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1.
  • Lindeberg, Tony, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of brain activation patterns using a 3-D scale-space primal sketch
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 7:3, s. 166-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A fundamental problem in brain imaging concerns how to define functional areas consisting of neurons that are activated together as populations. We propose that this issue can be ideally addressed by a computer vision tool referred to as the scale-space primal sketch. This concept has the attractive properties that it allows for automatic and simultaneous extraction of the spatial extent and the significance of regions with locally high activity. In addition, a hierarchical nested tree structure of activated regions and subregions is obtained. The subject in this article is to show how the scale-space primal sketch can be used for automatic determination of the spatial extent and the significance of rCBF changes. Experiments show the result of applying this approach to functional PET data, including a preliminary comparison with two more traditional clustering techniques. Compared to previous approaches, the method overcomes the limitations of performing the analysis at a single scale or assuming specific models of the data.
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2.
  • Abe, C., et al. (författare)
  • Cross-sex shifts in two brain imaging phenotypes and their relation to polygenic scores for same-sex sexual behavior: A study of 18,645 individuals from the UK Biobank
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 42:7, s. 2292-2304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic and hormonal factors have been suggested to influence human sexual orientation. Previous studied proposed brain differences related to sexual orientation and that these follow cross-sex shifted patterns. However, the neurobiological correlates of sexual orientation and how genetic factors relate to brain structural variation remains largely unexplored. Using the largest neuroimaging-genetics dataset available on same-sex sexual behavior (SSB) (n = 18,645), we employed a data-driven multivariate classification algorithm (PLS) on magnetic resonance imaging data from two imaging modalities to extract brain covariance patterns related to sex. Through analyses of latent variables, we tested for SSB-related cross-sex shifts in such patterns. Using genotype data, polygenic scores reflecting the genetic predisposition for SSB were computed and tested for associations with neuroimaging outcomes. Patterns important for classifying between males and females were less pronounced in non-heterosexuals. Predominantly in non-heterosexual females, multivariate brain patterns as represented by latent variables were shifted toward the opposite sex. Complementary univariate analyses revealed region specific SSB-related differences in both males and females. Polygenic scores for SSB were associated with volume of lateral occipital and temporo-occipital cortices. The present large-scale study demonstrates multivariate neuroanatomical correlates of SSB, and tentatively suggests that genetic factors related to SSB may contribute to structural variation in certain brain structures. These findings support a neurobiological basis to the differences in human sexuality.
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3.
  • Aghajani, Moji, et al. (författare)
  • Dissociable relations between amygdala subregional networks and psychopathy trait dimensions in conduct-disordered juvenile offenders
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - Hoboken, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 37:11, s. 4017-4033
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit-level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people. We addressed this important issue by uniquely examining the intrinsic functional connectivity of basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala networks in relation to affective, interpersonal, and behavioral traits of psychopathy, in conduct-disordered juveniles with a history of serious delinquency (N = 50, mean age = 16.83 ± 1.32). As predicted, amygdalar connectivity profiles exhibited dissociable relations with different traits of psychopathy. Interpersonal psychopathic traits not only related to increased connectivity of BLA and CMA with a corticostriatal network formation accommodating reward processing, but also predicted stronger CMA connectivity with a network of cortical midline structures supporting sociocognitive processes. In contrast, affective psychopathic traits related to diminished CMA connectivity with a frontolimbic network serving salience processing and affective responding. Finally, behavioral psychopathic traits related to heightened BLA connectivity with a frontoparietal cluster implicated in regulatory executive functioning. We suggest that these trait-specific shifts in amygdalar connectivity could be particularly relevant to the psychopathic phenotype, as they may fuel a self-centered, emotionally cold, and behaviorally disinhibited profile.
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4.
  • Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie, et al. (författare)
  • ENIGMA-anxiety working group : Rationale for and organization of large-scale neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling but seem particularly tractable to investigation with translational neuroscience methodologies. Neuroimaging has informed our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders, but research has been limited by small sample sizes and low statistical power, as well as heterogenous imaging methodology. The ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group has brought together researchers from around the world, in a harmonized and coordinated effort to address these challenges and generate more robust and reproducible findings. This paper elaborates on the concepts and methods informing the work of the working group to date, and describes the initial approach of the four subgroups studying generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. At present, the ENIGMA-Anxiety database contains information about more than 100 unique samples, from 16 countries and 59 institutes. Future directions include examining additional imaging modalities, integrating imaging and genetic data, and collaborating with other ENIGMA working groups. The ENIGMA consortium creates synergy at the intersection of global mental health and clinical neuroscience, and the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group extends the promise of this approach to neuroimaging research on anxiety disorders.
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5.
  • Burke, Sarah M., et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in own and other body perception
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 40:2, s. 474-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Own body perception, and differentiating and comparing one's body to another person's body, are common cognitive functions that have relevance for self-identity and social interactions. In several psychiatric conditions, including anorexia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, gender dysphoria, and autism spectrum disorder, self and own body perception, as well as aspects of social communication are disturbed. Despite most of these conditions having skewed prevalence sex ratios, little is known about whether the neural basis of own body perception differs between the sexes. We addressed this question by investigating brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Body Perception task in 15 male and 15 female healthy participants. Participants viewed their own body, bodies of same-sex, or opposite-sex other people, and rated the degree that they appeared like themselves. We found that men and women did not differ in the pattern of brain activation during own body perception compared to a scrambled control image. However, when viewing images of other bodies of same-sex or opposite-sex, men showed significantly stronger activations in attention-related and reward-related brain regions, whereas women engaged stronger activations in striatal, medial-prefrontal, and insular cortices, when viewing the own body compared to other images of the opposite sex. It is possible that other body images, particularly of the opposite sex, may be of greater salience for men, whereas images of own bodies may be more salient for women. These observations provide tentative neurobiological correlates to why women may be more vulnerable than men to conditions involving own body perception.
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6.
  • Burzynska, Agnieszka Z., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness is linked to executive functioning in adulthood and aging
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 33:7, s. 1607-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Executive functions that are dependent upon the frontal-parietal network decline considerably during the course of normal aging. To delineate neuroanatomical correlates of age-related executive impairment, we investigated the relation between cortical thickness and executive functioning in 73 younger (20-32 years) and 56 older (60-71 years) healthy adults. Executive functioning was assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Cortical thickness was measured at each location of the cortical mantle using surface-based segmentation procedures on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. For regions involved in WCST performance, such as the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, we found that thicker cortex was related to higher accuracy. Follow-up ROI-based analyses revealed that these associations were stronger in older than in younger adults. Moreover, among older adults, high and low performers differed in cortical thickness within regions generally linked to WCST performance. Our results indicate that the structural cortical correlates of executive functioning largely overlap with previously identified functional patterns. We conclude that structural preservation of relevant brain regions is associated with higher levels of executive performance in old age, and underscore the need to consider the heterogeneity of brain aging in relation to cognitive functioning.
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7.
  • Ching, C. R. K., et al. (författare)
  • What we learn about bipolar disorder from large-scale neuroimaging: Findings and future directions from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MRI-derived brain measures offer a link between genes, the environment and behavior and have been widely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). However, many neuroimaging studies of BD have been underpowered, leading to varied results and uncertainty regarding effects. The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Bipolar Disorder Working Group was formed in 2012 to empower discoveries, generate consensus findings and inform future hypothesis-driven studies of BD. Through this effort, over 150 researchers from 20 countries and 55 institutions pool data and resources to produce the largest neuroimaging studies of BD ever conducted. The ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group applies standardized processing and analysis techniques to empower large-scale meta- and mega-analyses of multimodal brain MRI and improve the replicability of studies relating brain variation to clinical and genetic data. Initial BD Working Group studies reveal widespread patterns of lower cortical thickness, subcortical volume and disrupted white matter integrity associated with BD. Findings also include mapping brain alterations of common medications like lithium, symptom patterns and clinical risk profiles and have provided further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of BD. Here we discuss key findings from the BD working group, its ongoing projects and future directions for large-scale, collaborative studies of mental illness.
