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Sökning: L773:1403 4948 > (2010-2011) > Refereegranskat

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1.
  • André, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Cohort differences in personality in middle-aged women during a 36-year period. Results from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 38:5, s. 457-464
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate secular trends in personality traits in adult female populations. Methods: Two representative, population-based cohorts of women, 38 (n = 318) and 50 (n = 593) years of age participated in a health examination in 1968 and 2004 in Gothenburg, Sweden. The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS) were used to measure personality traits. Socioeconomic and lifestyle variables (personal income, education, marital status, children at home, physical activity and smoking) were reported. Results: In both age groups, secular comparisons in psychological profile subscales showed an increase in dominance, exhibition, aggression and achievement. Only small divergences were seen concerning affiliation, guilt feelings, nurturance and succorance. EPI showed a corresponding rise in extroversion. Social data showed a statistically significant increase in percentage of unmarried women, personal income levels, and higher educational achievement. While around 70% of women in 1968-69 had elementary school education only, around 90% had high school or university education in 2004-05. Conclusions: The results indicate major transitions in the adult Swedish female population in the direction of a more stereotypically "male'' personality profile, but not at the expense of traditionally socially important female traits, which remained constant. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that society and the environment influence personality.
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2.
  • Bryngelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The relationship between gender segregation in the workplace and long-term sickness absence in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 39:6, s. 618-626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study is to investigate whether the gender composition in workplaces is related to long-term sickness absence (LSA). We start off with Kanter’s theory on “tokenism,” suggesting an increased risk of stress among minority groups (tokens), which, in turn, might increase the risk of ill health and LSA. Methods: The dataset consists of information obtained from the Swedish level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Establishment Survey (APU), linked to register-based data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The longitudinal data is representative for the Swedish population and consists of 496 women and 566 men, aged 20–55 at baseline. Our study group consisted of employed persons in 1991 and we analyze, by means of piecewise constant intensity regressions, the first entry into LSA with a follow-up period of nine years. Results: Compared with women in gender-integrated workplaces, women’s risk of LSA is most elevated at both extremely male-dominated (0–20% females) and extremely female-dominated workplaces (80–100% females), although the result among women in the most male-dominated group did not reach statistical significance at the 5% level. Men’s risk seems less varied by gender composition.Conclusions: The present study suggests that the gender composition in the workplace has an impact on the risk of LSA, especially among women. Our findings lend no support for Kanter’s theory on the effects of being a token. Most likely, women’s and men’s different status positions have an impact on the different associations found.
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3.
  • Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in self-rated health among older immigrants : A comparison between older Finland-Swedes and Finns in Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Sage Journals. - 1403-4948. ; 38:1, s. 25-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Research has shown a tendency among immigrants and ethnic minorities to have a lower health status compared with the majority population. This applies to Finnish immigrants in Sweden. This group, however, also consists of persons who belong to a small ethnic minority in Finland, the Finland-Swedes, who speak Swedish as their mother tongue. In Finland, this minority has been shown to have better health and longer lives than the majority of Finnish-speaking people. Most of the previous research has studied the objective health of immigrants and minorities, while less is known about their subjective health. The aim of this study was to describe and compare self-rated health in older Finland-Swedes and Finns living as immigrants in Sweden. Methods: The study was carried out as a sample-based cross-sectional study. Data was collected by a postal structured questionnaire. The response rate among the Finland-Swedes was 47% (n = 169) and among the Finns was 54% (n = 643). Data was analyzed descriptively and tested with Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: The results showed significant differences between the language groups in self-rated health, age of retirement and causes for retirement. The Finland-Swede immigrants rated their health as better than the Finnish-speaking ones. They had retired at an older age and less frequently because of health problems. Conclusions: The results indicate that there may be significant differences in health, at least in subjective health, between immigrant groups. Due to the low response rate, the results cannot be generalized.
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4.
