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1.
  • Alexeyenko, Andrey, et al. (författare)
  • Global networks of functional coupling in eukaryotes from comprehensive data integration
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 19:6, s. 1107-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>No single experimental method can discover all connections in the interactome. A computational approach can help by integrating data from multiple, often unrelated, proteomics and genomics pipelines. Reconstructing global networks of functional coupling (FC) faces the challenges of scale and heterogeneity--how to efficiently integrate huge amounts of diverse data from multiple organisms, yet ensuring high accuracy. We developed FunCoup, an optimized Bayesian framework, to resolve these issues. Because interactomes comprise functional coupling of many types, FunCoup annotates network edges with confidence scores in support of different kinds of interactions: physical interaction, protein complex member, metabolic, or signaling link. This capability boosted overall accuracy. On the whole, the constructed framework was comprehensively tested to optimize the overall confidence and ensure seamless, automated incorporation of new data sets of heterogeneous types. Using over 50 data sets in seven organisms and extensively transferring information between orthologs, FunCoup predicted global networks in eight eukaryotes. For the Ciona intestinalis network, only orthologous information was used, and it recovered a significant number of experimental facts. FunCoup predictions were validated on independent cancer mutation data. We show how FunCoup can be used for discovering candidate members of the Parkinson and Alzheimer pathways. Cross-species pathway conservation analysis provided further support to these observations.</p>
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2.
  • Alfoeldi, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomics as a tool to understand evolution and disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 23:7, s. 1063-1068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>When the human genome project started, the major challenge was how to sequence a 3 billion letter code in an organized and cost-effective manner. When completed, the project had laid the foundation for a huge variety of biomedical fields through the production of a complete human genome sequence, but also had driven the development of laboratory and analytical methods that could produce large amounts of sequencing data cheaply. These technological developments made possible the sequencing of many more vertebrate genomes, which have been necessary for the interpretation of the human genome. They have also enabled large-scale studies of vertebrate genome evolution, as well as comparative and human medicine. In this review, we give examples of evolutionary analysis using a wide variety of time frames-from the comparison of populations within a species to the comparison of species separated by at least 300 million years. Furthermore, we anticipate discoveries related to evolutionary mechanisms, adaptation, and disease to quickly accelerate in the coming years.</p>
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3.
  • Andersen, M. R., et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 21:6, s. 885-897
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook wholegenome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence, and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was used to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 Mb of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis supported up-regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases, and protein transporters in the protein producing CBS 513.88 strain. Our results and data sets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi
4.
  • Andersson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Complete sequence of a 93.4 kb contig from chromosome 3 of Trypanosoma cruzi containing a strand switch region
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 8:8, s. 809-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We have initiated large-scale sequencing of the third smallest chromosome of the CL Brener strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and we report here the complete sequence of a contig consisting of three cosmids. This contig covers 93.4 kb and has been found to contain 20-30 novel genes and several repeat elements, including a novel chromosome 3-specific 400-bp repeat sequence. The intergenic sequences were found to be rich in di- and trinucleotide repeats of varying lengths and also contained several known T. cruzi repeat elements. The sequence contains 29 open reading frames (ORFs) longer than 700 bp, the longest being 5157 bp, and a large number of shorter ORFs. Of the long ORFs, seven show homology to known genes in parasites and other organisms, whereas four ORFs were confirmed by sequencing of cDNA clones. Two shorter ORFs were confirmed by a database homology and a cDNA clone, respectively, and one RNA gene was identified. The identified genes include two copies of the gene for alanine-aminotransferase as well as genes for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, protein kinases and phosphatases, and an ATP synthase subunit. An interesting feature of the sequence was that the genes appear to be organized in two long clusters containing multiple genes on the same strand. The two clusters are transcribed in opposite directions and they are separated by an approximately 20-kb long, relatively GC-rich sequence, that contains two large repetitive elements as well as a pseudogene for cruzipain and a gene for U2snRNA. It is likely that this strand switch region contains one or more regulatory and promoter regions. The reported sequence provides the first insight into the genome organization of T. cruzi and shows the potential of this approach for rapid identification of novel genes. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. AF052831-AF052833.]</p>
