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  • Ahuja, Umesh, et al. (författare)
  • Haem-delivery proteins in cytochrome c maturation System II
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 73:6, s. 1058-1071
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P>Cytochromes of the c-type function on the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria where they also are assembled from apo-cytochrome polypeptide and haem. Two distinctly different systems for cytochrome c maturation are found in bacteria. System I present in Escherichia coli has eight to nine different Ccm proteins. System II is found in Bacillus subtilis and comprises four proteins: CcdA, ResA, ResB and ResC. ResB and ResC are poorly understood polytopic membrane proteins required for cytochrome c synthesis. We have analysed these two B. subtilis proteins produced in E. coli and in the native organism. ResB is shown to bind protohaem IX and haem is found covalently bound to residue Cys-138. Results in B. subtilis suggest that also ResC can bind haem. Our results complement recent findings made with Helicobacter CcsBA supporting the hypothesis that ResBC as a complex translocates haem by attaching it to ResB on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and then transferring it to an extra-cytoplasmic location in ResC, from where it is made available to the apo-cytochromes.
  • Ausmees, Nora, et al. (författare)
  • SmeA, a small membrane protein with multiple functions in Streptomyces sporulation including targeting of a SpoIIIE/FtsK-like protein to cell division septa
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0950-382X .- 1365-2958. ; 65:6, s. 1458-1473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sporulation in aerial hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor involves profound changes in regulation of fundamental morphogenetic and cell cycle processes to convert the filamentous and multinucleoid cells to small unigenomic spores. Here, a novel sporulation locus consisting of smeA (encoding a small putative membrane protein) and sffA (encoding a SpoIIIE/FtsK-family protein) is characterized. Deletion of smeA-sffA gave rise to pleiotropic effects on spore maturation, and influenced the segregation of chromosomes and placement of septa during sporulation. Both smeA and sffA were expressed specifically in apical cells of sporogenic aerial hyphae simultaneously with or slightly after Z-ring assembly. The presence of smeA-like genes in streptomycete chromosomes, plasmids and transposons, often paired with a gene for a SpoIIIE/FtsK- or Tra-like protein, indicates that SmeA and SffA functions might be related to DNA transfer. During spore development SffA accumulated specifically at sporulation septa where it colocalized with FtsK. However, sffA did not show redundancy with ftsK, and SffA function appeared distinct from the DNA translocase activity displayed by FtsK during closure of sporulation septa. The septal localization of SffA was dependent on SmeA, suggesting that SmeA may act as an assembly factor for SffA and possibly other proteins required during spore maturation.
  • Berggård, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Binding of human C4BP to the hypervariable region of M protein: a molecular mechanism of phagocytosis resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 42:2, s. 539-551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The amino-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) of streptococcal M protein is required for the ability of this virulence factor to confer phagocytosis resistance. The function of the HVR has remained unknown, but the finding that many HVRs with extremely divergent sequences bind the human complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP) has suggested that this ligand may play a role in phagocytosis resistance. We used the M22 system to study the function of bound C4BP and provide several lines of evidence that C4BP indeed contributes to phagocytosis resistance. First, the ability of anti-HVR antibodies to cause opsonization correlated with their ability to inhibit binding of C4BP. Secondly, a short deletion in the HVR eliminated C4BP binding and also reduced the ability of M22 to confer phagocytosis resistance. Thirdly, the addition of an excess of pure C4BP to a phagocytosis system almost completely blocked the effect of opsonizing anti-HVR antibodies. Together, our data indicate that binding of C4BP to the HVR of M22 plays an important role in phagocytosis resistance, but other properties of M22 also contribute. This study provides the first molecular insight into the mechanisms by which the HVR of an M protein confers phagocytosis resistance.
  • Collin, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Generation of a mature streptococcal cysteine proteinase is dependent on cell wall-anchored M1 protein
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 36:6, s. 1306-1318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study, we have generated a mutant strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, MC25, which lacks M protein on its surface, and we demonstrate that this strain is unable to generate a mature 28 kDa cysteine proteinase. Furthermore, we show that S. pyogenes bacteria of M1 serotype are dependent on cell wall-anchored M protein to cleave the secreted zymogen into a mature cysteine proteinase. We also show that MC25 secretes a 40 kDa zymogen, having a conformation different from that secreted by wild-type bacteria. We provide data showing that the cleavage site is not blocked but, presumably, the active site is. This suggests that M protein, when anchored to the cell wall, is involved in the unfolding of the zymogen and generation of a mature cysteine proteinase that can be activated under reducing conditions. Our data add new aspects to the interaction between two important virulence factors of S. pyogenes, the streptococcal cysteine proteinase and M protein.
