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  • Aglen, B., et al. (författare)
  • Self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties in a Nordic context : A review
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 39:8, s. 813-822
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this review is to provide systematic knowledge of research from Nordic countries about the meaning of self-help and self-help groups when these are used as a concept or method addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties. Methods: Included were studies conducted in the Nordic countries that were published between January 1999 and September 2009. These studies investigated self-help and self-help groups addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems. Results: A total of 83 publications met the inclusion criteria. Four major characteristics of self-help were found to be present in the publications: self-help as an intrapsychological process, self-help as an interpsychological or group process, self-help as a coping, individual learning or empowerment process, and self-help as an alternative or complement to medical treatment. Of the 83 studies, 72 publications used a professional treatment perspective for studying self-help and 11 publications used a perspective derived from alternative or complementary therapies. Conclusions: The review shows that most of the research on self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or disability is conducted with an interest to improve the professional healthcare system. That is, the health-promotion strategy is mainly considered in the framework of treatment or care settings. This means that self-help in this context does not challenge the dominant biomedical health model. © 2011 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
  • Ahlborg, Tone, 1950-, et al. (författare)
  • Sense of Coherence in first-time parents – a longitudinal study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 41:6, s. 623-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Antonovsky’s idea of sense of coherence (SOC) is related to wellbeing and is of importance for individuals in public health care. SOC in parents with healthy children has not previously been studied. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the SOC of first-time parents during the first 8 years of their child’s life, (2) to describe gender differences in regards to SOC, and (3) to describe covariates with SOC in the parents’ life situations. Methods: The study was longitudinal comprising three cross-sectional studies conducted when the first child was 6 months (T1), 4 years (T2), and 8 years (T3) of age. A sample of 258 mothers and fathers answered a questionnaire on the experienced quality of their partner relationship (QDR36) on all three occasions. SOC was measured using the SOC-13, and psychosocial variables were included at T2 and T3. Descriptive, comparative statistics and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: SOC decreased for both genders at T2 and increased again at T3. At T1 and T2 the fathers’ SOC was statistically higher than that of the mothers, but at T3 this difference could no longer be statistically secured. Covariates at T2 were QDR index, social support, experience of parenthood, strained economy, and health. Covariates at T3 were experience of parenthood and social support, QDR index, and strained economy. Conclusions: SOC in first-time parents decreased at 4 years, especially in mothers, and social support can be of significance for parents of young children to be able to experience health.
  • Ahlner, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of alcohol and other drugs and the concentrations in blood of drivers killed in road traffic crashes in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - SAGE Publications (UK and US). - 1403-4948. ; 42:2, s. 177-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Drunk or drug-impaired drivers represent a major public health and societal problem worldwide. Because over 95% of drivers killed on the roads in Sweden are autopsied, reliable information is available about the use of alcohol and/or other drug before the crash. Methods: This retrospective 4-year study (2008-2011) used a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to evaluate the concentrations of alcohol and other drugs in blood samples from drivers killed in road-traffic crashes. Results: The mean age of all victims (N = 895) was 48 +/- 20 years, and the majority were male (86%). In 504 drivers (56%), the results of toxicological analysis were negative and these victims were older; mean age (+/- SD) 47 +/- 20 years, than alcohol positive cases (35 +/- 14 years) and illicit drug users (34 +/- 15 years). In 21% of fatalities, blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) was above the statutory limit for driving (0.2 g/L), although the median BAC was appreciably higher (1.72 g/L). Illicit drugs (mainly amphetamine and cannabis) were identified in similar to 7% of victims, either alone (2.5%), together with alcohol (1.8%) or a prescription drug (2%). The psychoactive prescription drugs identified were mainly benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and tramadol, which were found in the blood of 7.6% of crash victims. Conclusions: The high median BAC in fatally-injured drivers speaks strongly towards alcohol-induced impairment as being responsible for the crash. Compared with alcohol, the prevalence of illicit and psychoactive prescription drugs was fairly low despite a dramatic increase in the number of drug-impaired drivers arrested by the police after a zero-tolerance law was introduced in 1999.
  • Aili, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Sleep disturbances predict future sickness absence among individuals with lower back or neck-shoulder pain : A 5-year prospective study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 43:3, s. 315-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most common causes of sickness absence. Sleep disturbances are often co-occurring with pain, but the relationship between sleep and pain is complex. Little is known about the importance of self-reported sleep, when predicting sickness absence among persons with musculoskeletal pain. This study aims to study the association between self-reported sleep quality and sickness absence 5 years later, among individuals stratified by presence of lower back pain (LBP) and neck and shoulder pain (NSP). Methods: The cohort (n = 2286) in this 5-year prospective study (using data from the MUSIC-Norrtalje study) was stratified by self-reported pain into three groups: no LBP or NSP, solely LBP or NSP, and oncurrent LBP and NSP. Odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of self-reported sleep disturbances at baseline on sickness absence (> 14 consecutive days), 5 years later, were calculated. Results: Within all three pain strata, individuals reporting the most sleep problems showed a significantly higher OR for all-cause sickness absence, 5 years later. The group with the most pronounced sleep problems within the concurrent LBP and NSP stratum had a significantly higher OR (OR 2.00; CI 1.09-3.67) also for long-term sickness absence (> 90days) 5 years later, compared to the group with the best sleep. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances predict sickness absence among individuals regardless of co-existing features of LBP and/or NSP. The clinical evaluation of patients should take possible sleep disturbances into account in the planning of treatments.
  • Albrecht, Sophie, et al. (författare)
  • Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 44:3, s. 320-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.
  • Alexanderson, K, et al. (författare)
  • Chapter 12. Future need for research
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. - 1403-4948. ; 32, s. 256-258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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