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Sökning: L773:1386 341X

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  • Casanueva, Felipe F., et al. (författare)
  • Criteria for the definition of Pituitary Tumor Centers of Excellence (PTCOE): A Pituitary Society Statement
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 20, s. 489-498
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017, The Author(s). Introduction: With the goal of generate uniform criteria among centers dealing with pituitary tumors and to enhance patient care, the Pituitary Society decided to generate criteria for developing Pituitary Tumors Centers of Excellence (PTCOE). Methods: To develop that task, a group of ten experts served as a Task Force and through two years of iterative work an initial draft was elaborated. This draft was discussed, modified and finally approved by the Board of Directors of the Pituitary Society. Such document was presented and debated at a specific session of the Congress of the Pituitary Society, Orlando 2017, and suggestions were incorporated. Finally the document was distributed to a large group of global experts that introduced further modifications with final endorsement. Results: After five years of iterative work a document with the ideal criteria for a PTCOE is presented. Conclusions: Acknowledging that very few centers in the world, if any, likely fulfill the requirements here presented, the document may be a tool to guide improvements of care delivery to patients with pituitary disorders. All these criteria must be accommodated to the regulations and organization of Health of a given country.
  • Casar-Borota, Olivera, et al. (författare)
  • A high-throughput analysis of the IDH1(R132H) protein expression in pituitary adenomas
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 19:4, s. 407-414
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inactivating mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2, mitochondrial enzymes participating in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle play a role in the tumorigenesis of gliomas and also less frequently in acute myeloid leukemia and other malignancies. Inhibitors of mutant IDH1 and IDH2 may potentially be effective in the treatment of the IDH mutation driven tumors. Mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase, the other enzyme complex participating in the Krebs cycle and electron transfer of oxidative phosphorylation occur in the paragangliomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and occasionally in the pituitary adenomas. We aimed to determine whether the IDH1(R132H) mutation, the most frequent IDH mutation in human malignancies, occurs in pituitary adenomas. We performed immunohistochemical analysis by using a monoclonal anti-IDH1(R132H) antibody on the tissue microarrays containing specimens from the pituitary adenomas of different hormonal types from 246 patients. In positive samples, the status of the IDH1 gene was further examined by molecular genetic analyses. In all but one patient, there was no expression of mutated IDH1(R132H) protein in the tumor cells by immunohistochemistry. Only one patient with a recurring clinically non-functioning gonadotroph adenoma demonstrated IDH1(R132H)-immunostaining in both the primary tumor and the recurrence. However, no mutation in the IDH1 gene was detected using different molecular genetic analyses. IDH1(R132H) mutation occurs only exceptionally in pituitary adenomas and does not play a role in their pathogenesis. Patients with pituitary adenomas do not seem to be candidates for treatment with the inhibitors of mutant IDH1.
  • Esposito, Daniela, et al. (författare)
  • Pituitary dysfunction in granulomatosis with polyangiitis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X. ; 20:5, s. 594-601
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a multisystem disease, characterized by necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis, which mainly affects the respiratory tract and the kidneys. Pituitary involvement in GPA is rare, present in about 1% of all cases of GPA. To date, only case reports or small case series have been published. Herein we report clinical features, imaging findings, treatment and outcomes in three patients with GPA-related pituitary dysfunction (PD). A retrospective analysis of three cases of GPA-related PD was conducted, followed by systematic review of the English medical literature using PubMed. The three cases include three women aged between 32 and 37 years. PD was the presenting feature in one and two developed PD in the course of the disease. All patients had a pituitary lesion on MRI. Conventional treatment with high doses of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide led to resolution or improvement of the MRI abnormalities, whereas it was not effective in restoring PD. A systematic review identified 51 additional patients, showing that GPA can lead to partial or global PD, either at onset or, during the course of the disease. Secondary hypogonadism is the predominant manifestation, followed by diabetes insipidus (DI). Sellar mass with central cystic lesion is the most frequent radiological finding. GPA should be carefully considered in patients with a sellar mass and unusual clinical presentation with DI and systemic disease. Although conventional induction-remission treatment improves systemic symptoms and radiological pituitary abnormalities, hormonal deficiencies persist in most of the patients. Therefore, follow-up should include both imaging and pituitary function assessment.
  • Janson, Eva Tiensuu (författare)
  • Treatment of neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogs
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 9:3, s. 249-256
  • Forskningsöversikt (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Neuroendocrine tumors constitute a group of hormone producing tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells in different organs. Most tumors have a low proliferation index measured by Ki67 and the progression of the tumor is slow. However, many patients suffer from endocrine symptoms induced by the hormones produced and released by the tumor cells. For some patients these symptoms can be life- threatening as in midgut carcinoid patients suffering from carcinoid crises with extensive flushes and hypotension or in patients with severe diarrhea induced by tumors producing vasointestinal polypeptide. In many other patients the hormone-induced symptoms interfere with the ability to carry out ordinary daily activities. The introduction of somatostatin analogs in the treatment of these hormone related symptoms has made it possible to control most of them and has added significantly to the quality of life for this group of patients. Unfortunately, the clinical inhibitory effect on tumor growth has not been very good with only 5-10% of the patients showing an objective response. However, stabilization of tumor growth may be achieved in a significant number of patients. In the future, the hope is that development of new somatostatin analogs with broader receptor-binding profiles will give us new analogs which are more efficient with regard to their antiproliferative effect. This possibility will be studied in future trials.
  • Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosis and management of acromegaly : the patient's perspective
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 19:3, s. 268-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE:Early diagnosis is a success factor for the prevention of long-term comorbidity and premature death in patients with acromegaly, but large-scale data on the diagnostic process and disease management are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic process, implementation of treatment and changes in life situation in patients with acromegaly, focusing on sex-specific differences.METHODS:Non-interventional patient-reported outcome study. 165 patients with clinically and biochemically proven acromegaly were questioned about the diagnostic process and utilization of health care by means of a self-developed standardized postal survey including questions on acromegaly symptoms experienced before diagnosis, number and specialty of consulted doctors, time to diagnosis and aftercare.RESULTS:The diagnostic process took 2.9 (SD 4.53) years, during which 3.4 (SD 2.99) physicians were consulted. Women waited longer [4.1 (SD 5.53) years] than men [1.6 (SD 2.69) years; p = 0.001] for the correct diagnosis, and consulted more doctors in the process [4.0 (SD 2.99) vs. 2.7 (SD 2.84) doctors, p < 0.001, respectively]. In 48.5 % of patients, acromegaly was diagnosed by an endocrinologist (men: 45.1 %; women: 52.4 %). Overall disease duration from symptom onset until last surgery was 5.5 (SD 6.85) years, with no sex differences. A change in employment status was the most commonly reported event after diagnosis and a quarter of the patients stated that the illness had changed their lives.CONCLUSIONS:Our findings confirm the urgent need to increase awareness of the clinical manifestation of acromegaly to facilitate an earlier diagnosis of the disease and to provide diagnostic equality across the sexes.
  • Manojlovic-Gacic, Emilija, et al. (författare)
  • Histopathological classification of non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 21:2, s. 119-129
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do not cause endocrine symptoms related to hypersecretion of adenohypophyseal hormones and are clinically characterized by symptoms due to growing sellar tumor mass. Histopathological classification of this tumor group has always been challenging due to their heterogeneity, limited knowledge on their biology, and diverse methodological problems. We have searched PubMed database for data related to the histopathological classification of non-functioning pituitary tumors and methods for its application. Principles of the classification and grading presented in the recently released 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of endocrine tumors have been summarized. Based on the expression of anterior pituitary hormones and pituitary specific transcription factors, gonadotroph tumors dominate within the group of clinically non-functioning tumors, followed by corticotroph type; however, other less common types of the non-functioning tumors can be identified. Assessment of tumor cell proliferation is important to identify "high-risk adenomas." A few subtypes of non-functioning tumors belong to the category of potentially aggressive tumors, independent of the cell proliferation rate. Here, we present up to date criteria for the classification of clinically non-functioning pituitary tumors, offer a diagnostic approach for the routine clinical use, and emphasize a need for inclusion of prognostic and predictive markers in the classification.
  • Nyström, Helena Filipsson, 1966, et al. (författare)
  • The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in adult hypopituitary patients.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1573-7403 .- 1386-341X. ; 15:4, s. 495-504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in patients with central hypothyroidism (CH) need to be evaluated. The aim was to examine the outcome of thyroxine replacement in CH. Adult hypopituitary patients (n = 1595) with and without CH from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) were studied before and after 2 years of GH replacement. CH patients (CH, n = 1080) were compared with TSH sufficient patients (TSHsuff n = 515) as one group and divided by thyroxine dose/kg/day into tertiles (CHlow-mid-high). Anthropometry, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, lipids, IGF-I SDS, quality of life and morbidity were studied. Analyses were standardized for gender, age, number and types of pituitary insufficiencies, stimulated GH peak, age at GH deficiency onset, aetiologies and, when appropriate, for weight and GH dose. At baseline, TSHsuff patients did not differ from CH or CHmid in any outcome. CHlow (≤1.18 μg thyroxine/kg/day) had increased weight, BMI and larger waist circumference (WC), CHhigh (≥1.58 μg thyroxine/kg/day) had lower weight, BMI, WC and IGF-I than TSHsuff and compared to their predicted weights, BMIs and WCs. For every 0.1 μg/kg/day increase of thyroxine dose, body weight decreased 1.0 kg, BMI 0.3 kg/m(2), and WC 0.65 cm. The GH sensitivity of the CH group was higher (0.76 ± 0.56 SDS/mg GH) than that of TSHsuff patients (0.58 ± 0.64 SDS/mg GH), P < 0.001. The middle thyroxine dose (1.19-1.57 μg/kg/day) seems to be the most physiological. This is equivalent to 70, 100, 125 μg thyroxine/day for hypopituitary patients of 50, 70 or 90 kg weight, respectively.
  • Olivius, C., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and treatment of central hypogonadism and hypoandrogenism in women with hypopituitarism
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X. ; 21:5, s. 445-453
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Women with hypopituitarism have increased morbidity and mortality, and hypogonadism has been suggested to be a contributing mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of central hypogonadism and hypoandrogenism in women with hypopituitarism at a single Swedish center. Methods All consecutive women (n = 184) who commenced growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg between 1995 and 2015 were included. In accordance with the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines, strict criteria, based on menstrual history combined with laboratory measurements, were used to define central hypogonadism. Hypoandrogenism was defined as subnormal levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and/or androstenedione. Results Central hypogonadism was present in 78% of the women, in 75% of those ≤ 52 years and in 82% of those > 52 years of age. Hypoandrogenism was found in 61% of all the women and in 92% of those with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. The estrogen substitution rate in hypogonadal women ≤ 52 years was lower than the hormonal substitution rate in the other pituitary hormone axes (74% versus 100%, P < 0.001). The use of estrogen substitution tended to decrease between 2000 and 2016. Few women received androgen treatment. Conclusions In this first study of hypogonadism in women with hypopituitarism, using stringent diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, the prevalence of central hypogonadism and low androgen levels was high and estrogen substitution was insufficient. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of hypogonadism and insufficient sex steroid replacement for the increased morbidity in hypopituitary women.
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