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1.
  • Wang, Zhongmin, et al. (författare)
  • Blood pharmacokinetics of various monoclonal antibodies labeled with a new trifunctional chelating reagent for simultaneous conjugation with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid and biotin before radiolabeling.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 11:19 Pt 2, s. 7171-7177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Knowledge of the blood pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies is crucial in deciding the optimal time for starting the administration of a "clearing agent"or using a "clearing device." The primary purpose was to investigate whether the pharmacokinetics of various antibodies labeled with the same chelator and In-111 differed significantly after i.v. injection in immunocompetent rats. A new trifunctional chelator called "1033" containing a biotin and a radiometal chelation moiety is introduced, making it possible to use only one conjugation procedure for the antibody. Experimental Design: Sixty-five non - tumor-bearing rats were included and divided into four groups (I-IV). The blood pharmacokinetics was investigated for rituximab, BR96, and trastuzumab labeled with 1033 and In-111 (I-III). The whole-body activity and activity uptake in muscle, liver, and kidney, which might explain differences in the early pharmacokinetics in blood, were also measured. hMN14 labeled with another chelator [1,4,7,10 -tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)], but with the same radionuclide ((111) In-biotin-DOTA-hMN14), was studied (IV).The blood pharmacokinetics from another 15 tumor-bearing rats was compared with those of non-tumor-bearing rats (III) by injection of In-111-1033-BR96. Results: No statistical difference was detected between the groups regarding the blood pharmacokinetics of rituximab, BR96, or trastuzumab. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of In-111-biotin-DOTA-hMN14 exhibited a clear difference compared with others. There were no significant differences in the blood pharmacokinetics of In-111-1033-BR96 between tumor-bearing rats and non-tumor-bearing rats. Conclusions: Different antibodies labeled with the trifunctional chelator 1033 and In-111 did not exhibit different blood pharmacokinetics, which means that the pharmacokinetics could be predicted irrespective of the IgG1 antibody chosen. A small tumor burden did not change the pharmacokinetics of the radioimmunoconjugates.
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2.
  • Arbajian, Elsa, et al. (författare)
  • In-depth genetic analysis of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma reveals recurrent genomic alterations and potential treatment targets
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 23:23, s. 7426-7434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a highly aggressive soft tissue sarcoma closely related to low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Some tumors display morphological characteristics of both SEF and LGFMS, so called hybrid SEF/LGFMS. Despite the overlap of gene fusion variants between these two tumor types, SEF is much more aggressive. The present study aimed to further characterize SEF and hybrid SEF/LGFMS genetically in order to better understand the role of the characteristic fusion genes and possible additional genetic alterations in tumorigenesis.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed whole exome sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), global gene expression analyses and/or IHC on a series of 13 SEFs and 6 hybrid SEF/LGFMS. We also expressed the FUS-CREB3L2 and EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion genes conditionally in a fibroblast cell line; these cells were subsequently analyzed by RNA-seq and expression of the CD24 protein was assessed by FACS analysis.RESULTS: The SNP array analysis detected a large number of structural aberrations in SEF and SEF/LGFMS, many of which were recurrent, notably DMD microdeletions. RNA-seq identified FUS-CREM and PAX5-CREB3L1 as alternative fusion genes in one SEF each. CD24 was strongly upregulated, presumably a direct target of the fusion proteins. This was further confirmed by the gene expression analysis and FACS analysis on Tet-On 3G cells expressing EWSR1-CREB3L1.CONCLUSIONS: While gene fusions are the primary tumorigenic events in both SEF and LGFMS, additional genomic changes explain the differences in aggressiveness and clinical outcome between the two types. CD24 and DMD constitute potential therapeutic targets.
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3.
  • Badn, Wiaam, et al. (författare)
  • Low-dose combretastatin A4 phosphate enhances the immune response of tumor hosts to experimental colon carcinoma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 12:15, s. 4714-4719
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Although there is a need to enhance the therapeutic efficiency in cancer by combining immunotherapeutic procedures with other therapy, combination with chemotherapy is complicated due to immunosuppressive effects of most chemotherapeutic drugs. The purpose of this investigation was to study whether combining tumor cell immunization with the vascular targeting drug combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) would enhance tumor retardation and/or affect the antitumor immune response. Experimental Design: Rats with intrahepatic colon carcinoma were immunized weekly with IL-18/IFN gamma-transfected tumor cells, starting day 9, and were treated with a low-dose CA4P (2 mg/kg, 5 days a week starting day 7). The effect of CA4P was studied on tumor growth and on immune reactivity in vitro. Results: Rats with preexisting tumor, immunized and treated with low-dose CA4P, had a significantly retarded tumor growth compared with rats receiving CA4P or immunization alone. Splenocytes from rats treated with this combination had a significantly enhanced antitumor immune response compared with splenocytes from control rats. Exposure of nonadherent splenocytes to CA4P in vitro did not enhance their proliferation. However, 3-hour pretreatment of adherent splenocytes with 0.3 mu g/mL CA4P significantly enhanced proliferation and IFN gamma production of admixed nonadherent splenocytes, partly due to nitric oxide reduction. Combining the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester with CA4P and immunization further retarded tumor growth. Conclusion: Concomitant treatment of rats with progressively growing tumor with immunization and low-dose CA4P significantly enhances the therapeutic effect as compared with either treatment alone and results in an enhanced antitumor immune reactivity.
