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1.
  • Mehic, Merima, Sr., et al. (författare)
  • The role of deubiquitinating enzyme USP17, hyaluronan synthase 2, and hyaluronan in non-small-cell lung cancer oncogenic transformation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 24:1, s. 96-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Introduction: Lung cancer is the result of a multistep accumulation of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations; therefore, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism by which these alterations affect lung cancer pathogenesis would provide new diagnostic procedures and prognostic factors for early detection of recurrence. The remarkable qualitative and quantitative modifications of extracellular matrix components as the deubiquitinating enzyme (USP17), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthases 2 (HAS 2) may favor invasion, cellular motility, and proliferation in several cancers including lung.</p><p>Results: The silencing of USP17 led to decreased hyaluronan production, whereas the suppression of USP4 increased hyaluronan synthesis. Importantly, high levels of USP17 and HAS2 were detected in a panel of cancer cell lines compared to normal cells, and immunohistochemical stainings revealed higher expression of USP17 and HAS2 in tissues of lung cancer patients compared to normal tissue. Numerous epithelial cells expressed USP17 and HAS2 in dysplasia compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) (p=0.001). USP17 and HAS2 were prominently expressed in adenocarcinoma (ADC) (p≤0.005). HA immunostaining indexes were increased in ADC and SqCC compared to normal and dysplasia cells (p=0.05). Consistent with the immunohistochemical analyses, low amounts of hyaluronan and USP17 were observed in SqCC by confocal analysis, coincident with less colocalization as determined by confocal microscopy. In contrast, a high expression of hyaluronan (48% of positive index) and high USP17 expression (78% of positive index) in ADC was consistent with a higher degree of colocalization.</p><p>Conclusions: HAS2, hyaluronan and USP17 were expressed at higher levels in particular in preneoplastic lesions and ADC, suggesting a role in NSCLC oncogenic transformation, possibly by promoting cellular division by USP17-mediated. Elucidation of the mechanism of how USP17 and HAS2 cooperate in the regulation of the cell cycle might be of therapeutic importance.</p>
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2.
  • Yang, Meng, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnosis leukocyte telomere length and risk of ovarian cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Introduction: Ovarian cancer is characterized by substantial genomic instability. Telomeres, which protect the physical integrity of chromosomes, are shortened by each cell division, and evidence supports that longer telomeres may reduce genomic instability. While retrospective studies generally support an inverse association of telomere length and ovarian cancer risk, the measures of telomere length after diagnosis may be influenced by treatment. Therefore, we examined the relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) assessed prior to diagnosis and risk of ovarian cancer in three prospective studies. Methods: We used buffy coat samples collected from healthy participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS). Women who later developed ovarian cancer were matched to one or two controls on age, menopausal status, and date of blood collection. LTL was assessed using quantitative PCR-based assays in 5 batches with coefficients of variation of 10-15%. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, based on study-specific quartiles in controls, for each study separately. We used fixed-effects models for meta-analysis. Multivariate models adjusted for oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, family history of ovarian cancer, parity, smoking status, and body mass index. Results: In total, there were 487 cases and 810 controls across the three studies. The mean age at blood collection ranged from 45 (NHSII) to 57 (NHS) years. In unadjusted and multivariate models, we observed a suggestion of an inverse association between LTL and ovarian cancer risk in each study, although none of the trend tests were statistically significant. In a meta-analysis of the multivariate adjusted models, women in the longest versus shortest quartile of LTL had a non-significant 26% lower risk of ovarian cancer (OR=0.74; 95%CI=0.49-1.12; p-trend=0.33). Conclusion: In this first prospective study of telomere length and ovarian cancer risk, we observed that longer leukocyte telomere length was suggestively associated with lower ovarian cancer risk. Given that serous tumors are more likely to exhibit genomic instability, we are currently evaluating the association for this subtype as well as conducting pooled analyses with common quartile cut points across studies.</p>
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3.
