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  • Ferrara, R, et al. (författare)
  • Atmospheric mercury concentrations and fluxes in the Almaden District (Spain)
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 32:22, s. 3897-3904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric mercury levels around the world's largest mining and refining complex (Almaden, Spain) were determined during two field campaigns (September 1993 and February 1994) using both point monitors and lidar techniques. High mercury concentrations (0.1-5 mu g m(-3)) were measured over the village of Almaden in the prevailing wind direction. In the month of September the total mercury flux into the atmosphere was estimated to range from 600 to 1200 g h(-1). An attempt was made to measure the contribution from individual mercury sources. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Fick, Jerker, et al. (författare)
  • A study of the gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes: the impact of radicals formed during the reaction
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 36:20, s. 3299-3308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene, Δ3-carene and limonene was investigated at ppb levels and the impact of the ozone, relative air humidity (RH), and time was studied using experimental design. The amounts of terpene reacted varied in the different settings and were as high as 8.1% for α-pinene, 10.9% forΔ3-carene and 23.4% for limonene. The designs were able to describe almost all the variation in the experimental data and were also successful in predicting omitted values. The results described the effects of time and ozone and also showed that RH did not have a statistically significant effect on the ozonolysis. The results also showed that all three terpenes were affected by an additional oxidation of OH radicals and/or other reactive species. The results from the designs states that this additional oxidation was responsible for 40% of the total amount of α-pinene reacted, 33% of the total amount of Δ3-carene reacted and 41% of the total amount of limonene reacted at the settings 20 ppb terpene, 75 ppb ozone, 20% RH and a reaction time of 213 s. Additional experiments with 2-butanol as OH radical scavenger showed that the reaction with OH radicals was responsible for 37% of the total α-pinene reacted and 39% of the total Δ3-carene reacted at the same settings. The scavenger experiments also showed that there were no significant amounts of OH radicals formed during the ozonolysis of limonene. The results from the designs were also compared to a mathematical model in order to evaluate further the data.
  • Gidhagen, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Model simulation of ultrafine particles inside a road tunnel
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - Elsevier Science Ltd.. - 1352-2310. ; 37:15, s. 2023-2036
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A monodispersive aerosol dynamic model, coupled to a 3D hydrodynamical grid model, has been used to study the dynamics of ultrafine particles inside a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden. The model results were compared to measured data of particle number concentrations, traffic intensity and tunnel ventilation rate. Coagulation and depositional losses to the tunnel walls were shown to be important processes during traffic peak hours, together contributing to losses of 77% of the particles smaller than 10nm and 41% of the particles of size 10-29nm. Particle growth due to water uptake or the presence of a micron-sized, resuspended particle fraction did not have any significant effect on the number of particles lost due to coagulation. Model simulation of particle number concentration response to temporal variations in traffic flow showed that constant emission factors could be used to reproduce the concentration variations of the particles larger than 29nm, while vehicle-speed-dependent factors are suggested to reproduce the variation of the smallest fractions. The emission factors for particle number concentrations estimated from the model simulation are in general higher and show a larger contribution from light-duty vehicles than what has been reported from a tunnel in California. The model study shows that combined measurements and model simulations in road tunnels can be used to improve the determinations of vehicle emission factors for ultrafine particles under realistic driving conditions. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hedberg, E, et al. (författare)
  • Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. - PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 1352-2310. ; 36:30, s. 4823-4837
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to characterize the emissions of a large number of chemical compounds emitted from birch wood combustion in a wood stove. Birch wood is widely used as fuel in Swedish household appliances. The fuel load was held constant during six experiments. Particles < 2.5 mum diameter were collected and the size distribution of the particles was measured. The results were compared to the size distribution in road traffic emissions. It could be seen that the number distribution differed between the sources. In traffic exhaust, the number of particles maximized at 20 nm, while the number distribution from wood burning ranged from 20 to 300 nm. The ratio K/Ca on particles was found. to be significantly different in wood burning compared to road dust, range 30-330 for the former and 0.8+/-0.15 for the latter. The source profile of common elements emitted from wood-burning differed from that found on particles at a street-level site or in long-distance transported particles. The ratio toluene/benzene in this study was found to be in the range 0.2-0.7, which is much lower than the ratio 3.6+/-0.5 in traffic exhaust emissions. Formaldehyde and acetone were the most abundant compounds among the volatile ketones and aldehydes. The emission factor varied between 180-710mg/kg wood for formaldehyde and 5-1300mg/kg wood for acetone. Of the organic acids analyzed (3,4,5)-trimethoxy benzoic acid was the most abundant compound. Of the PAHs reported, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contribute to more than 70% of the mass of PAH. Of the elements analyzed, K and Si were the most abundant elements, having emission factors of 27 and 9mg/kg wood, respectively. Although fluoranthene has a toxic equivalence factor of 5% of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), it can be seen that the toxic potency of fluoranthene in wood burning emissions is of the same size as B(a)P. This indicates that the relative carcinogenic potency contribution of fluoranthene in wood smoke would be about 40% of B(a)P. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ketzel, M, et al. (författare)
