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Sökning: L773:1403 4948 > (2010-2011)

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1.
  • Aglen, B., et al. (författare)
  • Self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties in a Nordic context : A review
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 39:8, s. 813-822
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this review is to provide systematic knowledge of research from Nordic countries about the meaning of self-help and self-help groups when these are used as a concept or method addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties. Methods: Included were studies conducted in the Nordic countries that were published between January 1999 and September 2009. These studies investigated self-help and self-help groups addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems. Results: A total of 83 publications met the inclusion criteria. Four major characteristics of self-help were found to be present in the publications: self-help as an intrapsychological process, self-help as an interpsychological or group process, self-help as a coping, individual learning or empowerment process, and self-help as an alternative or complement to medical treatment. Of the 83 studies, 72 publications used a professional treatment perspective for studying self-help and 11 publications used a perspective derived from alternative or complementary therapies. Conclusions: The review shows that most of the research on self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or disability is conducted with an interest to improve the professional healthcare system. That is, the health-promotion strategy is mainly considered in the framework of treatment or care settings. This means that self-help in this context does not challenge the dominant biomedical health model. © 2011 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
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2.
  • André, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Cohort differences in personality in middle-aged women during a 36-year period. Results from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 38:5, s. 457-464
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate secular trends in personality traits in adult female populations. Methods: Two representative, population-based cohorts of women, 38 (n = 318) and 50 (n = 593) years of age participated in a health examination in 1968 and 2004 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS) were used to measure personality traits. Socioeconomic and lifestyle variables (personal income, education, marital status, children at home, physical activity and smoking) were reported. Results: In both age groups, secular comparisons in psychological profile subscales showed an increase in dominance, exhibition, aggression and achievement. Only small divergences were seen concerning affiliation, guilt feelings, nurturance and succorance. EPI showed a corresponding rise in extroversion. Social data showed a statistically significant increase in percentage of unmarried women, personal income levels, and higher educational achievement. While around 70% of women in 1968-69 had elementary school education only, around 90% had high school or university education in 2004-05. Conclusions: The results indicate major transitions in the adult Swedish female population in the direction of a more stereotypically "male'' personality profile, but not at the expense of traditionally socially important female traits, which remained constant. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that society and the environment influence personality.
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3.
  • Bryngelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The relationship between gender segregation in the workplace and long-term sickness absence in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 39:6, s. 618-626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study is to investigate whether the gender composition in workplaces is related to long-term sickness absence (LSA). We start off with Kanter’s theory on “tokenism,” suggesting an increased risk of stress among minority groups (tokens), which, in turn, might increase the risk of ill health and LSA. Methods: The dataset consists of information obtained from the Swedish level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Establishment Survey (APU), linked to register-based data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The longitudinal data is representative for the Swedish population and consists of 496 women and 566 men, aged 20–55 at baseline. Our study group consisted of employed persons in 1991 and we analyze, by means of piecewise constant intensity regressions, the first entry into LSA with a follow-up period of nine years. Results: Compared with women in gender-integrated workplaces, women’s risk of LSA is most elevated at both extremely male-dominated (0–20% females) and extremely female-dominated workplaces (80–100% females), although the result among women in the most male-dominated group did not reach statistical significance at the 5% level. Men’s risk seems less varied by gender composition.Conclusions: The present study suggests that the gender composition in the workplace has an impact on the risk of LSA, especially among women. Our findings lend no support for Kanter’s theory on the effects of being a token. Most likely, women’s and men’s different status positions have an impact on the different associations found.
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4.
  • Celeste, Roger Keller, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in socioeconomic disparities in the utilization of dental care in Brazil and Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 39:6, s. 640-648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To describe trends in socioeconomic disparities in utilization of dental care. Methods: We obtained cross-sectional data from Sweden in the period 1968-2000 and from Brazil in 1986 and 2002 for 16 state capitals. The outcome was the percentage of people who reported that they had visited the dentist in the last 12 months, calculated for a higher and a lower income group and stratified by sex, age (two groups: young and adults) and dental status. Adjusted prevalence differences and prevalence ratios were produced using Poisson regression. Results: In Brazil, there was a decline in use of dental care among the 15-19 year olds in the period 1986-2002, but not among the 35-44 year olds. In Sweden, there was a decline among the young and adults between 1991 and 2000. Overall, socioeconomic disparities in use of dental services between the higher and the lower economic groups showed a decline in both countries. The reduction in disparities among young Brazilians was 1.1 percentage points per year (p < 0.01), but among the other age groups the decline was not significant (p>0.01). In the last surveys, the gap remained in both countries and age groups (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The recent decline in utilization of dental care and in the socioeconomic gap may mirror improvements in oral health. However, there are still relevant and persistent disparities in utilization of dental care in both countries, with a higher proportion of people of higher socioeconomic status visiting the dentist.