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4.
  • Bast, Robert C Jr, et al. (författare)
  • Translational crossroads for biomarkers
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 11:17, s. 6103-6108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A group of investigators met at a Specialized Programs of Research Excellence Workshop to discuss key issues in the translation of biomarker discovery to the development of useful laboratory tests for cancer care. Development and approval of several new markers and technologies have provided informative examples that include more specific markers for prostate cancer, more sensitive tests for ovarian cancer, more objective analysis of tissue architecture and an earlier indication of response to treatment in breast cancer. Although there is no clear paradigm for biomarker development, several principles are clear. Marker development should be driven by clinical needs, including early cancer detection, accurate pretreatment staging, and prediction of response to treatment, as well as monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. Development of a national repository that uses carefully preserved, well-annotated tissue specimens will facilitate new marker development. Reference standards will be an essential component of this process. Both hospital-based and commercial laboratories can play a role in developing biomarkers from discovery to test validation. Partnering of academe and industry should occur throughout the process of biomarker development. The National Cancer Institute is in a unique position to bring together academe, industry, and the Food and Drug Administration to (a) define clinical needs for biomarkers by tumor type, (b) establish analytic and clinical paradigms for biomarker development, (c) discuss ways in which markers from different companies might be evaluated in combination, (d) establish computational methods to combine data from multiple biomarkers, (e) share information regarding promising markers developed in National Cancer Institute-supported programs, and (f) exchange data regarding new platforms and techniques that can accelerate marker development.
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5.
  • Binzer-Panchal, Amrei, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated molecular analysis of undifferentiated uterine sarcomas reveals clinically relevant molecular subtypes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 25:7, s. 2155-2165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS) are rare, extremely deadly, sarcomas with no effective treatment. The goal of this study was to identify novel intrinsic molecular UUS subtypes using integrated clinical, histopathologic, and molecular evaluation of a large, fully annotated, patient cohort. Experimental Design: Fifty cases of UUS with full clinicopathologic annotation were analyzed for gene expression (n ¼ 50), copy-number variation (CNV, n ¼ 40), cell morphometry (n ¼ 39), and protein expression (n ¼ 22). Gene ontology and network enrichment analysis were used to relate over- and underexpressed genes to pathways and further to clinicopathologic and phenotypic findings. Results: Gene expression identified four distinct groups of tumors, which varied in their clinicopathologic parameters. Gene ontology analysis revealed differential activation of pathways related to genital tract development, extracellular matrix (ECM), muscle function, and proliferation. A multi-variable, adjusted Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that RNA group, mitotic index, and hormone receptor expression influence patient overall survival (OS). CNV arrays revealed characteristic chromosomal changes for each group. Morphometry demonstrated that the ECM group, the most aggressive, exhibited a decreased cell density and increased nuclear area. A cell density cutoff of 4,300 tumor cells per mm 2 could separate ECM tumors from the remaining cases with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 94%. IHC staining of MMP-14, Collagens 1 and 6, and Fibronectin proteins revealed differential expression of these ECM-related proteins, identifying potential new biomarkers for this aggressive sarcoma subgroup. Conclusions: Molecular evaluation of UUS provides novel insights into the biology, prognosis, phenotype, and possible treatment of these tumors.
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6.
  • Bjarnadottir, Olöf, et al. (författare)
  • Global transcriptional changes following statin treatment in breast cancer.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 21:15, s. 3402-3411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Statins purportedly exert anti-tumoral effects, but the underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore potential statin-induced effects on global gene expression profiles in primary breast cancer.
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7.
