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1.
  • Annerstedt, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Family caregiving in dementia
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Taylor & Francis. - 1403-4948. ; 28:1, s. 23-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The burden of caregivers of patients suffering from of Alzheimer type dementia (DAT) and vascular dementia (VD) was analysed at the critical time, the “breaking-point”, when home care becomes insufficient and/or inadequate and the caregiver burden has probably reached its upper limit. Primary family caregivers of 39 DAT and 40 VD patients who were being considered for relocation into group-living units were studied. Total caregiving burden and different aspects of the burden: general strain, isolation, disappointment, and emotional involvement, were correlated with the patients’ diagnoses, abilities, and symptoms. Closer kinship to the patient imposed a heavier burden. The caregiver’s gender, social class, and previous institutionalization of the patient did not influence the caregiver burden. There was no significant correlation between the patients’ ADL ability or cognition and the burden. A higher level of disappointment was found among the VD carers. Different symptomatology in patients of the two diagnostic groups was related to special aspects of the burden. Multiple regression analysis showed that the amount of caregiving time each week and impaired sense of own identity, misidentifications, clinical fluctuations, and nocturnal deterioration in the patients predicted the breaking-point.
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3.
  • af Sillén, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Self-rated health in relation to age and gender: influence on mortality risk in the Malmö Preventive Project.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Taylor & Francis. - 1403-4948. ; 33:3, s. 183-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: A study was undertaken to examine whether poor self-rated health (SRH) can independently predict all-cause mortality during 22-year follow-up in middle-aged men and women. Subjects and methods: Data are derived from a population-based study in Malmo¨ , Sweden. This included baseline laboratory testing and a self-administered questionnaire. The question on global SRH was answered by 15,590 men (mean age 46.4 years) and 10,089 women (49.4 years). Social background characteristics (occupation, marital status) were based on data from national censuses. Mortality was retrieved from national registers. Results: At screening 4,261 (27.3%) men and 3,085 (30.6%) women reported poor SRH. Among subjects rating their SRH as low, 1,022 (24.0%) men and 228 (7.4%) women died during follow-up. Corresponding figures for subjects rating their SRH as high were 1801 (15.9%) men and 376 (5.4%) women. An analysis of survival in subjects reporting poor SRH revealed an age-adjusted hazard risk ratio (HR, 95%CI) for men HR 1.5 (1.4–1.7), and for women HR 1.4 (1.2–1.6). The corresponding HR after adjusting for possible social confounders was for men HR 1.3 (1.1–1.4), and women HR 1.1 (0.9–1.4). When additional adjustment was made for biological risk factors the association for men was still significant, HR 1.2 (1.1–1.3). Conclusion: Poor SRH predicts increased long-term mortality in healthy, middle-aged subjects. For men the association is independent of both social background and selected biological variables. The adjustment for biological variables can be questioned as they might represent mediating mechanisms in a possible causal chain of events.
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4.
  • Aglen, B., et al. (författare)
  • Self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties in a Nordic context : A review
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 39:8, s. 813-822
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this review is to provide systematic knowledge of research from Nordic countries about the meaning of self-help and self-help groups when these are used as a concept or method addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties. Methods: Included were studies conducted in the Nordic countries that were published between January 1999 and September 2009. These studies investigated self-help and self-help groups addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems. Results: A total of 83 publications met the inclusion criteria. Four major characteristics of self-help were found to be present in the publications: self-help as an intrapsychological process, self-help as an interpsychological or group process, self-help as a coping, individual learning or empowerment process, and self-help as an alternative or complement to medical treatment. Of the 83 studies, 72 publications used a professional treatment perspective for studying self-help and 11 publications used a perspective derived from alternative or complementary therapies. Conclusions: The review shows that most of the research on self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or disability is conducted with an interest to improve the professional healthcare system. That is, the health-promotion strategy is mainly considered in the framework of treatment or care settings. This means that self-help in this context does not challenge the dominant biomedical health model. © 2011 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
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6.
  • Ahlborg, Tone, 1950-, et al. (författare)
  • Sense of Coherence in first-time parents – a longitudinal study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 41:6, s. 623-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Antonovsky’s idea of sense of coherence (SOC) is related to wellbeing and is of importance for individuals in public health care. SOC in parents with healthy children has not previously been studied. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the SOC of first-time parents during the first 8 years of their child’s life, (2) to describe gender differences in regards to SOC, and (3) to describe covariates with SOC in the parents’ life situations. Methods: The study was longitudinal comprising three cross-sectional studies conducted when the first child was 6 months (T1), 4 years (T2), and 8 years (T3) of age. A sample of 258 mothers and fathers answered a questionnaire on the experienced quality of their partner relationship (QDR36) on all three occasions. SOC was measured using the SOC-13, and psychosocial variables were included at T2 and T3. Descriptive, comparative statistics and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: SOC decreased for both genders at T2 and increased again at T3. At T1 and T2 the fathers’ SOC was statistically higher than that of the mothers, but at T3 this difference could no longer be statistically secured. Covariates at T2 were QDR index, social support, experience of parenthood, strained economy, and health. Covariates at T3 were experience of parenthood and social support, QDR index, and strained economy. Conclusions: SOC in first-time parents decreased at 4 years, especially in mothers, and social support can be of significance for parents of young children to be able to experience health.