  • Bostner, Josefine, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen Receptor-alpha Phosphorylation at Serine 305, Nuclear p21-Activated Kinase 1 Expression, and Response to Tamoxifen in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research, Inc.. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 16:5, s. 1624-1633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose: In vitro, p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) phosphorylates the serine 305 residue of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and influences the response of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. We investigated the influence of Pak1 and pER alpha(ser305) on breast cancer prognosis and results of tamoxifen therapy. Experimental Design: We examined Pak1 and pER alpha(ser305) protein by immunohistochemistry in a series of 912 tumors from node-negative breast cancer patients randomized to tamoxifen or no adjuvant endocrine treatment. Results: Cytoplasmic Pak1 correlated to large tumors and ER negativity, whereas nuclear Pak1 and pER alpha(ser305) correlated to small tumors and ER positivity. Nuclear expression of Pak1 and pER alpha(ser305) predicted reduced response to tamoxifen in patients with ER alpha-positive tumors (tamoxifen versus no tamoxifen: hazard ratio (HR), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.42-4.2; P = 0.63), whereas patients lacking this combination benefitted significantly from tamoxifen (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.30-0.62; P less than 0.0001). Similar nonsignificant trends were detected in analyses of the proteins separately. Pak1 in the cytoplasm was an independent prognostic marker, indicating increased recurrence rate (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.17-2.74; P = 0.0068) and breast cancer mortality (HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.14-3.46; P = 0.016) for patients randomized to no adjuvant treatment. Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients with tumors expressing Pak1 and pER alpha(ser305) in combination are a group in which tamoxifen treatment is insufficient. In addition, the pathway may be of interest as a drug target in breast cancer. Furthermore, the findings support previous studies showing that Pak1 has differential roles in the cytoplasm and the nucleus.</p>
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4.
  • Thielen, Noortje, et al. (författare)
  • Leukemic Stem Cell Quantification in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Predicts Response to Nilotinib Therapy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 22:16, s. 4030-4038
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose: Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) may harbor important resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We identified Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive CD34(+)CD38(-) bone marrow cells (here denoted LSCs) and addressed their response-predictive value in patients with CML (n = 48) subjected to nilotinib in the ENEST1st trial (NCT01061177). Experimental design: Two flow cytometry-based cell sorting methods were used with multiparameter-directed CD45-(MPFC) and BCR-ABL1 probe-linked (FISH) identification of Ph-positive cells, respectively. Results: We observed a positive correlation between the proportion of LSCs at diagnosis and established prognostic markers (blast count, spleen size, Sokal score, and hemoglobin). Conversely, a high LSC burden predicted for an inferior molecular response at 3 (MPFC and FISH), 6 (MPFC), 9 (FISH), and 15 months (FISH). During nilotinib therapy, the proportion of LSCs decreased rapidly. At 3 months, a median of only 0.3% LSCs remained among CD34(+)CD38(-) cells, and in 33% of the patients the LSC clone was not detectable anymore (FISH). The response kinetics was similar in LSC fractions as it was in the progenitor and unseparated bone marrow cell fractions. Conclusions: The proportion of LSCs at diagnosis, as analyzed by two independent methodologies, reflects the biology of the disease and appeared as a prognostic and response-predictive marker in patients with CML subjected to first-line nilotinib therapy. (C) 2016 AACR.</p>
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5.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • Familial breast cancers without mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 have low cyclin E and high cyclin D1 in contrast to cancers in BRCA mutation carriers
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 14:7, s. 1976-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>PURPOSE: We analyzed the expression of critical cell cycle regulators cyclin E and cyclin D1 in familial breast cancer, focusing on BRCA mutation-negative tumors. Cyclin E expression in tumors of BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers is higher, and cyclin D1 expression lower, than in sporadic tumors. In familial non-BRCA1/2 tumors, cyclin E and cyclin D1 expression has not been studied. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cyclin E and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical expression was studied in tissue microarrays consisting of 53 BRCA1, 58 BRCA2, 798 familial non-BRCA1/2, and 439 sporadic breast tumors. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, BRCA1 tumors had significantly more frequently high cyclin E (88%) and low cyclin D1 (84%) expression than sporadic (54% and 49%, respectively) or familial non-BRCA1/2 (38% and 45%, respectively) tumors. BRCA2 tumors had significantly more frequently low cyclin D1 expression (68%) than sporadic or familial non-BRCA1/2 tumors and significantly more frequently high cyclin E expression than familial non-BRCA1/2 tumors. In a logistic regression model, cyclin expression, early age of onset, and estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status were the independent factors most clearly distinguishing tumors of BRCA1 mutation carriers from other familial breast cancers. High cyclin E and low cyclin D1 expression were also independent predictors of BRCA2 mutation when compared with familial non-BRCA1/2 tumors. Most interestingly, lower frequency of high cyclin E expression independently distinguished familial non-BRCA1/2 tumors also from sporadic ones. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclin E and cyclin D1 expression distinguishes non-BRCA1/2 tumors from both sporadic and BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated tumors and may reflect different predisposition and pathogenesis in these groups.</p>
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8.