  • Collins, James, et al. (författare)
  • Fibrinogen-binding and platelet-aggregation activities of a Lactobacillus salivarius septicaemia isolate are mediated by a novel fibrinogen-binding protein.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 85:5, s. 862-877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The marketplace for probiotic foods is burgeoning, measured in billions of euro per annum. It is imperative, however, that all bacterial strains are fully assessed for human safety. The ability to bind fibrinogen is considered a potential pathogenicity trait that can lead to platelet aggregation, serious medical complications, and in some instances, death. Here we examined strains from species frequently used as probiotics for their ability to bind human fibrinogen. Only one strain (CCUG 47825), a Lactobacillus salivarius isolate from a case of septicaemia, was found to strongly adhere to fibrinogen. Furthermore, this strain was found to aggregate human platelets at a level comparable to the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. By sequencing the genome of CCUG 47825, we were able to identify candidate genes responsible for fibrinogen binding. Complementing the genetic analysis with traditional molecular microbiological techniques enabled the identification of the novel fibrinogen receptor, CCUG_2371. Although only strain CCUG 47825 bound fibrinogen under laboratory conditions, homologues of the novel fibrinogen binding gene CCUG_2371 are widespread among L. salivarius strains, maintaining their potential to bind fibrinogen if expressed. We highlight the fact that without a full genetic analysis of strains for human consumption, potential pathogenicity traits may go undetected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • Frendeus, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Escherichia coli P fimbriae utilize the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway for cell activation
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 40:1, s. 37-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fimbriae mediate bacterial attachment to host cells and provide a mechanism for tissue attack. They activate a host response by delivery of microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or through direct fimbriae-dependent signalling mechanisms. By coupling to glycosphingolipid (GSL) receptors, P fimbriae trigger cytokine responses in CD14 negative host cells. Here we show that P fimbriae utilize the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent pathway to trigger mucosal inflammation. Escherichia coli strains expressing P fimbriae as their only virulence factor stimulated chemokine and neutrophil responses in the urinary tract of TLR4 proficient mice, but TLR4 defective mice failed to respond to infection. Mucosal cells were CD14 negative but expressed several TLR species including TLR4, and TLR4 protein was detected. Infection with P fimbriated bacteria stimulated an increase in TLR4 mRNA levels. The activation signal did not involve the LPS-CD14 pathway and was independent of lipid A myristoylation, as shown by mutational inactivation of the msbB gene. Co-staining experiments revealed that TLR4 and the GSL receptors for P fimbriae co-localized in the cell membrane. The results demonstrate that P fimbriae activate epithelial cells by means of a TLR4-dependent signalling pathway, and suggest that GSL receptors for P fimbriae can recruit TLR4 as co-receptors.
  • Frick, Inga-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a novel protein promoting the colonization and survival of Finegoldia magna, a bacterial commensal and opportunistic pathogen.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 70, s. 695-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anaerobic bacteria dominate the human normal microbiota but strikingly little is known about these commensals. Finegoldia magna is a Gram-positive anaerobe found in the skin and at other non-sterile body surfaces, but it is also an opportunistic pathogen. This study describes a novel protein designated FAF (F. magnaAdhesion Factor) and expressed by more than ninety percent of F. magna isolates. The protein is present in substantial quantities at the F.magna surface but is also released from the surface. FAF forms large protein aggregates in solution and surface-associated FAF causes bacterial clumping. In skin F. magna bacteria were localized to the epidermis, where they adhere to basement membranes. FAF was found to mediate this adhesion via interactions with BM-40, a basement membrane protein. The biological significance of FAF is further underlined by the observation that it blocks the activity of LL-37, a major human antibacterial peptide. Altogether, the data demonstrate that FAF plays an important role in colonization and survival of F. magna in the human host.
  • Frick, Inga-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Protein H--a surface protein of Streptococcus pyogenes with separate binding sites for IgG and albumin
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 12:1, s. 143-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protein H, a molecule expressed at the surface of some strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, has affinity for the constant (IgGFc) region of immunoglobulin (Ig) G. In absorption experiments with human plasma, protein H-sepharose could absorb not only IgG but also albumin from plasma. The affinity constant for the reaction between albumin and protein H was 7.8 x 10(9) M-1, which is higher than the affinity between IgG and protein H (Ka = 1.6 x 10(9) M-1). Fragments of protein H were generated with deletion plasmids and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Using these fragments in various protein-protein interaction assays, the binding of albumin was mapped to three repeats (C1-C3) in the C-terminal half of protein H. On the albumin molecule, the binding site for protein H was found to overlap the site for protein G, another albumin- and IgGFc-binding bacterial surface protein. Also IgGFc-binding could be mapped with the protein H fragments and the region was found N-terminally of the C repeats. A synthetic peptide (25 amino acid residues long) based on a sequence in this region was shown to inhibit the binding of protein H to immobilized IgG or IgGFc. This sequence was not found in previously described IgGFc-binding proteins. However, two other cell surface proteins of S. pyogenes exhibited highly homologous regions. The results identify IgGFc- and albumin-binding regions of protein H and further define and emphasize the convergent evolution among bacterial surface proteins interacting with human plasma proteins.
  • Frick, Inga-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Uptake and intracellular transportation of a bacterial surface protein in lymphoid cells.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2958. ; 44:4, s. 917-934
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some strains of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes express a surface protein called protein H, which is released from the streptococcal surface by a cysteine proteinase produced by the bacteria. Here, we find that soluble protein H binds to the surface of lymphocytes and granulocytes, and that the molecule is taken up by lymphocytes and transported to the perinuclear region. The translocation over the cell membrane is rapid, and the uptake and intracellular transportation is not dependent on actin polymerization. Protein H could be immunoprecipitated from cell extracts and nuclear preparations of lymphocytes, and analysis of molecular interactions between pro-tein H and proteins of different cellular compart-ments demonstrated a binding to nucleophosmin/ B23, a protein known to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and to the nuclear proteins SET and hnRNP A2/B1. Nucleophosmin/B23 was co-immunoprecipitated with protein H from cell and nuclear extracts, and binding experiments, including kinetic analyses, suggest that protein H dissociating from nucleophosmin/B23 complexes in the perinuclear region or in the nucleus binds to proteins SET and hnRNP A2/B1. Finally, the uptake and intracellular transportation of protein H was found to result in a cytostatic effect on B and T lymphocytes.
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