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  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP Publishing. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 62:16, s. 6397-6407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.
  • Edvardsson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Breathing-motion induced interplay effects for stereotactic body radiotherapy of liver tumours using flattening-filter free volumetric modulated arc therapy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP Publishing. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 64:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate breathing-motion induced interplay effects for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver tumours treated with flattening-filter free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Ten patients previously treated with liver SBRT were included in this study. All patients had four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans acquired prior to treatment. The 4DCT was sorted into 8-10 phases covering an equal time interval. A FFF VMAT plan was created for one fraction in the mid-ventilation phase for each patient. To generate dose distributions including both interplay effects and dose blurring, a sub-plan was calculated for each phase. The total dose distributions were accumulated to the mid-ventilation phase using the deformed vector fields (DVF) from deformable image registration between the corresponding CT and the mid-ventilation phase CT. A blurred dose distribution, not including interplay effects, was also obtained by distributing the delivery of the whole plan uniformly on all phases, and was similarly accumulated to the mid-ventilation phase. To isolate interplay effects, this blurred dose distribution was subtracted from the total dose distribution with interplay effects. The near minimum dose (D-98%), mean dose (D-mean), heterogeneity index (HI), and the near minimum dose difference (Delta D-98%) between the accumulated dose distributions with and without interplay effects were calculated within the gross tumour volume (GTV) for each patient. Comparing the accumulated dose distributions with and without interplay effects, the D-98(%) decreased for nine of the ten patients and the HI increased for all patients. The median and minimum differences in D-98(%) were -2.1% and -5.0% (p = 0.006), respectively, and the median HI significantly increased from 6.2% to 12.2% (p = 0.002). The median Delta D-98% was -4.0% (range - 7% to - 1.5%). In conclusion, statistically significant breathing-induced interplay effects were observed for a single fraction of FFF VMAT liver SBRT, resulting in heterogeneous dose distributions within the GTV.
  • Fonslet, J., et al. (författare)
  • 135La as an Auger-electron emitter for targeted internal radiotherapy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP Publishing. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 63:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 135La has favorable nuclear and chemical properties for Auger-based targeted internal radiotherapy. Here we present detailed investigations of the production, emissions, and dosimetry related to 135La therapy. 135La was produced by 16.5 MeV proton irradiation of metallic natBa on a medical cyclotron, and was isolated and purified by trap-and-release on weak cation-exchange resin. The average production rate was 407 19 MBq A-1 (saturation activity), and the radionuclidic purity was 98% at 20 h post irradiation. Chemical separation recovered > 98 % of the 135La with an effective molar activity of 70 20 GBq mol-1. To better assess cellular and organ dosimetry of this nuclide, we have calculated the x-ray and Auger emission spectra using a Monte Carlo model accounting for effects of multiple vacancies during the Auger cascade. The generated Auger spectrum was used to calculate cellular S-factors. 135La was produced with high specific activity, reactivity, radionuclidic purity, and yield. The emission spectrum and the dosimetry are favorable for internal radionuclide therapy.
  • Gustafsson, C, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of dosimetric impact of system specific geometric distortion in an MRI only based radiotherapy workflow for prostate
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP Publishing. - 1361-6560. ; 62:8, s. 2976-2989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dosimetric errors in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only radiotherapy workflow may be caused by system specific geometric distortion from MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on planned dose distribution and delineated structures for prostate patients, originating from this distortion. A method was developed, in which computer tomography (CT) images were distorted using the MRI distortion field. The displacement map for an optimized MRI treatment planning sequence was measured using a dedicated phantom in a 3 T MRI system. To simulate the distortion aspects of a synthetic CT (electron density derived from MR images), the displacement map was applied to CT images, referred to as distorted CT images. A volumetric modulated arc prostate treatment plan was applied to the original CT and the distorted CT, creating a reference and a distorted CT dose distribution. By applying the inverse of the displacement map to the distorted CT dose distribution, a dose distribution in the same geometry as the original CT images was created. For 10 prostate cancer patients, the dose difference between the reference dose distribution and inverse distorted CT dose distribution was analyzed in isodose level bins. The mean magnitude of the geometric distortion was 1.97 mm for the radial distance of 200-250 mm from isocenter. The mean percentage dose differences for all isodose level bins, were ⩽0.02% and the radiotherapy structure mean volume deviations were <0.2%. The method developed can quantify the dosimetric effects of MRI system specific distortion in a prostate MRI only radiotherapy workflow, separated from dosimetric effects originating from synthetic CT generation. No clinically relevant dose difference or structure deformation was found when 3D distortion correction and high acquisition bandwidth was used. The method could be used for any MRI sequence together with any anatomy of interest.
