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Sökning: L773:1365 3016

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  • Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • The SELMA study : a birth cohort study in Sweden following more than 2000 mother-child pairs
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - Hoboken, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 26:5, s. 456-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:  This paper describes the background, aim and study design for the Swedish SELMA study that aimed to investigate the importance of early life exposure during pregnancy and infancy to environmental factors with a major focus on endocrine disrupting chemicals for multiple chronic diseases/disorders in offspring.Methods: The cohort was established by recruiting women in the 10th week of pregnancy. Blood and urine from the pregnant women and the child and air and dust from home environment from pregnancy and infancy period have been collected. Questionnaires were used to collect information on life styles, socio-economic status, living conditions, diet and medical history.Results: Of the 8394 reported pregnant women, 6658 were invited to participate in the study. Among the invited women, 2582 (39%) agreed to participate. Of the 4076 (61%) non-participants, 2091 women were invited to a non-respondent questionnaire in order to examine possible selection bias. We found a self-selection bias in the established cohort when compared with the non-participant group, e.g. participating families did smoke less (14% vs. 19%), had more frequent asthma and allergy symptoms in the family (58% vs. 38%), as well as higher education among the mothers (51% vs. 36%) and more often lived in single-family houses (67% vs. 60%).Conclusions: These findings indicate that the participating families do not fully represent the study population and thus, the exposure in this population. However, there is no obvious reason that this selection bias will have an impact on identification of environmental risk factors.
  • Li, Xinjun, et al. (författare)
  • Parental occupation and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 24:6, s. 555-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hypothesis was that some occupations could lead to preterm birth (PTB) because of potential exposures to various agents. The objective in this nationwide follow-up study was to analyse the association between PTB and parental occupational groups, controlling for potential confounders. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, in which all children born in Sweden from 1990 onward are registered with their parents, were linked to census data. Inclusion criteria for the study population were employment (both women and men) and age >20 years (women). There were 816,743 first singleton live births from 1990 to 2004, of whom 43,956 were PTBs. A total of 7659 of the 43,956 PTBs were very PTBs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated separately for mothers and fathers to estimate the odds of PTB and very PTB in 51 occupational groups (reference groups: mothers or fathers who were 'Technical, science research-related workers and physicians') and by family income level. Women and men with low family incomes had increased ORs of PTB and very PTB. Significantly increased ORs of PTB (including very PTB) were found in four maternal and nine paternal occupational groups after accounting for family income, geographic region of residence, civil status, smoking habits, maternal age at infant's birth and period of birth. Further studies should examine specific agents in those parental occupations that were associated with increased odds of PTB and very PTB.
  • Aden, A S, et al. (författare)
  • The growth chart - a road to health chart? : Maternal comprehension of the growth chart in two Somali villages
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 4:3, s. 340-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Growth monitoring is so far not implemented on a large scale in the Somali health services. Available reports indicate that growth faltering is common. However, the use of growth charts as a tool for health education has been questioned. This study examines the ability of 199, predominantly illiterate, rural Somali mothers to understand the growth chart message after an intensive period of growth chart use and education. During a home-based interview the mothers were asked to combine a set of four growth curves with a set of four pictures, showing the corresponding developments of four children. The mothers managed significantly better to interpret the charts than could be expected by chance alone. Maternal age, number of children and literacy did not differ much between those who correctly and incorrectly combined pictures and charts. Almost all mothers recognised the value of the growth chart as being good for the control and promotion of their children's health and/or growth. We conclude that the growth chart may be an applicable and appropriate tool even with illiterate mothers, provided that other prerequisites for successful growth monitoring, e.g. appropriate health services, are available.
  • Ali Khan, A., et al. (författare)
  • Does in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids influence birthweight, head circumference and birth length? : A systematic review of current evidence in humans
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 25:1, s. 20-36
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Synthetic glucocorticoids are the mainstay treatment for stimulating lung maturation in threatened preterm delivery. Animal studies suggest that in utero exposure to glucocorticoids leads to a reduction in birth size. Smaller birthweight has been associated with higher risk of many chronic diseases. Therefore, the authors undertook a systematic review of human studies examining the association between synthetic glucocorticoid treatment and birth size. Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar and Institute of Life Science databases were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2009 investigating the association between synthetic glucocorticoids and birthweight, head circumference, birth length and ponderal index. All studies controlling for gestational age were examined. Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. Nine out of 17 studies reported a reduction in birthweight (range 12-332 g), five of nine a reduction of head circumference (range 0.31-1.02 cm) and two of four a reduction of 0.8 cm in birth length. Despite methodological inconsistencies and limitations that impede clear conclusions, the evidence suggests an association between in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids and reduced birth size.
  • Graner, Sophie, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes and their determinants in rural Vietnam 1999-2005
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 24:6, s. 535-545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Population-based estimations of perinatal and neonatal outcomes are sparse in Vietnam. There are no previously published data on small for gestational age (SGA) infants. A rural population in northern Vietnam was investigated from 1999 to 2005 (n = 5521). Based on the birthweight distributions within the population under study, reference curves for intrauterine growth for Vietnamese infants were constructed and the prevalence and distribution of SGA was calculated for each sex. Neonatal mortality was estimated as 11.6 per 1000 live births and the perinatal mortality as 25.0 per 1000 births during the study period. The mean birthweight was 3112 g and the prevalence of low birthweight was 5.0%. The overall prevalence of SGA was 6.4%. SGA increased with gestational age and was 2.2%, 4.5% and 27.1% for preterm, term and post-term infants, respectively. Risk factors for SGA were post-term birth: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 7.75 [95% CI 6.02, 9.98], mothers in farming occupations AOR 1.72 [95% CI 1.21, 2.45] and female infant AOR 1.61 [95% CI 1.27, 2.03]. There was a pronounced decrease in neonatal mortality after 33 weeks of gestation. Suggested interventions are improved prenatal identification of SGA infants by ultrasound investigation for fetal growth among infants who do not follow their expected clinical growth curve at the antenatal clinic. Other suggestions include allocating a higher proportion of preterm deliveries to health facilities with surgical capacity and neonatal care.
  • Haglund, Bengt (författare)
  • Birthweight distributions by gestational age : comparison of LMP-based and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age using data from the Swedish Birth Registry
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 21, s. 72-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies based on data from the US have reported that the birthweight distribution at gestational age 28-31 weeks is bimodal with a second peak occurring at approximately 3300 g, suggesting that there is misclassification of term infants. In these studies, gestational ages were estimated from the date of the last menstrual period (LMP), and it has been suggested that ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age would eliminate the problem with bimodal birthweight distributions. Swedish data include both measures, thus offering an opportunity for comparison. All singleton births in Sweden from 1993 to 2002 with information on birthweight were included in the study (n = 917 901). Both LMP- and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age were available for 75.1% of the births. Two possible sources of misclassification were considered: measurement error, assuming that ultrasound-based estimates are better, and data entry errors. An algorithm for assessment of data entry errors was developed; 67.4% of the births were left for the analyses of data 'cleaned' from data entry errors. Based on the entire study population, the LMP-based birthweight curves for lower-gestational-age preterm births were bimodal, with a second peak around 3500 g. The bimodal distribution was greatly attenuated when using ultrasound-based gestational age categories, but did not disappear. After cleaning the data, the LMP-based birthweight distributions for infants at gestational ages < 32 weeks were no longer bimodal, and were very similar to the ultrasound-based curves. In conclusion, data entry errors are more likely to cause the bimodality in the birthweight distribution among preterm infants than measurement errors in the LMP-based gestational age estimate.
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