  • Particle and trace gas emission factors under urban driving conditions in Copenhagen based on street and roof-level observations
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - Elsevier Science Ltd.. - 1352-2310. ; 37:20, s. 2735-2749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simultaneous measurements of particle size distribution (size/range 10-700 nm) inside an urban street canyon and a nearby urban background location in Copenhagen in May-November 2001 were used to separate the traffic source contribution in the street canyon from the background levels. The background concentrations are highly variable due to changing contributions from long-range transport and local sources showing a diurnal pattern with a shift to smaller particle sizes during midday hours. The average ratio background/street concentration is 0.26 for NOx and 0.35, 0.42, 0.60, 0.64, respectively, for CO, total particle number (ToN), surface and volume. The particle size distribution of the traffic source shows during daytime and evening hours (6-24) a maximum at particle sizes of 20-30 nm independent of the changing heavy-duty vehicle share during the same time interval. The particle number concentration highly correlated (R > 0.83) with NOx through a wide range of particle sizes. The method of inverse modelling was applied to estimate average fleet emission factors typical of urban conditions in Denmark. Emission factors per average vehicle were estimated as (2.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(14) particles/km, (1.3 +/- 0.2) g NOx/(veh km) and (11 +/- 2) g CO/(veh km). We observe two types of 'nanoparticle events' (a) in background, probably due to photochemistry and (b) in the night hours when traffic is dominated by diesel taxis. During night hours (0-5), the maximum in the emitted particle size distribution, is shifted to smaller sizes of about 15-18 nm. This shift to smaller particle sizes is related to an increase in the average NOx and ToN emission per vehicle by a factor of 2-3 and a reduced CO emission also by a factor of 2-3. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Libiseller, Claudia, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Model selection for local and regional meteorological normalisation of background concentrations of tropospheric ozone
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 37:28, s. 3923-3931
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Meteorological normalisation of time series of air quality data aims to extract anthropogenic signals by removing natural fluctuations in the collected data. We showed that the currently used procedures to select normalisation models can cause over-fitting to observed data and undesirable smoothing of anthropogenic signals. A simulation study revealed that the risk of such effects is particularly large when: (i) the observed data are serially correlated, (ii) the normalisation model is selected by leave-one-out cross-validation, and (iii) complex models, such as artificial neural networks, are fitted to data. When the size of the test sets used in the cross-validation was increased, and only moderately complex linear models were fitted to data, the over-fitting was less pronounced. An empirical study of the predictive ability of different normalisation models for tropospheric ozone in Finland confirmed the importance of using appropriate model selection strategies. Moderately complex regional models involving contemporaneous meteorological data from a network of stations were found to be superior to single-site models as well as more complex regional models involving both contemporaneous and time-lagged meteorological data from a network of stations.
  • Swietlicki, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Urban air pollution source apportionment using a combination of aerosol and gas monitoring techniques
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 30:15, s. 2795-2809
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dominating local and regional sources of gaseous and particulate air pollution in the city of Lund (69,000 inhabitants) in southern Sweden were characterized using a combination of aerosol and gas-phase monitoring techniques. Twelve-hour samples were taken at two stations of both fine and coarse fraction urban aerosols with a stacked filter unit during the four-week measurement campaign in March/April 1993. The aerosol samples were analysed with PIXE for 14 major and trace elements. In addition, gaseous species (SO2, NO2, O-3) were measured simultaneously with the DOAS technique over two stretches, crossing each other only 300 m from the downtown aerosol sampling site. The combined results obtained by the analytical techniques PIXE and DOAS for aerosol and gas measurements, respectively, were used in an absolute receptor model in order to identify the major sources affecting the measurement sites and to apportion the measured air pollutants to the identified sources. The gases (SO2, NO2, O-3) could also be attributed to specific sources by combining the trace elemental concentration data for the fine fraction aerosol with that of the gaseous species in the receptor model. According to the absolute principal component analysis (APCA) model, the dominant sources for the measured species were resuspended road dust, automobile and diesel emissions, combustion of oil and coal, ferrous and non-ferrous smelters and sea spray. Of these, the sources related to traffic are mainly local in character while the others constitute a regional background. For a small city in southern Scandinavia like Lund with only light industry, the long-range transported air pollutants make up a significant part of the fine fraction aerosol. (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