  • Gustafsson, Christian Jamtheim, et al. (författare)
  • Development and evaluation of a deep learning based artificial intelligence for automatic identification of gold fiducial markers in an MRI-only prostate radiotherapy workflow
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP Publishing. - 1361-6560. ; 65:22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of prostate gold fiducial markers in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images is challenging when CT images are not available, due to misclassifications from intra-prostatic calcifications. It is also a time consuming task and automated identification methods have been suggested as an improvement for both objectives. Multi-echo gradient echo (MEGRE) images have been utilized for manual fiducial identification with 100% detection accuracy. The aim is therefore to develop an automatic deep learning based method for fiducial identification in MRI images intended for MRI-only prostate radiotherapy. MEGRE images from 326 prostate cancer patients with fiducials were acquired on a 3T MRI, post-processed with N4 bias correction, and the fiducial center of mass (CoM) was identified. A 9 mm radius sphere was created around the CoM as ground truth. A deep learning HighRes3DNet model for semantic segmentation was trained using image augmentation. The model was applied to 39 MRI-only patients and 3D probability maps for fiducial location and segmentation were produced and spatially smoothed. In each of the three largest probability peaks, a 9 mm radius sphere was defined. Detection sensitivity and geometric accuracy was assessed. To raise awareness of potential false findings a 'BeAware' score was developed, calculated from the total number and quality of the probability peaks. All datasets, annotations and source code used were made publicly available. The detection sensitivity for all fiducials were 97.4%. Thirty-six out of thirty-nine patients had all fiducial markers correctly identified. All three failed patients generated a user notification using the BeAware score. The mean absolute difference between the detected fiducial and ground truth CoM was 0.7 ± 0.9 [0 3.1] mm. A deep learning method for automatic fiducial identification in MRI images was developed and evaluated with state-of-the-art results. The BeAware score has the potential to notify the user regarding patients where the proposed method is uncertain.
  • Rix, Kristian R., et al. (författare)
  • Super-resolution x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging with a single 2D grating and electromagnetic source stepping
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP Publishing. - 1361-6560. ; 64:16, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we report a method for increased resolution of single exposure three modality x-ray images using super-resolution. The three x-ray image modalities are absorption-, differential phase- contrast-, and dark-field-images. To create super-resolution, a non-mechanically movable micro- focus x-ray source is used. A series of almost identical x-ray projection images is obtained while the point source is translated in a two-dimensional grid pattern. The three image modalities are extracted from fourier space using spatial harmonic analysis, also known as the single-shot method. Using super-resolution on the low-resolution series of the three modalities separately results in high- resolution images for the modalities. This approach allows to compensate for the inherent loss in resolution caused by the single-shot method without increasing the need for stability or algorithms accounting for possible motion.
  • Törnquist, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Dual modality neutron and x-ray tomography for enhanced image analysis of the bone-metal interface
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP Publishing. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 66:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The bone tissue formed at the contact interface with metallic implants, particularly its 3D microstructure, plays a pivotal role for the structural integrity of implant fixation. X-ray tomography is the classical imaging technique used for accessing microstructural information from bone tissue. However, neutron tomography has shown promise for visualising the immediate bone-metal implant interface, something which is highly challenging with x-rays due to large differences in attenuation between metal and biological tissue causing image artefacts. To highlight and explore the complementary nature of neutron and x-ray tomography, proximal rat tibiae with titanium-based implants were imaged with both modalities. The two techniques were compared in terms of visualisation of different material phases and by comparing the properties of the individual images, such as the contrast-to-noise ratio. After superimposing the images using a dedicated image registration algorithm, the complementarity was further investigated via analysis of the dual modality histogram, joining the neutron and x-ray data. From these joint histograms, peaks with well-defined grey value intervals corresponding to the different material phases observed in the specimens were identified and compared. The results highlight differences in how neutrons and x-rays interact with biological tissues and metallic implants, as well as the benefits of combining both modalities. Future refinement of the joint histogram analysis could improve the segmentation of structures and tissues, and yield novel information about specimen-specific properties such as moisture content.
  • Almhagen, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Handling of beam spectra in training and application of proton RBE models
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 66:18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Published data from cell survival experiments are frequently used as training data for models of proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The publications rarely provide full information about the primary particle spectrum of the used beam, or its content of heavy secondary particles. The purpose of this paper is to assess to what extent heavy secondary particles may have been present in published cell survival experiments, and to investigate the impact of non-primary protons for RBE calculations in treatment planning. We used the Monte Carlo code Geant4 to calculate the occurrence of non-primary protons and heavier secondary particles for clinical protons beams in water for four incident energies in the [100, 250] MeV interval. We used the resulting spectra together with a conservative RBE parameterization and an RBE model to map both the rise of RBE at the beam entry surface due to heavy secondary particle buildup, and the difference in estimated RBE if non-primary protons are included or not in the beam quality metric. If included, non-primary protons cause a difference of 2% of the RBE in the plateau region of an spread out Bragg peak and 1% in the Bragg peak. Including non-primary protons specifically for RBE calculations will consequently have a negligible impact and can be ignored. A buildup distance in water of one millimeter was sufficient to reach an equilibrium state of RBE for the four incident energies selected. For the investigated experimental data, 83 out of the 86 data points were found to have been determined with at least that amount of buildup material. Hence, RBE model training data should be interpreted to include the contribution of heavy secondaries.
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