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5.
  • Ekerstad, Niklas, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • A Tentative Consensus-Based Model for Priority Setting : An Example from Elderly Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Multi-morbidity
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Sage. - 1403-4948. ; 39:4, s. 345-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In most Western countries the growing gap between available resources and greater potential for medical treatment has brought evidence-based guidelines into focus. However, such guidelines are difficult to use when the evidence base is weak. Priority setting for frail elderly patients with heart disease illustrates this problem. We have outlined a tentative model for priority setting regarding frail elderly heart patients. The model takes cardiovascular risk, frailty, and comorbidity into account. Objective: Our aim is to validate the model’s components. We want to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the study experts’ rankings regarding each of the model’s categories. Methods: A confidential questionnaire study consisting of 15 authentic and validated cases was conducted to assess the views of purposefully selected cardiology experts (n = 58). They were asked to rank the cases regarding the need for coronary angiography using their individual clinical experience. The response rate was 71%. Responses were analysed with frequencies and descriptive statistics. The inter-rater reliability regarding the experts’ rankings of the cases was estimated via an intra-class correlation test (ICC). Results: The cardiologists considered the clinical cases to be realistic. The intra-class correlation (two-way random, consistency, average measure) was 0.978 (95% CI 0.958–0.991), which denotes a very good inter-rater reliability on the group level. The model’s components were considered relevant regarding complex cases of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Comorbidity was considered to be the most relevant component, frailty the second most relevant, followed by cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: A framework taking comorbidity, frailty, and cardiovascular risk into account could constitute a foundation for consensus-based guidelines for frail elderly heart patients. From a priority setting perspective, it is reasonable to believe that the framework is applicable to other groups of elderly patients with acute disease and complex needs.
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6.
  • Ekerstad, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Elderly people with multi-morbidity and acute coronary syndrome: Doctors' views on decision-making
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 38:3, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In most Western countries the growing gap between available resources and greater potential for medical treatment has brought evidence-based guidelines into focus. However, problems exist in areas where the evidence base is weak, e.g. elderly patients with heart disease and multiple co-morbidities. Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the views of Swedish cardiologists on decision-making for elderly people with multiple co-morbidities and acute coronary syndrome without ST-elevation (NSTE ACS), and to generate some hypotheses for testing. Methods: A confidential questionnaire study was conducted to assess the views of cardiologists/internists (n = 370). The response rate was 69%. Responses were analyzed with frequencies and descriptive statistics. When appropriate, differences in proportions were assessed by a chi-square test. A content analysis was used to process the answers to the open-ended questions. Results: 81% of the respondents reported extensive use of national quidelines for care of heart disease in their clinical decision-making. However, when making decisions for multiple-diseased elderly patients, the individual physician's own clinical experience and the patient's views of treatment choice were used to an evidently greater extent than national guidelines. Approximately 50% estimated that they treated multiple-diseased elderly patients with NSTE ACS every day. Preferred measures for improving decision-making were: (a) carrying out treatment studies including elderly patients with multiple co-morbidities, and (b) preparing specific national guidelines for multiple-diseased elderly patients. Conclusions: In the future, national guidelines for heart disease should be adapted in order to be applicable for elderly patients with multiple co-morbidities.
7.
  • Eriksson, Monica, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • From health education to healthy learning : Implementing salutogenesis in educational science 
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - London : Taylor & Francis. - 1403-4948. ; 39:Suppl 6, s. 85-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •   Aim:The aim is to scrutinise the concept of health education (HE) and to broaden the concept of health literacy (HL) towardsa lifelong healthy learning concept. HL is a broader concept than HE. This paper dissects both the health and the educationconcepts, and puts them into the value system of health promotion (HP) of the Ottawa Charter (OC) using the core principlesand values of HP, HL, and action competence (AC) in the light of the salutogenesis (SAL). Conceptually the salutogenicmodel focuses on the direction towards the healthy end of the health continuum. The salutogenic theory, based on resourcesand comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, can be integrated into a learning model. People are seen as activeand participating subjects shaping their lives through their AC.Method:a combination of an analysis of the values andintentions of health promotion according to the OC combined with the existing evidence on the salutogenic approach tohealth, stemming from a systematic research synthesis 1992–2003 and an ongoing analysis 2004–2009 by the authors. Inaddition, the views from a discussion with the participants of a session in the NHPR Conference 2009 are integrated.Results:The similarities and differences between the salutogenesis, theOCand healthy learning were shown in a graph. Integrating thesalutogenesis in educational sciences further expands the concepts of HE and HL into healthy learning.Conclusions: Theresults of the discussions will further develop and strengthen the concept of healthy learning.  AbstractAim: The aim is to scrutinise the concept of health education (HE) and to broaden the concept of health literacy (HL) towardsa lifelong healthy learning concept. HL is a broader concept than HE. This paper dissects both the health and the education concepts, and puts them into the value system of health promotion (HP) of the Ottawa Charter (OC) using the core principles and values of HP, HL, and action competence (AC) in the light of the salutogenesis (SAL). Conceptually the salutogenic model focuses on the direction towards the healthy end of the health continuum. The salutogenic theory, based on resources and comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, can be integrated into a learning model. People are seen as active and participating subjects shaping their lives through their AC. Method: a combination of an analysis of the values and intentions of health promotion according to the OC combined with the existing evidence on the salutogenic approach to health, stemming from a systematic research synthesis 1992–2003 and an ongoing analysis 2004–2009 by the authors. In addition, the views from a discussion with the participants of a session in the NHPR Conference 2009 are integrated. Results: The similarities and differences between the salutogenesis, theOCand healthy learning were shown in a graph. Integrating the salutogenesis in educational sciences further expands the concepts of HE and HL into healthy learning. Conclusions: The results of the discussions will further develop and strengthen the concept of healthy learning.