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7.
  • Ahlner, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of alcohol and other drugs and the concentrations in blood of drivers killed in road traffic crashes in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - SAGE Publications (UK and US). - 1403-4948. ; 42:2, s. 177-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Drunk or drug-impaired drivers represent a major public health and societal problem worldwide. Because over 95% of drivers killed on the roads in Sweden are autopsied, reliable information is available about the use of alcohol and/or other drug before the crash. Methods: This retrospective 4-year study (2008-2011) used a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to evaluate the concentrations of alcohol and other drugs in blood samples from drivers killed in road-traffic crashes. Results: The mean age of all victims (N = 895) was 48 +/- 20 years, and the majority were male (86%). In 504 drivers (56%), the results of toxicological analysis were negative and these victims were older; mean age (+/- SD) 47 +/- 20 years, than alcohol positive cases (35 +/- 14 years) and illicit drug users (34 +/- 15 years). In 21% of fatalities, blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) was above the statutory limit for driving (0.2 g/L), although the median BAC was appreciably higher (1.72 g/L). Illicit drugs (mainly amphetamine and cannabis) were identified in similar to 7% of victims, either alone (2.5%), together with alcohol (1.8%) or a prescription drug (2%). The psychoactive prescription drugs identified were mainly benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and tramadol, which were found in the blood of 7.6% of crash victims. Conclusions: The high median BAC in fatally-injured drivers speaks strongly towards alcohol-induced impairment as being responsible for the crash. Compared with alcohol, the prevalence of illicit and psychoactive prescription drugs was fairly low despite a dramatic increase in the number of drug-impaired drivers arrested by the police after a zero-tolerance law was introduced in 1999.
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8.
  • Akerstedt, Torbjorn, et al. (författare)
  • Psychosocial stress and health problems : Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 2012. Chapter 6
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Sage Publications. - 1403-4948. ; 40:9 suppl, s. 121-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Stress can be defined as an imbalance between demands placed on us and our ability to manage them. The body’s stress system is adapted to confront sudden physical threats. Today, however, we are increasingly exposed to prolonged mental and psychosocial stress. Prolonged stress can give rise to a range of problems: poor performance, chronic fatigue, disinterest, dejection, memory disturbances, sleep problems, numbness and diffuse muscle pains. These symptoms may eventually be followed by depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome, and ultimately chronic pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Sleep is a vital counterbalance to stress as it enables the body to recover properly. Good sleep is thus essential to our ability to cope with stress and stay healthy.The decline in the mental wellbeing of the population since the 1980s has been accompanied by a rise in the number of pain complaints. A similar development in respect of symptoms such as anxiousness, nervousness and anxiety, constant fatigue and neck and shoulder pain and sleeping problems has been observed in the population. This increase, which continued throughout the 1990s and culminated in 2001, was followed by a slight fall. However, there was no decline among young people in the early 2000s. Rather, the number of complaints continued to increase.Since the mid-1990s, the proportion of people suffering from stress symptoms has risen and fallen in step with employment levels. Since the beginning of the 1980s, growing numbers of people in gainful employment have experienced their work as hectic and mentally taxing. This may indicate that the balance between healthy and unhealthy factors impacting the actively employed has tilted towards less favourable conditions. Mental stress at work has increased among women and men, particularly among county council employees. Repeated organisational restructuring may explain why hectic and mentally taxing work has become more commonplace. Mental ill-health along with musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent diagnoses in connection with newly granted disability pensions. Sickness absence trends largely reflect the trend in stress symptoms.
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9.
  • Al-Emrani, Faisal, et al. (författare)
  • The influences of childhood and adult socioeconomic position on body mass index: A longitudinal Swedish cohort study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of public health. - Sage Publications. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 41:5, s. 463-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Low socioeconomic position (SEP) in adulthood has been associated with overweight and obesity in high-income countries. However, little is known about the contribution of childhood SEP to weight change. Using a Swedish general population sample, this study aimed to examine the association between five-year weight gain among adults and socioeconomic position in childhood and adulthood. Methods: The data was drawn from the Scania Public Health Cohort and included 4244 individuals (1816 males and 2428 females) between the ages of 29 and 60 years, stratified by sex and age (29-39 and 40-60 years). General linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. Results: Adult SEP was inversely correlated to BMI at baseline in males and older females. Childhood SEP showed no clear pattern regarding current BMI or the risk of being overweight at baseline, either in males or females. However, BMI increase between baseline and follow-up was greater in the highest adult SEP groups than in lowest ones for both males and females, although with a weaker trend among females. High childhood SEP was associated with a greater BMI increase in older males, but the pattern was the opposite in older females. Conclusions: Adult as well as childhood SEP influences weight gains, but differently among males and females and in different age groups. The findings suggest two waves of socioeconomic weight gain patterns in the Swedish population: one across generations and another contemporary one.
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