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Sökning: L773:1382 5585 OR L773:1744 4128

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1.
  • Derwinger, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Remembering Numbers in Old Age : Mnemonic Training Versus Self-Generated Strategy Training
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. - : Routledge. - 1382-5585 .- 1744-4128. ; 10:3, s. 202-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effectiveness of two memory training programs designed to enhance four-digit number recall was examined in 90 healthy older adults. One group received instruction and training in the number-consonant mnemonic, whereas another group was instructed to adopt their own encoding and retrieval strategies to enhance number recall. Also, a control group receiving no training between testing occasions was included. The criterion task was administered according to the Buschke selective reminding procedure. Posttest performance was evaluated with and without cognitive support for remembering (i.e., verbal cues). Under unsupported conditions, the mnemonic group improved number recall following training and the selfgenerated strategy group showed a tendency in the same direction. When support was provided, group differences in favor of the two training groups increased. In addition, no training-related gains were observed in two verbal transfer tasks. The relatively similar patterns of gains in the two intervention groups were discussed in terms of advantages and disadvantages in the two training regimens balancing each other.
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2.
  • Fernaeus, Sven-Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Conceptual elaboration versus direct lexical access in WAIS-similarities : differential effects of white-matter lesions and gray matter volumes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. - 1382-5585 .- 1744-4128. ; 25:6, s. 893-903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data. Factor analysis supported the hypothesis that two factors are involved in the performance of WAIS-similarities: (1) semiautomatic lexical access and (2) conceptual elaboration. These factors were highly correlated but provided discriminative diagnostic information: In logistic regression analyses, scores of the lexical access factor and of the conceptual elaboration factor discriminated patients with mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer’s disease patients and from healthy controls, respectively. High scores of WMH, indicating periventricular white-matter lesions, predicted factor scores of direct lexical access but not those of conceptual elaboration, which were predicted only by medial and lateral temporal lobe volumes.
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4.
  • Fällman, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Normative data for the oldest old: Trail Making Test A, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Victoria Stroop Test and Parallel Serial Mental Operations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. - : ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1382-5585 .- 1744-4128. ; 27:4, s. 567-550
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Normative data for evaluating cognitive function in the oldest old, aged 85 years and above, are currently sparse. The normative values used in clinical practice are often derived from younger old persons, from small sample sizes or from broad age spans (e.g. amp;gt;75 years) resulting in a risk of misjudgment in assessments of cognitive decline. This longitudinal study presents normative values for the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the Victoria Stroop Test (VST) and the Parallel Serial Mental Operations (PaSMO) from cognitively intact Swedes aged 85 years and above. 207 participants, born in 1922, were tested at 85, 90 (n = 68) and 93 (n = 35) years of age with a cognitive screening test battery. The participants were originally recruited for participation in the Elderly in Linkoping Screening Assessment. Normative values are presented as mean values and standard deviations, with and without adjustment for education. There were no clinically important differences between genders, but education had a significant effect on test results for the 85-year-olds. Age effects emerged in analyses of those participants who completed the entire study and were evident for TMT-A, SDMT, VST1 and PaSMO. When comparisons can be made, our results are in accordance with previous data for TMT-A, SDMT and VST, and we present new normative values for PaSMO.
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5.
  • Habib, Reza, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive and non-cognitive factors contributing to the longitudinal identification of successful older adults in the Betula study.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition.. - Lisse : Swets & Zeitlinger. ; 14:3, s. 257-273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of successful aging have typically defined elderly who fall in the upper end of a distribution of test scores as successful. A different definition of successful aging requires that older adults fall at or above the mean level of younger adults and maintain this level over time. Here we examined this definition of successful aging in a sample of 1463 individuals between 50 to 85 years of age. Based on principal coordinate analysis of cognitive and non-cognitive variables, we identified a group of 55 (8.3%) 70-85 years olds that were high functioning. This group of elderly showed elevated performance on a range of cognitive tasks. Non-cognitive factors that characterized this group included education and subjective health. The participants were re-tested 5 years later and the same type of analysis was repeated. Of the remaining individuals who initially were classified as high functioning, 18 (35%) remained high functioning and thus met the definition for successful aging. Years of education was a significant predictor of who remained successful over time.
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  • Hassing, L, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality-related differences and changes in episodic memory among the oldest old : evidence from a population-based sample of nonagenarians
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1382-5585 .- 1744-4128. ; 9:1, s. 11-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes in episodic memory performance related to impending death among a group of very old people, aged 90–101 years. Participants were assessed at 3 measurement points across a 6-year interval. Three groups were identified: those who survived the entire follow-up period (n =40), those who died before the first follow-up (n =44), and those who died after the first follow-up (n =14). Participants completed a battery of episodic memory tasks consisting of face recognition, word recognition, word recall, and object recall with selective reminding. Those who survived performed better than those who were going to die in object recall at baseline. A Cox regression analysis, controlling age, revealed that object recall performance was significantly related to subsequent mortality status. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated significant 3-year decline for both face recognition and object recall, but no evidence of differential decline as a function of mortality group. Thus, longitudinal changes in memory preceding death were not as pronounced as the corresponding cross-sectional differences in this very old sample. In general, the results suggest that mortality-related memory deficits are present in extreme old age, although these deficits are relatively small and task-specific.
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10.
  • Johansson, Maria M., et al. (författare)
  • Cognition, daily living, and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1382-5585 .- 1744-4128. ; 19:3, s. 421-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates how cognition influences activities of daily living and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden (n = 373). Data collection included a postal questionnaire comprising demographics and health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D. The ability to perform personal activities of daily living (PADL) was assessed during a home visit that included administering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was shown in 108 individuals (29%). The majority were independent with respect to PADL. A larger number of participants with cognitive impairment reported that they needed assistance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) compared to the group without cognitive impairment. Impaired cognition was significantly related to problems with IADL. Significant but low correlations were found between cognition and health-related quality of life – higher ratings on perceived quality of life correlated with higher results on the MMSE.
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