemically by complex defects in carbohydrate residues in a number of serum glycoproteins. CDG IA is caused by mutations in the PMM2 gene located in chromosome region 16p13. In this study, 61 CDG type IA patients (122 chromosomes) were screened for mutations in the PMM2 gene using a combination of SSCP and sequence analysis. More than 95% of the mutations could be detected. All of them were missense mutations. Mutations 422G>A and 357C>A were strikingly more common in the material and comprised 58% of mutations detected. Of the 20 mutations found, 10 were not reported previously. Seven mutations, e.g. 26G>A (five alleles) and 548T>C (seven alleles), were found only in Scandinavian families. The most common genotype was 357C>A/422G>A (36%). Three patients were homozygous, 357C>A/357C>A (two cases), and 548T>C/548T>C (one case). No patients homozygous for the most common mutation 422G>A were detected. The different mutations were clustered e.g., in that most were located in exon 5 (five) and exon 8 (six), while no mutation was detected in exon 2. When the frequencies of each mutation were included, exon 5 comprised 61% (65 chromosomes) of the mutations; in Scandinavian patients the frequency of these mutations was 72%. Thus, analysis of exon five in these patients enables both reliable and time-saving first screening in prenatal diagnostic cases. This could be followed by a second step of additional strategies for the detection of other mutations.
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3.
  • Abel, Olubunmi, et al. (författare)
  • ALSoD : A user-friendly online bioinformatics tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genetics
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 33:9, s. 1345-1351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the commonest adult onset motor neuron disease, with a peak age of onset in the seventh decade. With advances in genetic technology, there is an enormous increase in the volume of genetic data produced, and a corresponding need for storage, analysis, and interpretation, particularly as our understanding of the relationships between genotype and phenotype mature. Here, we present a system to enable this in the form of the ALS Online Database (ALSoD at http://alsod.iop.kcl.ac.uk), a freely available database that has been transformed from a single gene storage facility recording mutations in the SOD1 gene to a multigene ALS bioinformatics repository and analytical instrument combining genotype, phenotype, and geographical information with associated analysis tools. These include a comparison tool to evaluate genes side by side or jointly with user configurable features, a pathogenicity prediction tool using a combination of computational approaches to distinguish variants with nonfunctional characteristics from disease-associated mutations with more dangerous consequences, and a credibility tool to enable ALS researchers to objectively assess the evidence for gene causation in ALS. Furthermore, integration of external tools, systems for feedback, annotation by users, and two-way links to collaborators hosting complementary databases further enhance the functionality of ALSoD. Hum Mutat 33:1345-1351, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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4.
  • Ballantyne, Kaye N., et al. (författare)
  • Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 35:8, s. 1021-1032
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, greater than99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father-son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RMY-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database.
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5.
  • Bento, Celeste, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Basis of Congenital Erythrocytosis : Mutation Update and Online Databases
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 35:1, s. 15-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Congenital erythrocytosis (CE), or congenital polycythemia, represents a rare and heterogeneous clinical entity. It is caused by deregulated red blood cell production where erythrocyte overproduction results in elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Primary congenital familial erythrocytosis is associated with low erythropoietin (Epo) levels and results from mutations in the Epo receptor gene (EPOR). Secondary CE arises from conditions causing tissue hypoxia and results in increased Epo production. These include hemoglobin variants with increased affinity for oxygen (HBB, HBA mutations), decreased production of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate due to BPGM mutations, or mutations in the genes involved in the hypoxia sensing pathway (VHL, EPAS1, and EGLN1). Depending on the affected gene, CE can be inherited either in an autosomal dominant or recessive mode, with sporadic cases arising de novo. Despite recent important discoveries in the molecular pathogenesis of CE, the molecular causes remain to be identified in about 70% of the patients. With the objective of collecting all the published and unpublished cases of CE the COST action MPN&MPNr-Euronet developed a comprehensive Internet-based database focusing on the registration of clinical history, hematological, biochemical, and molecular data (http://www.erythrocytosis.org/). In addition, unreported mutations are also curated in the corresponding Leiden Open Variation Database.
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6.
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7.
  • Bladen, Catherine L., et al. (författare)
  • The TREAT-NMD Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Registries : Conception, Design, and Utilization by Industry and Academia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 34:11, s. 1449-1457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disease, caused by the absence of the dystrophin protein. Although many novel therapies are under development for DMD, there is currently no cure and affected individuals are often confined to a wheelchair by their teens and die in their twenties/thirties. DMD is a rare disease (prevalence<5/10,000). Even the largest countries do not have enough affected patients to rigorously assess novel therapies, unravel genetic complexities, and determine patient outcomes. TREAT-NMD is a worldwide network for neuromuscular diseases that provides an infrastructure to support the delivery of promising new therapies for patients. The harmonized implementation of national and ultimately global patient registries has been central to the success of TREAT-NMD. For the DMD registries within TREAT-NMD, individual countries have chosen to collect patient information in the form of standardized patient registries to increase the overall patient population on which clinical outcomes and new technologies can be assessed. The registries comprise more than 13,500 patients from 31 different countries. Here, we describe how the TREAT-NMD national patient registries for DMD were established. We look at their continued growth and assess how successful they have been at fostering collaboration between academia, patient organizations, and industry.
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8.
  • Blasco, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • A Rare Motor Neuron Deleterious Missense Mutation in the DPYSL3 (CRMP4) Gene is Associated with ALS
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 34:7, s. 953-960
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3) or Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 4a (CRMP4a) expression is modified in neurodegeneration and is involved in several ALS-associated pathways including axonal transport, glutamate excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. The objective of the study was to analyze CRMP4 as a risk factor for ALS. We analyzed the DPYSL3/CRMP4 gene in French ALS patients (n=468) and matched-controls (n=394). We subsequently examined a variant in a Swedish population (184 SALS, 186 controls), and evaluated its functional effects on axonal growth and survival in motor neuron cell culture. The rs147541241:A>G missense mutation occurred in higher frequency among French ALS patients (odds ratio=2.99) but the association was not confirmed in the Swedish population. In vitro expression of mutated DPYSL3 in motor neurons reduced axonal growth and accelerated cell death compared with wild type protein. Thus, the association between the rs147541241 variant and ALS was limited to the French population, highlighting the geographic particularities of genetic influences (risks, contributors). The identified variant appears to shorten motor neuron survival through a detrimental effect on axonal growth and CRMP4 could act as a key unifier in transduction pathways leading to neurodegeneration through effects on early axon development.
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9.
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10.
  • Borg, Kristian, et al. (författare)
  • Intragenic deletion of TRIM32 in compound heterozygotes with sarcotubular myopathy/LGMD2H
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 30:9, s. E831-E844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2005 the commonality of sarcotubular myopathy (STM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) was demonstrated, as both are caused by the p D487N missense mutation in TRIM32 originally found in the Manitoba Hutterite population. Recently, three novel homozygous TRIM32 mutations have been described in LGMD patients. Here we describe a three generation Swedish family clinically presenting with limb girdle muscular weakness and histological features of a microvacuolar myopathy. The two index patients were compound heterozygotes for a frameshift mutation in TRIM32 (c.1560delC ) and a 30 kb intragenic deletion, encompassing parts of intron 1 and the entire exon 2 of TRIM32. In these patients, no full-length or truncated TRIM32 could be detected. Interestingly, heterozygous family members carrying only one mutation showed mild clinical symptoms and vacuolar changes in muscle. In our family, the phenotype encompasses additionally a mild demyelinating polyneuropathic syndrome. Thus STM and LGMD2H are the result of loss of function mutations that can be either deletions or missense mutations. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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