  • Pommer, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Development of a NO2 scrubber for accurate sampling of ambient levels of terpenes
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 36:9, s. 1443-1452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The result of pumping air containing 56 ppb NO2 through a terpene-spiked adsorbent (90–130 ng, 90–100 ml min−1), Tenax TA, for 20 min (1.8–2.0 l) was that 8% of α-pinene, 7% of β-pinene, 21% of Δ3-carene and 5% of limonene were oxidised. In similar experiments with air containing 56 ppb O3, 3% of α-pinene, 4% of β-pinene, 10% of Δ3-carene and 38% of limonene were oxidised. Sampling a mixture of a terpene and NO2 using Tenax TA can give unwanted overestimation of the amount of reaction products from the terpene–NO2 reaction or underestimation of the original terpene levels. A scrubber was needed to reduce the problems caused by interfering reactions on the adsorbent of NO2 and to reduce discrimination of reactive compounds due to their relatively fast decay on the adsorbent. Several chemicals have been tested for their ability of removing NO2 and our objective was to develop a well functioning, reusable, easy to handle, easy manufactured NO2 scrubber. The result of the experiments was a scrubber consisting of two glass fibre filters coated with Na2SO3 assembled in a dust collector. The recovery of the terpenes through the scrubber varied between 75% and 97% at 15–75% relative humidity, and the scrubber is a one-use scrubber due to memory effects. The Na2SO3 scrubber could be stored in room air for at least one month without loosing the capacity of removing NO2.
  • Wingfors, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation and determination of profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a traffic tunnel in Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 35:36, s. 6361-6369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concentrations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hydrocarbons (HCs), particulate matter (PM 1, 2.5 and 10 μm) and total suspended particles (TSPs) were measured in a traffic tunnel in Gothenburg, Sweden. Emission factors (EFs) were also calculated. These variables are assumed to provide good estimates of average vehicle emissions, since all types of vehicle, using all types of fuel, pass through this tunnel. It was shown that the majority of particle-associated PAHs were found on particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <1 μm. The concentrations of PAHs were one order higher in magnitude in air samples from the tunnel than in air samples at two urban locations. However, the PAH profiles of air samples from the tunnel and the urban sites were similar. This was demonstrated using principal component analysis (PCA). Finally, and notably, there was no significant change in the total emissions when the proportion of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) increased from 8% to 24%. Previously, diesel vehicles had been found to release larger quantities of PAHs and related substances. Advances in fuel quality, and HDV motor and exhaust system design during the last decade may have contributed to this promising result. However, it was shown, using partial least squares regression to latent structures (PLS), that some of the parameters measured displayed correlations with the proportions of HDVs and light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Concentrations of total HCs, TSPs, dibenzothiopene, phenantrene, anthracene and monomethyl-derivatives of phenantrene and anthracene were all correlated to the proportion of HDVs. The concentrations of naphthalene, some mono- and dimethylnaphthalenes and most large PAHs (with 5–7 fused rings) were correlated to the proportion of LDVs.
  • Eliasson, Ingegärd, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Summer nocturnal ozone maxima in Goteborg, Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. - 1352-2310. ; 37:19, s. 2615-2627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The magnitude and frequency of nocturnal ozone maxima in a high mid-latitude city (Göteborg, Sweden) has been analysed. Nocturnal ozone maxima have been reported from cities in Europe and North America and can be explained by vertical mixing of high ozone concentrations from higher levels or horizontal transportation from rural areas through local and mesoscale wind systems. Data from four summer months (May–August) in 1994 were used to analyse the relative importance of local- and mesoscale wind systems and vertical mixing in Göteborg during clear and calm weather conditions. Results show that nocturnal ozone maxima frequently occur during these conditions, with a magnitude up to 104 μg m−3. The nocturnal ozone maxima were positively correlated to both situations with a well-developed land breeze and situations with vertical mixing. During the period investigated, in total 17 nights with secondary ozone maximum occurred. The majority of the secondary ozone maxima (80%) appeared early in the night, i.e. an ozone increase within the first 3 h after sunset and sometimes even two peaks occurred. Seven of these occasions can be explained by horizontal advection, eight by vertical mixing and five cannot by certainty be explained to be due to horizontal or vertical transportation only. During the measurement period the Swedish guideline of 80 μg m−3 (for 1-h value) was exceeded 55% of the days (i.e. 68 days, 557 h) and 33% of the nights (i.e. 41 nights, 103 h) in the central parts of Göteborg. The results thus show that in Scandinavia nocturnal ozone
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