  • Bjartell, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Association of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 and beta-microseminoprotein with outcome after radical prostatectomy
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 13:14, s. 4130-4138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: It has been suggested that cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) and p-microseminoprotein (MSP) are associated with outcome in prostate cancer. We investigated whether these markers are related to biochemical recurrence and whether addition of the markers improves prediction of recurring disease. Experimental Design: Tissue microarrays of radical prostatectomy specimens were analyzed for CRISP-3 and MSP by immunohistochemistry. Associations between marker positivity and postprostatectomy biochemical recurrence [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 0.2 ng/mL with a confirmatory level] were evaluated by univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analyses controlled for preoperative PSA and pathologic stage and grade. Results: Among 945 patients, 224 had recurrence. Median follow-up for survivors was 6.0 years. Patients positive for CRISP-3 had smaller recurrence-free probabilities, whereas MSP-positive patients had larger recurrence-free probabilities. On univariate analysis, the hazard ratio for patients positive versus negative for CRISP-3 was 1.53 (P =0.010) and for MSP was 0.63 (P = 0.004). On multivariable analysis, both CRISP-3 (P = 0.007) and MSP (P = 0.002) were associated with recurrence. The hazard ratio among CRISP-3-positive/MSP-negative patients compared with CRISP-3-negative/MSP-positive patients was 2.38. Adding CRISP-3 to a base model that included PSA and pathologic stage and grade did not enhance the prediction of recurrence, but adding MSP increased the concordance index minimally from 0.778 to 0.781. Conclusion: We report evidence that CRISP-3 and MSP are independent predictors of recurrence after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. However, addition of the markers does not importantly improve the performance of existing predictive models. Further research should aim to elucidate the functions of CRISP-3 and MSP in prostate cancer cells.
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8.
  • Bjartell, Anders (författare)
  • New Hope in Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine? miRNA Replacement and Epigenetics
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 25:9, s. 2679-2681
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SPINK1+/ETS- prostate cancer is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. New data suggest a novel treatment by upregulating the expression of miR-338-5p/-421 through epigenetic modulation or by miRNA replacement. This is a new and interesting concept that warrants further exploration in clinical trials.See related article by Bhatia et al., p. 2755.
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9.
  • Brennan, Donal J, et al. (författare)
  • Altered cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin is a prognostic indicator in breast cancer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 14:9, s. 2681-2689
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Survivin (BIRC5) is a promising tumor biomarker. Conflicting data exist on its prognostic effect in breast cancer. These data may at least be partly due to the manual interpretation of immunohistochemical staining, especially as survivin can be located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Quantitative determination of survivin expression using image analysis offers the opportunity to develop alternative scoring models for survivin immunohistochemistry. Here, we present such a model. Experimental Design: A breast cancer tissue microarray containing 102 tumors was stained with an anti-survivin antibody. Whole-slide scanning was used to capture high-resolution images. These images were analyzed using automated algorithms to quantify the staining. Results: Increased nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, survivin was associated with a reduced overall survival (OS; P = 0.038) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.0015). A high cytoplasmicto-nuclear ratio (CNR) of survivin was associated with improved OS (P = 0.005) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the survivin CNR was an independent predictor of CIS (hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.76; P = 0.027). A survivin CNR of >5 correlated positively with estrogen receptor (P = 0.019) and progesterone receptor (P = 0.033) levels, whereas it was negatively associated with Ki-67 expression (P = 0.04), p53 status (P = 0.005), and c-myc amplification (P = 0.016). Conclusion: Different prognostic information is supplied by nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in breast cancer. Nuclear survivin is a poor prognostic marker in breast cancer. Moreover, CNR of survivin, as determined by image analysis, is an independent prognostic factor.
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10.
  • Brennan, Donal J., et al. (författare)
  • CA IX is an independent prognostic marker in premenopausal breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes and a putative marker of radiation resistance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 12:21, s. 6421-6431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Hypoxia in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis and down-regulation of the estrogen receptor. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-inducible gene that has been associated with poor outcome in many epithelial cancers. Previous studies of CA IX in breast cancer have been carried out on mixed cohorts of premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with locally advanced disease and varying treatment regimens. We examined the potential prognostic and predictive role of CA IX in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Experimental Design: Using tissue microarrays, we analyzed CA IX expression in 400 stage 11 breast cancers from premenopausal women. The patients had previously participated in a randomized control trial comparing 2 years of tamoxifen to no systemic adjuvant treatment. Median follow-up was 13.9 years. Results: CA IX expression correlated positively with tumor size, grade, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha Ki-67, cyclin E, and cyclin A2 expression. CA IX expression correlated negatively with cyclin D1, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. CA IX expression was associated with a reduced relapse-free survival (P = 0.032), overall survival (P = 0.022), and breast cancer specific survival (P = 0.005). Multivariate analysis revealed that CA IX was an independent prognostic marker in untreated patients with one to three positive lymph nodes (hazard ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-9.13; P = 0.027). Conclusion: CA IX is marker of poor prognosis in premenopausal breast cancer patients and it is an independent predictor of survival in patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. As all these patients received locoregional radiation therapy, CA IX may be associated with resistance to radiotherapy.
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