  • Eriksson, Monica, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • From health education to healthy learning : Implementing salutogenesis in educational science 
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - London : Taylor & Francis. - 1403-4948. ; 39:Suppl 6, s. 85-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •   Aim:The aim is to scrutinise the concept of health education (HE) and to broaden the concept of health literacy (HL) towardsa lifelong healthy learning concept. HL is a broader concept than HE. This paper dissects both the health and the educationconcepts, and puts them into the value system of health promotion (HP) of the Ottawa Charter (OC) using the core principlesand values of HP, HL, and action competence (AC) in the light of the salutogenesis (SAL). Conceptually the salutogenicmodel focuses on the direction towards the healthy end of the health continuum. The salutogenic theory, based on resourcesand comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, can be integrated into a learning model. People are seen as activeand participating subjects shaping their lives through their AC.Method:a combination of an analysis of the values andintentions of health promotion according to the OC combined with the existing evidence on the salutogenic approach tohealth, stemming from a systematic research synthesis 1992–2003 and an ongoing analysis 2004–2009 by the authors. Inaddition, the views from a discussion with the participants of a session in the NHPR Conference 2009 are integrated.Results:The similarities and differences between the salutogenesis, theOCand healthy learning were shown in a graph. Integrating thesalutogenesis in educational sciences further expands the concepts of HE and HL into healthy learning.Conclusions: Theresults of the discussions will further develop and strengthen the concept of healthy learning.  AbstractAim: The aim is to scrutinise the concept of health education (HE) and to broaden the concept of health literacy (HL) towardsa lifelong healthy learning concept. HL is a broader concept than HE. This paper dissects both the health and the education concepts, and puts them into the value system of health promotion (HP) of the Ottawa Charter (OC) using the core principles and values of HP, HL, and action competence (AC) in the light of the salutogenesis (SAL). Conceptually the salutogenic model focuses on the direction towards the healthy end of the health continuum. The salutogenic theory, based on resources and comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness, can be integrated into a learning model. People are seen as active and participating subjects shaping their lives through their AC. Method: a combination of an analysis of the values and intentions of health promotion according to the OC combined with the existing evidence on the salutogenic approach to health, stemming from a systematic research synthesis 1992–2003 and an ongoing analysis 2004–2009 by the authors. In addition, the views from a discussion with the participants of a session in the NHPR Conference 2009 are integrated. Results: The similarities and differences between the salutogenesis, theOCand healthy learning were shown in a graph. Integrating the salutogenesis in educational sciences further expands the concepts of HE and HL into healthy learning. Conclusions: The results of the discussions will further develop and strengthen the concept of healthy learning.
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5.
  • Eriksson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • School demands and subjective health complaints among Swedish schoolchildren: A multilevel study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 38:4, s. 344-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: As children spend a great deal of their time in school, the climate in the classroom can constitute a resource, but also a risk factor in the development of the pupils' health. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which demands in the classroom are associated with subjective health complaints in Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Data from the 2001/2002 and 2005/2006 Swedish cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey were analysed using a multilevel logistic regression technique. Results: The study demonstrated a substantial variation between school classes in pupils' subjective health complaints. In school classes with high demands, the odds of having subjective health complaints was about 50% higher than in school classes with low demands. Further, the results indicated that these effects were mediated by sex so as to girls being more affected by high levels of demands in the school class. Conclusions: The findings are important since they point at the crucial role that teachers play in creating a favourable school climate. Therefore interventions aiming at supporting teachers to set realistic demands and expectations are one way to improve the school climate. Such interventions should also make clear the need to take into consideration the fact that the school class effect was mediated by sex, i.e. girls being more vulnerable to high level of school class demands.
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6.
  • Eurenius, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal and paternal self-rated health and BMI in relation to lifestyle in early pregnancy: The Salut Programme in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Stockholm : Taylor & Francis. - 1403-4948. ; 39:7, s. 730-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: This study’s aim was to increase knowledge about maternal and paternal self-rated health and body mass index in relation to lifestyle during early pregnancy. Methods: Study subjects were expectant parents visiting antenatal care (2006—07) as part of the Salut Programme in northern Sweden. During early pregnancy, 468 females and 413 male partners completed questionnaires. The questions addressed sociodemography, self-rated general health, weight and height, satisfaction with weight, and lifestyle, such as dietary habits, physical activity, sleeping pattern, and alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Results: Most rated their general health as good, very good, or excellent, although women less often than men (88% and 93%). The sex difference was more prominent when restricting the comparison to self-rated health being very good or excellent - 49% of the women compared to 61% of the men. Being overweight or obese was common (53% of the men and 30% of the women). Few participants fulfilled the national recommendations with respect to a health-enhancing lifestyle; this was somewhat more common for women than men. Expectant parents with normal body mass index and vigorous physical activity were more likely to have very good or excellent self-rated health. Conclusions: Most expectant parents perceived their general health as good, although this perception was less for women than men. Being overweight and having a non-health-enhancing lifestyle were more common for men than women. Thus, there is need for more powerful health-promoting interventions for expectant parents.