  • Apellániz-Ruiz, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted sequencing reveals low-frequency variants in EPHA genes as markers of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association of Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 23:5, s. 1227-1235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>PURPOSE:</strong> Neuropathy is the dose limiting toxicity of paclitaxel and a major cause for decreased quality of life. Genetic factors have been shown to contribute to paclitaxel neuropathy susceptibility; however, the major causes for inter-individual differences remain unexplained. In this study we identified genetic markers associated with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy through massive sequencing of candidate genes.</p><p><strong>EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:</strong> We sequenced the coding region of 4 EPHA genes, 5 genes involved in paclitaxel pharmacokinetics and 30 Charcot-Marie-Tooth genes, in 228 cancer patients with no/low neuropathy or high grade neuropathy during paclitaxel treatment. An independent validation series included 202 paclitaxel-treated patients. Variation-/ gene-based analyses were used to compare variant frequencies among neuropathy groups and Cox regression models were used to analyze neuropathy evolution along treatment.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Gene-based analysis identified EPHA6 as the gene most significantly associated with paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Low frequency non-synonymous variants in EPHA6 were present exclusively in patients with high neuropathy and all affected the ligand binding domain. Accumulated dose analysis in the discovery series showed a significantly higher neuropathy risk for EPHA5/6/8 low-frequency non-synonymous variant carriers (HR=14.60, 95%CI=2.33-91.62, P=0.0042) and an independent cohort confirmed an increased neuropathy risk (HR=2.07, 95%CI=1.14-3.77, P=0.017). Combining the series gave an estimated 2.50-fold higher risk of neuropathy (95%CI=1.46-4.31; P=9.1x10(-4)).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> This first study sequencing EPHA genes revealed that low frequency variants in EPHA6, EPHA5 and EPHA8 contribute to the susceptibility to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Furthermore, EPHAs neuronal injury repair function suggests that these genes might constitute important neuropathy markers for many neurotoxic drugs.</p>
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9.
  • Armstrong, A J, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Survival and Biomarker Correlates of Tasquinimod Efficacy in a Multicenter Randomized Study of Men with Minimally Symptomatic Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 19:24, s. 6891-6901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>PURPOSE:</strong> Tasquinimod (Active Biotech) is an oral immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-metastatic agent that delayed metastatic disease progression in a randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we report long-term survival with biomarker correlates from this trial.</p><p><strong>EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:</strong> Two hundred and one (134 tasquinimod and 67 placebo) men with mCRPC were evaluated. Forty-one men randomized to placebo crossed over to tasquinimod. Survival data were collected with a median follow-up time of 37 months. Exploratory biomarker studies at baseline and over time were collected to evaluate potential mechanism-based correlates with tasquinimod efficacy including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> With 111 mortality events, median OS was 33.4 months for tasquinimod versus 30.4 months for placebo overall, and 34.2 versus 27.1 months in men with bone metastases (n = 136), respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated an adjusted HR of 0.52 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.78; P = 0.001] for PFS and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.42-0.97; P = 0.034) for OS, favoring tasquinimod. Time-to-symptomatic progression was improved with tasquinimod (P = 0.039, HR = 0.42). Toxicities tended to be mild in nature and improved over time. Biomarker analyses suggested a favorable impact on bone alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) over time and a transient induction of inflammatory biomarkers, VEGF-A, and thrombospondin-1 levels with tasquinimod. Baseline levels of thrombospondin-1 less than the median were predictive of treatment benefit.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The survival observed in this trial of men with minimally symptomatic mCRPC suggests that the prolongation in PFS with tasquinimod may lead to a survival advantage in this setting, particularly among men with skeletal metastases, and has a favorable risk:benefit ratio. </p>
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10.
  • Bahce, Idris, et al. (författare)
  • Development of [11C]erlotinib Positron Emission Tomography for In Vivo Evaluation of EGF Receptor Mutational Status
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 19:1, s. 183-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>PURPOSE: To evaluate whether, in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), tumor uptake of [(11)C]erlotinib can be quantified and imaged using positron emission tomography and to assess whether the level of tracer uptake corresponds with the presence of activating tumor EGF receptor (EGFR) mutations.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ten patients with NSCLCs, five with an EGFR exon 19 deletion, and five without were scanned twice (test retest) on the same day with an interval of at least 4 hours. Each scanning procedure included a low-dose computed tomographic scan, a 10-minute dynamic [(15)O]H(2)O scan, and a 1-hour dynamic [(11)C]erlotinib scan. Data were analyzed using full tracer kinetic modeling. EGFR expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: The quantitative measure of [(11)C]erlotinib uptake, that is, volume of distribution (V(T)), was significantly higher in tumors with activating mutations, that is, all with exon 19 deletions (median V(T), 1.76; range, 1.25-2.93), than in those without activating mutations (median V(T), 1.06; range, 0.67-1.22) for both test and retest data (P = 0.014 and P = 0.009, respectively). Good reproducibility of [(11)C]erlotinib V(T) was seen (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.88). Intergroup differences in [(11)C]erlotinib uptake were not correlated with EGFR expression levels, nor tumor blood flow.CONCLUSION: [(11)C]erlotinib V(T) was significantly higher in NSCLCs tumors with EGFR exon 19 deletions.</p>
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