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  • Syvänen, Ann-Christine (författare)
  • From gels to chips : "Minisequencing" primer extension for analysis of point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 13:1, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the minisequencing primer extension reaction, a DNA polymerase is used specifically to extend a primer that anneals immediately adjacent to the nucleotide position to be analyzed with a single labeled nucleoside triphospate complementary to the nucleotide at the variant site. The reaction allows highly specific detection of point mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because all SNPs can be analyzed with high specificty at the same reaction conditions, minisequencing is a promising reaction principle for multiplex high-throughput genotyping assays. It is also a useful tool for accurate quantitative PCR-based analysis. This review discusses the different approaches, ranging from traditional gel-based formats to multiplex detection on microarrays that have been developed and applied to minisequencing assays.
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  • Bjursell, Cecilia, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • PMM2 mutation spectrum, including 10 novel mutations, in a large CDG type 1A family material with a focus on Scandinavian families.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Human mutation. - 1098-1004 .- 1059-7794. ; 16:5, s. 395-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type IA (CDG IA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by severe involvement of the central and peripheral nervous system, and biochemically by complex defects in carbohydrate residues in a number of serum glycoproteins. CDG IA is caused by mutations in the PMM2 gene located in chromosome region 16p13. In this study, 61 CDG type IA patients (122 chromosomes) were screened for mutations in the PMM2 gene using a combination of SSCP and sequence analysis. More than 95% of the mutations could be detected. All of them were missense mutations. Mutations 422G>A and 357C>A were strikingly more common in the material and comprised 58% of mutations detected. Of the 20 mutations found, 10 were not reported previously. Seven mutations, e.g. 26G>A (five alleles) and 548T>C (seven alleles), were found only in Scandinavian families. The most common genotype was 357C>A/422G>A (36%). Three patients were homozygous, 357C>A/357C>A (two cases), and 548T>C/548T>C (one case). No patients homozygous for the most common mutation 422G>A were detected. The different mutations were clustered e.g., in that most were located in exon 5 (five) and exon 8 (six), while no mutation was detected in exon 2. When the frequencies of each mutation were included, exon 5 comprised 61% (65 chromosomes) of the mutations; in Scandinavian patients the frequency of these mutations was 72%. Thus, analysis of exon five in these patients enables both reliable and time-saving first screening in prenatal diagnostic cases. This could be followed by a second step of additional strategies for the detection of other mutations.
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6.
  • Abel, Olubunmi, et al. (författare)
  • ALSoD : A user-friendly online bioinformatics tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genetics
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 33:9, s. 1345-1351
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the commonest adult onset motor neuron disease, with a peak age of onset in the seventh decade. With advances in genetic technology, there is an enormous increase in the volume of genetic data produced, and a corresponding need for storage, analysis, and interpretation, particularly as our understanding of the relationships between genotype and phenotype mature. Here, we present a system to enable this in the form of the ALS Online Database (ALSoD at http://alsod.iop.kcl.ac.uk), a freely available database that has been transformed from a single gene storage facility recording mutations in the SOD1 gene to a multigene ALS bioinformatics repository and analytical instrument combining genotype, phenotype, and geographical information with associated analysis tools. These include a comparison tool to evaluate genes side by side or jointly with user configurable features, a pathogenicity prediction tool using a combination of computational approaches to distinguish variants with nonfunctional characteristics from disease-associated mutations with more dangerous consequences, and a credibility tool to enable ALS researchers to objectively assess the evidence for gene causation in ALS. Furthermore, integration of external tools, systems for feedback, annotation by users, and two-way links to collaborators hosting complementary databases further enhance the functionality of ALSoD. Hum Mutat 33:1345-1351, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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7.
  • Ain, Noor U., et al. (författare)
  • Biallelic TMEM251 variants in patients with severe skeletal dysplasia and extreme short stature
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 42:1, s. 89-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of disorders ranging from mild to lethal skeletal defects. We investigated two unrelated families with individuals presenting with a severe skeletal disorder. In family NMD02, affected individuals had a dysostosis multiplex-like skeletal dysplasia and severe short stature (<-8.5 SD). They manifested increasingly coarse facial features, protruding abdomens, and progressive skeletal changes, reminiscent of mucopolysaccharidosis. The patients gradually lost mobility and the two oldest affected individuals died in their twenties. The affected child in family ID01 had coarse facial features and severe skeletal dysplasia with clinical features similar to mucopolysaccharidosis. She had short stature, craniosynostosis, kyphoscoliosis, and hip-joint subluxation. She died at the age of 5 years. Whole-exome sequencing identified two homozygous variants c.133C>T; p.(Arg45Trp) and c.215dupA; p.(Tyr72Ter), respectively, in the two families, affecting an evolutionary conserved gene TMEM251 (NM_001098621.1). Immunofluorescence and confocal studies using human osteosarcoma cells indicated that TMEM251 is localized to the Golgi complex. However, p.Arg45Trp mutant TMEM251 protein was targeted less efficiently and the localization was punctate. Tmem251 knockdown by small interfering RNA induced dedifferentiation of rat primary chondrocytes. Our work implicates TMEM251 in the pathogenesis of a novel disorder and suggests its potential function in chondrocyte differentiation.
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  • Ballantyne, Kaye N., et al. (författare)
  • Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 35:8, s. 1021-1032
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, greater than99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father-son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RMY-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database.
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