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8.
  • Cocozza, Sirio, et al. (författare)
  • Default mode network modifications in Fabry disease : A resting-state fMRI study with structural correlations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : WILEY. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 39:4, s. 1755-1764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Default Mode Network (DMN) modifications in Fabry Disease (FD), and their possible correlations with structural alterations and neuropsychological scores. Thirty-two FD patients with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of classical FD (12 males, mean age 43.3 +/- 12.2) were enrolled, along with 35 healthy controls (HC) of comparable age and sex (14 males, mean age 42.1 +/- 14.5). Resting-State fMRI data were analyzed using a seed-based approach, with six different seeds sampling the main hubs of the DMN. Structural modifications were assessed by means of Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analyses. Between-group differences and correlations with neuropsychological variables were probed voxelwise over the whole brain. Possible correlations between FC modifications and global measures of microstructural alteration were also tested in FD patients with a partial correlation analysis. In the FD group, clusters of increased functional connectivity involving both supratentorial and infratentorial regions emerged, partially correlated to the widespread white matter (WM) damage found in these patients. No gray matter volume differences were found at VBM between the two groups. The connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus was significantly correlated with the Corsi block-tapping test results (p = .0001). Widespread DMN changes are present in FD patients that correlate with WM alterations and cognitive performance. Our results confirm the current view of a cerebral involvement in FD patients not simply associated to major cerebrovascular events, but also related to significant and diffuse microstructural and functional changes.
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9.
  • Comasco, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Emotional fronto-cingulate cortex activation and brain derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism in premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 35:9, s. 4450-4458
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is the prototypical sex-specific disorder in which symptom onset and offset require a particular hormonal milieu and for which there is moderate heritability. The present study investigated brain emotion processing in PMDD and healthy controls, as well as functional polymorphisms in two candidate genes for PMDD, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5-HTT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were genotyped in 31 patients with PMDD and 31 healthy controls. A subset of 16 patients and 15 controls participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging-sessions performing an emotion processing task; once in the mid-follicular, and once in the late luteal phase which corresponds with maximum severity of mood symptoms. Genotypes were not directly associated with PMDD. A main effect of group was found in the whole brain analysis, with patients having lower activation of the pre-genual anterior cingulate and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, independent of menstrual cycle phase. Post-hoc functional ROI analyses in the fronto-cingulate cluster showed no effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype but a genotype-by-group-by-phase interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met. Women with PMDD who were carriers of the Met-allele had lower fronto-cingulate cortex activation in the luteal phase compared to Met-allele carrying controls. The results provide suggestive evidence of impaired emotion-induced fronto-cingulate cortex activation in PMDD patients. Although limited by a small sample, the potential influence of BDNF Val66Met in PMDD is in line with preclinical findings. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. 
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10.
  • de Pierrefeu, Amicie, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of activation patterns preceding hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia using machine learning with structured sparsity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 39:4, s. 1777-1788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite significant progress in the field, the detection of fMRI signal changes during hallucinatory events remains difficult and time-consuming. This article first proposes a machine-learning algorithm to automatically identify resting-state fMRI periods that precede hallucinations versus periods that do not. When applied to whole-brain fMRI data, state-of-the-art classification methods, such as support vector machines (SVM), yield dense solutions that are difficult to interpret. We proposed to extend the existing sparse classification methods by taking the spatial structure of brain images into account with structured sparsity using the total variation penalty. Based on this approach, we obtained reliable classifying performances associated with interpretable predictive patterns, composed of two clearly identifiable clusters in speech-related brain regions. The variation in transition-to-hallucination functional patterns not only from one patient to another but also from one occurrence to the next (e.g., also depending on the sensory modalities involved) appeared to be the major difficulty when developing effective classifiers. Consequently, second, this article aimed to characterize the variability within the prehallucination patterns using an extension of principal component analysis with spatial constraints. The principal components (PCs) and the associated basis patterns shed light on the intrinsic structures of the variability present in the dataset. Such results are promising in the scope of innovative fMRI-guided therapy for drug-resistant hallucinations, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback.
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