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Sökning: L773:1352 2310 > (2010-2011)

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1.
  • Andersson, August, et al. (författare)
  • (14)C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 45:1, s. 215-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line (14)C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 degrees C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass (f(biomass)) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in (14)C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The f(biomass) appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent (14)C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.
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2.
  • Buccoliere, Riccardo, et al. (författare)
  • City breathability and its link to pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - ELSEVIER. - 1352-2310. ; 44:15, s. 1894-1903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper is devoted to the study of pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries. By applying efficiency concepts originally developed for indoor environments, the term ventilation is used as a measure of city “breathability”. It can be applied to analyse pollutant removal within a city in operational contexts. This implies the evaluation of the bulk flow balance over the city and of the mean age of air. The influence of building packing density on flow and pollutant removal is, therefore, evaluated using those quantities. Idealized cities of regular cubical buildings were created with packing density ranging from 6.25% to 69% to represent configurations from urban sprawl to compact cities. The relative simplicity of these arrangements allowed us to apply the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow and dispersion simulations using the standard k–<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/entities/25b.gif" /> turbulence model. Results show that city breathability within the urban canopy layer is strongly dependent from the building packing density. At the lower packing densities, the city responds to the wind as an agglomeration of obstacles, at larger densities (from about 44%) the city itself responds as a single obstacle. With the exception of the lowest packing density, airflow enters the array through lateral sides and leaves throughout the street top and flow out downstream. The air entering through lateral sides increases with increasing packing density.At the street top of the windward side of compact building configurations, a large upward flow is observed. This vertical transport reduces over short distance to turn into a downward flow further downstream of the building array. These findings suggest a practical way of identifying city breathability. Even though the application of these results to real scenarios require further analyses the paper illustrates a practical framework to be adopted in the assessment of the optimum neighbourhood building layout to minimize pollution levels.
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3.
  • Dutcher, Dabrina D., et al. (författare)
  • Emissions from soy biodiesel blends: A single particle perspective
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - Elsevier Science Ltd. - 1352-2310. ; 45:20, s. 3406-3413
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biodiesel has recently reemerged as a common fuel. However, emissions from biodiesel combustion have been studied in much less detail than those from traditional petroleum-based diesel. In this experiment, emissions from the combustion of different fuel blends (BOO, B02, B20, B99, where the number after B indicates the percentage, by volume, of biodiesel in the fuel) in a VW TDi engine were analyzed by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometers (ATOFMS) for single-particle composition and vacuum aerodynamic size. The ATOFMS results show that the PAH molecular weight distribution is not significantly affected by the fuel composition, and that sulfates are reduced by increased biodiesel content. Octanedioic acid (a carbonyl species) is increased with increased biodiesel concentration. Clustering results from the single-particle spectra show that the particles fall in five main types by chemical composition. The aerodynamic size distribution of these individual clusters was also determined. These results also show that methods used to identify diesel particle emissions for source apportionment are not applicable when significant concentrations of biodiesel are used in fuels. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Grundström, Maria, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Urban NO2 and NO pollution in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation NAO
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 45:4, s. 883-888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a measure of the strength of the zonal wind across the North Atlantic Ocean, strongly influences weather conditions in NW Europe, e.g. temperature, precipitation and wind, especially during winter. It was hypothesised that elevated concentrations of nitrogen oxides in Gothenburg would be enhanced during negative NAO index (NAOI) conditions, representing more anticyclonic weather situations and thus leading to limited air mixing in the urban atmosphere, than situations with NAOI > 0. Hourly wintertime (DecembereFebruary) concentrations (1997e2006) of NO2, NO, air pressure, temperature and wind direction from an urban rooftop (30mabove street level) in the centre of the City of Gothenburg were analysed in relation to NAOI. Air pressure, the average concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx ¼ NO2 þ NO), as well as the fraction of hourly NO2 and NO concentrations exceeding 90 mg m_3 and the fraction of daily NO concentrations exceeding 60 mg m_3, were significantly and negatively related to NAOI. Air temperature was positively correlated with NAOI. Southerly and westerly winds were more common in months with positive NAOI, while easterly and northerly winds were overrepresented in months with negative NAOI. High pollution concentrations dominantly occurred in situations with northerly and easterly wind directions. High NO2 and NO concentrations were associated with negative NAOI, especially in the morning when the traffic rush coincided with restricted air mixing. Over the tenyear period there were trends for more negative NAOI and increased time fractions with hourly NO2 concentrations exceeding 90 mgm_3. The conclusion of this study is that a climate shift towards higher or lower NAOI has the potential to significantly influence urban air pollution in North-West Europe, and thus the possibility to reach air quality standards, even if emissions remain constant.
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5.
  • King, M D, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with a monolayer of oleic acid at the air-water interface - A simple proxy for atmospheric aerosol
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310. ; 44:14, s. 1822-1825
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The reactions between atmospheric oxidants and organic amphiphiles at the air water interface of an aerosol droplet may affect the size and critical supersaturation required for cloud droplet formation. We demonstrate that no reaction occurs between gaseous nitrogen dioxide (1000 ppm in air) and a monolayer of an insoluble amphiphile, oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid), at the air water interface which removes material from the air water interface. We present evidence that the NO2 isomerises the cis-9-octadecenoic (oleic) acid to trans-9-octadecenoic (elaidic) acid. The study presented here is important for future and previous studies of (1) the reaction between the nitrate radical, NO3, and thin organic films as NO2 is usually present in high concentrations in these experimental systems and (2) the effect of NO2 air pollution on the unsaturated fatty acids and lipids found at the air liquid surface of human lung lining fluid.
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9.
  • Mercer, Laina D., et al. (författare)
  • Comparing universal kriging and land-use regression for predicting concentrations of gaseous oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - Elsevier Science Ltd. - 1352-2310. ; 45:26, s. 4412-4420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiological studies that assess the health effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution are used to inform public policy. These studies rely on exposure models that use data collected from pollution monitoring sites to predict exposures at subject locations. Land-use regression (LUR) and universal kriging (UK) have been suggested as potential prediction methods. We evaluate these approaches on a dataset including measurements from three seasons in Los Angeles, CA. Methods: The measurements of gaseous oxides of nitrogen (NOx) used in this study are from a &quot;snapshot&quot; sampling campaign that is part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). The measurements in Los Angeles were collected during three two-week periods in the summer, autumn, and winter, each with about 150 sites. The design included clusters of monitors on either side of busy roads to capture near-field gradients of traffic-related pollution. LUR and UK prediction models were created using geographic information system (GIS)-based covariates. Selection of covariates was based on 10-fold cross-validated (CV) R-2 and root mean square error (RMSE). Since UK requires specialized software, a computationally simpler two-step procedure was also employed to approximate fitting the UK model using readily available regression and GIS software. Results: UK models consistently performed as well as or better than the analogous LUR models. The best CV R-2 values for season-specific UK models predicting log(NOx) were 0.75, 0.72, and 0.74 (CV RMSE 0.20, 0.17, and 0.15) for summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The best CV R-2 values for season-specific LUR models predicting log(NOx) were 0.74, 0.60, and 0.67 (CV RMSE 0.20, 0.20, and 0.17). The two-stage approximation to UK also performed better than LUR and nearly as well as the full UK model with CV R-2 values 0.75, 0.70, and 0.70 (CV RMSE 0.20, 0.17, and 0.17) for summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. Conclusion: High quality LUR and UK prediction models for NOx in Los Angeles were developed for the three seasons based on data collected for MESA Air. In our study, UK consistently outperformed LUR. Similarly, the 2-step approach was more effective than the LUR models, with performance equal to or slightly worse than UK. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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