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5.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • Gene flow, ancient polymorphism, and ecological adaptation shape the genomic landscape of divergence among Darwin's finches
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 27, s. 1004-1015
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genomic comparisons of closely related species have identified "islands" of locally elevated sequence divergence. Genomic islands may contain functional variants involved in local adaptation or reproductive isolation and may therefore play an important role in the speciation process. However, genomic islands can also arise through evolutionary processes unrelated to speciation, and examination of their properties can illuminate how new species evolve. Here, we performed scans for regions of high relative divergence (F-ST) in 12 species pairs of Darwin's finches at different genetic distances. In each pair, we identify genomic islands that are, on average, elevated in both relative divergence (F-ST) and absolute divergence (d(XY)). This signal indicates that haplotypes within these genomic regions became isolated from each other earlier than the rest of the genome. Interestingly, similar numbers of genomic islands of elevated d(XY) are observed in sympatric and allopatric species pairs, suggesting that recent gene flow is not a major factor in their formation. We find that two of the most pronounced genomic islands contain the ALX1 and HMGA2 loci, which are associated with variation in beak shape and size, respectively, suggesting that they are involved in ecological adaptation. A subset of genomic island regions, including these loci, appears to represent anciently diverged haplotypes that evolved early during the radiation of Darwin's finches. Comparative genomics data indicate that these loci, and genomic islands in general, have exceptionally low recombination rates, which may play a role in their establishment.
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6.
  • Andersson, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • Nucleosomes are well positioned in exons and carry characteristic histone modifications
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 19:10, s. 1732-1741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The genomes of higher organisms are packaged in nucleosomes with functional histone modifications. Until now, genome-wide nucleosome and histone modification studies have focused on transcription start sites (TSSs) where nucleosomes in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) occupied genes are well positioned and have histone modifications that are characteristic of expression status. Using public data, we here show that there is a higher nucleosome-positioning signal in internal human exons and that this positioning is independent of expression. We observed a similarly strong nucleosome-positioning signal in internal exons of C. elegans. Among the 38 histone modifications analyzed in man, H3K36me3, H3K79me1, H2BK5me1, H3K27me1, H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 had evidently higher signal in internal exons than in the following introns and were clearly related to exon expression. These observations are suggestive of roles in splicing. Thus, exons are not only characterized by their coding capacity but also by their nucleosome organization, which seems evolutionary conserved since it is present in both primates and nematodes.</p>
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7.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • The recombination landscape of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 20:4, s. 485-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Understanding the causes and consequences of variation in the rate of recombination is essential since this parameter is considered to affect levels of genetic variability, the efficacy of selection, and the design of association and linkage mapping studies. However, there is limited knowledge about the factors governing recombination rate variation. We genotyped 1920 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a multigeneration pedigree of more than 1000 zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to develop a genetic linkage map, and then we used these map data together with the recently available draft genome sequence of the zebra finch to estimate recombination rates in 1 Mb intervals across the genome. The average zebra finch recombination rate (1.5 cM/Mb) is higher than in humans, but significantly lower than in chicken. The local rates of recombination in chicken and zebra finch were only weakly correlated, demonstrating evolutionary turnover of the recombination landscape in birds. The distribution of recombination events was heavily biased toward ends of chromosomes, with a stronger telomere effect than so far seen in any organism. In fact, the recombination rate was as low as 0.1 cM/Mb in intervals up to 100 Mb long in the middle of the larger chromosomes. We found a positive correlation between recombination rate and GC content, as well as GC-rich sequence motifs. Levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were significantly higher in regions of low recombination, showing that heterogeneity in recombination rates have left a footprint on the genomic landscape of LD in zebra finch populations.</p>
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8.