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8.
  • Eriksson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • School demands and subjective health complaints among Swedish schoolchildren: A multilevel study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 38:4, s. 344-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: As children spend a great deal of their time in school, the climate in the classroom can constitute a resource, but also a risk factor in the development of the pupils' health. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which demands in the classroom are associated with subjective health complaints in Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Data from the 2001/2002 and 2005/2006 Swedish cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey were analysed using a multilevel logistic regression technique. Results: The study demonstrated a substantial variation between school classes in pupils' subjective health complaints. In school classes with high demands, the odds of having subjective health complaints was about 50% higher than in school classes with low demands. Further, the results indicated that these effects were mediated by sex so as to girls being more affected by high levels of demands in the school class. Conclusions: The findings are important since they point at the crucial role that teachers play in creating a favourable school climate. Therefore interventions aiming at supporting teachers to set realistic demands and expectations are one way to improve the school climate. Such interventions should also make clear the need to take into consideration the fact that the school class effect was mediated by sex, i.e. girls being more vulnerable to high level of school class demands.
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9.
  • Eurenius, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal and paternal self-rated health and BMI in relation to lifestyle in early pregnancy: The Salut Programme in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Stockholm : Taylor & Francis. - 1403-4948. ; 39:7, s. 730-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: This study’s aim was to increase knowledge about maternal and paternal self-rated health and body mass index in relation to lifestyle during early pregnancy. Methods: Study subjects were expectant parents visiting antenatal care (2006—07) as part of the Salut Programme in northern Sweden. During early pregnancy, 468 females and 413 male partners completed questionnaires. The questions addressed sociodemography, self-rated general health, weight and height, satisfaction with weight, and lifestyle, such as dietary habits, physical activity, sleeping pattern, and alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Results: Most rated their general health as good, very good, or excellent, although women less often than men (88% and 93%). The sex difference was more prominent when restricting the comparison to self-rated health being very good or excellent - 49% of the women compared to 61% of the men. Being overweight or obese was common (53% of the men and 30% of the women). Few participants fulfilled the national recommendations with respect to a health-enhancing lifestyle; this was somewhat more common for women than men. Expectant parents with normal body mass index and vigorous physical activity were more likely to have very good or excellent self-rated health. Conclusions: Most expectant parents perceived their general health as good, although this perception was less for women than men. Being overweight and having a non-health-enhancing lifestyle were more common for men than women. Thus, there is need for more powerful health-promoting interventions for expectant parents.
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10.
  • Faresjö, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Educational level is a crucial factor for good perceived health in the local community
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. - Sage. - 1403-4948. ; 38:6, s. 605-610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Educational level is a strong determinant of perceived health, and also an important component in the socioeconomic concept. The aim of this study was to analyze a number of social conditions and lifestyle factors that might explain differences in self-reported health between the populations in two different social environments, one white-collar city and one blue-collar city. These "twin cities" are served by the same healthcare organisation, but differ in terms of social history and current social structure. Methods: The material consisted of responses to a community-based survey of individuals aged between 20 and 64 years, with an overall response rate of 49%. Differences in self-reported health status were tested with chi-square tests and regression analysis. Results: We found significant differences in perceived health between the two populations. These differences in self-reported health could not be explained by differences in demographic factors, lifestyles, or living conditions. However, when the educational level of the respondents was taken into account, the differences in perceived health diminished. Conclusions: Public health in local communities tends to reflect the social history and social heritage of the population. In this study, we found that educational level appears to be a vital factor for good perceived health of the individual in a community.
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