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7.
  • Faresjö, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Educational level is a crucial factor for good perceived health in the local community
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. - Sage. - 1403-4948. ; 38:6, s. 605-610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Educational level is a strong determinant of perceived health, and also an important component in the socioeconomic concept. The aim of this study was to analyze a number of social conditions and lifestyle factors that might explain differences in self-reported health between the populations in two different social environments, one white-collar city and one blue-collar city. These "twin cities" are served by the same healthcare organisation, but differ in terms of social history and current social structure. Methods: The material consisted of responses to a community-based survey of individuals aged between 20 and 64 years, with an overall response rate of 49%. Differences in self-reported health status were tested with chi-square tests and regression analysis. Results: We found significant differences in perceived health between the two populations. These differences in self-reported health could not be explained by differences in demographic factors, lifestyles, or living conditions. However, when the educational level of the respondents was taken into account, the differences in perceived health diminished. Conclusions: Public health in local communities tends to reflect the social history and social heritage of the population. In this study, we found that educational level appears to be a vital factor for good perceived health of the individual in a community.
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8.
  • Farsi Razavi, Monireh, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of the Swedish healthcare system: An interview study with refugees in need of long-term health care
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. - Sage. - 1403-4948. ; 39:3, s. 319-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Refugees needing long-term health care must adapt to new healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to examine the viewpoints of nine refugees in a county in Sweden, with a known chronic disease or functional impairment requiring long-term medical care, on their contacts with care providers regarding treatment and personal needs. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with nine individuals and/or their next of kin. Inductive content analysis was used to identify experiences. Results: "Care organisations/resources" and "professional competence" were the categories extracted. Participants felt cared for due to accessibility to and regular appointments with the same care provider. Visiting different clinics contributed to a negative experience and lack of trust. The staffs interest in participants lives and health contributed to a sense of professionalism. Most participants said the problems experienced were not related to their backgrounds as refugees. Many patients did not fully understand which clinic they were attending or the purpose of the care that the specific clinic provided. Some lacked knowledge of their disease. Conclusions: Health care was perceived as equal to other Swedish citizens and problems experienced were not explained by refugee backgrounds. Lack of information from care providers and being sent to various levels of care created feelings of a lack of overall medical responsibility.
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9.
  • Flacking, Renée, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of fathers' socioeconomic status and paternity leave on breastfeeding duration : a population-based cohort study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 38:4, s. 337-343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: The propensity to breastfeed is a matter of public concern because of the favourable effects for infants. However, very few studies have described the influence of paternal variables upon duration of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of fathers' socioeconomic status and their use of paternity leave on breastfeeding duration for infants up to 1 year of age.METHODS:A prospective population-based cohort study was undertaken. Data on breastfeeding, registered in databases in two Swedish counties for 1993-2001, were matched with data on socioeconomic status and paternity leave obtained from Statistics Sweden. Fathers of 51,671 infants were identified and included.RESULTS: Infants whose fathers had a lower level of education, were receiving unemployment benefit and/or had a lower equivalent disposable household income were significantly less likely to be breastfed at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Infants whose fathers did not take paternity leave during the infant's first year were significantly less likely to be breastfed at 2 (p < 0.001), 4 (p < 0.001), and 6 months (p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS:This paper shows that an enabling of an increased involvement from fathers during the infants' first year of life, such as by paid paternity leave, may have beneficial effects on breastfeeding up to 6 months of age. A more systematic approach to supporting fathers' involvement may be particularly valuable to those infants whose fathers have a lower socioeconomic status.
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10.
  • Fors, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Live long and prosper? Childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid-life : A cohort study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 39:2, s. 179-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? Methods: A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25—69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. Results: The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father’s were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.
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