  • Barré, Benjamin P., et al. (författare)
  • Intragenic repeat expansion in the cell wall protein gene HPF1 controls yeast chronological aging
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 30:5, s. 697-710
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aging varies among individuals due to both genetics and environment, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using a highly recombined Saccharomyces cerevisiae population, we found 30 distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control chronological life span (CLS) in calorie-rich and calorie-restricted environments and under rapamycin exposure. Calorie restriction and rapamycin extended life span in virtually all genotypes but through different genetic variants. We tracked the two major QTLs to the cell wall glycoprotein genes FLO11 and HPF1. We found that massive expansion of intragenic tandem repeats within the N-terminal domain of HPF1 was sufficient to cause pronounced life span shortening. Life span impairment by HPF1 was buffered by rapamycin but not by calorie restriction. The HPF1 repeat expansion shifted yeast cells from a sedentary to a buoyant state, thereby increasing their exposure to surrounding oxygen. The higher oxygenation altered methionine, lipid, and purine metabolism, and inhibited quiescence, which explains the life span shortening. We conclude that fast-evolving intragenic repeat expansions can fundamentally change the relationship between cells and their environment with profound effects on cellular lifestyle and longevity.
9.
  • Bertone, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Design optimization methods for genomic DNA tiling arrays.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 16:2, s. 271-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A recent development in microarray research entails the unbiased coverage, or tiling, of genomic DNA for the large-scale identification of transcribed sequences and regulatory elements. A central issue in designing tiling arrays is that of arriving at a single-copy tile path, as significant sequence cross-hybridization can result from the presence of non-unique probes on the array. Due to the fragmentation of genomic DNA caused by the widespread distribution of repetitive elements, the problem of obtaining adequate sequence coverage increases with the sizes of subsequence tiles that are to be included in the design. This becomes increasingly problematic when considering complex eukaryotic genomes that contain many thousands of interspersed repeats. The general problem of sequence tiling can be framed as finding an optimal partitioning of non-repetitive subsequences over a prescribed range of tile sizes, on a DNA sequence comprising repetitive and non-repetitive regions. Exact solutions to the tiling problem become computationally infeasible when applied to large genomes, but successive optimizations are developed that allow their practical implementation. These include an efficient method for determining the degree of similarity of many oligonucleotide sequences over large genomes, and two algorithms for finding an optimal tile path composed of longer sequence tiles. The first algorithm, a dynamic programming approach, finds an optimal tiling in linear time and space; the second applies a heuristic search to reduce the space complexity to a constant requirement. A Web resource has also been developed, accessible at http://tiling.gersteinlab.org, to generate optimal tile paths from user-provided DNA sequences.</p>
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10.
  • Besnier, Francois, et al. (författare)
  • A high-density SNP-based linkage map of the chicken genome reveals sequence features correlated with recombination rate
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 19, s. 510-519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The resolution of the chicken consensus linkage map has been dramatically improved in this study by genotyping 12,945 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on three existing mapping populations in chicken: the Wageningen (WU), East Lansing (EL), and Uppsala (UPP) mapping populations. As many as 8599 SNPs could be included, bringing the total number of markers in the current consensus linkage map to 9268. The total length of the sex average map is 3228 cM, considerably smaller than previous estimates using the WU and EL populations, reflecting the higher quality of the new map. The current map consists of 34 linkage groups and covers at least 29 of the 38 autosomes. Sex-specific analysis and comparisons of the maps based on the three individual populations showed prominent heterogeneity in recombination rates between populations, but no significant heterogeneity between sexes. The recombination rates in the F(1) Red Jungle fowl/White Leghorn males and females were significantly lower compared with those in the WU broiler population, consistent with a higher recombination rate in purebred domestic animals under strong artificial selection. The recombination rate varied considerably among chromosomes as well as along individual chromosomes. An analysis of the sequence composition at recombination hot and cold spots revealed a strong positive correlation between GC-rich sequences and high recombination rates. The GC-rich cohesin binding sites in particular stood out from other GC-rich sequences with a 3.4-fold higher density at recombination hot spots versus cold spots, suggesting a functional relationship between recombination frequency and cohesin binding.
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