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  • Hang, Hoang Minh, et al. (författare)
  • Community-based assessment of unintentional injuries: a pilot study in rural Vietnam
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 3162, s. 38-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Although unintentional injuries are recognised as a major public health problem globally, little is known about their patterns and rates at the community level in most low-income countries. Rapid social development, leading to increased traffic and industrialization, may be changing patterns of injury. Injuries within the home environment have not so far been recognized to the same extent as traffic and work-related injuries in Vietnam, largely because they have not been effectively counted. This study took place in northern Vietnam, in the context of a longitudinal community surveillance site called FilaBavi, as a pilot project aiming to determine the community incidence of unintentional injury and to explore appropriate methods for community-based injury surveillance. METHODS: An initial study population of 23,807 was identified and asked about their experience of injury in the preceding three months. RESULTS: Overall 450 new injuries were detected over 5,952 person-years, a rate of 76 per 1,000 person-years. Males were injured at 1.6 times the rate of females, and home and road traffic accidents were most common. Most injuries occurred during unpaid household tasks. Cutting and crushing injuries occurred most frequently. Of 221 deaths from all causes in the FilaBavi population during 1999 among 43,444 person-years, 25 were attributed to unintentional injuries and two to suicide. Unintentional injury was the third leading cause of death in this community, with a case-fatality rate of 0.8%. DISCUSSION: The findings suggest that greater attention needs to be directed toward the prevention of injuries occurring in the home in rural Vietnam. On the basis of this pilot study, a one-year study using the same approach is under way to characterize the patterns of unintentional injury in more detail, including any seasonal variation.
  • Maret-Ouda, John, et al. (författare)
  • Nordic registry-based cohort studies : possibilities and pitfalls when combining Nordic registry data
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 1403-4948. ; 45:17_suppl, s. 14-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: All five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) have nationwide registries with similar data structure and validity, as well as personal identity numbers enabling linkage between registries. These resources provide opportunities for medical research that is based on large registry-based cohort studies with long and complete follow-up. This review describes practical aspects, opportunities, and challenges encountered when setting up all-Nordic registrybased cohort studies. Methods: Relevant articles describing registries often used for medical research in the Nordic countries were retrieved. Further, our experiences of conducting this type of study, including planning, acquiring permissions, data retrieval, and data cleaning and handling, and the possibilities and challenges we have encountered, are described. Results: Combining data from the Nordic countries makes it possible to create large and powerful cohorts. The main challenges include obtaining all permissions within each country, usually in the local language, and to retrieve the data. These challenges emphasise the importance of having experienced collaborators within each country. Following the acquisition of data, data management requires the understanding of differences between the variables to be used in the various countries. A concern is the long time required between initiation and completion. Conclusions: Nationwide Nordic registries can be combined into cohorts with high validity and statistical power, but the considerable expertise, workload, and time required to complete such cohorts should not be underestimated.
  • Persson Osowski, Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Energy and nutrient intakes of Swedish children in relation to consumption of and habits associated with school lunch
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 45:1, s. 3-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: School lunches are provided free in Sweden, although some children choose not to eat school lunch. The aim of this study was to analyse Swedish children's total energy and nutrient intakes on weekdays by the frequency of school lunch consumption and to analyse energy and nutrient intakes from school lunches by sex. Factors associated with children's school lunch habits were also studied. Methods: Children in grades 2 and 5 (n=1905) completed a food diary (school lunch data available for 1840 children) and the mean energy and nutrient intakes per day and per school lunch were calculated. The children also completed questions on the frequency of school lunch consumption and school lunch habits. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with school lunch habits. Results: Children who reported eating school lunch every day had significantly higher energy and absolute nutrient intakes than children reporting eating school lunch less than five times a week, but not standardized for energy. Boys had significantly higher energy and absolute nutrient intakes from school lunches than girls, but not standardized for energy. Younger children and children who liked school lunches had higher odds of eating school lunch every day. Children in grade 5, those with a foreign background and those disliking school lunches had higher odds of omitting the main lunch component. Conclusions: Regular school lunch consumption was associated with a higher total intake for most nutrients, but not a better nutrient density. School lunch habits were associated with age, ethnic background and liking school lunches.
  • Agardh, Emilie E., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol and type 2 diabetes : The role of socioeconomic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 47:4, s. 408-416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: We investigate (a) alcohol consumption in association with type 2 diabetes, taking heavy episodic drinking (HED), socioeconomic, health and lifestyle, and psychosocial factors into account, and (b) whether a seemingly protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on type 2 diabetes persists when stratified by occupational position.METHODS: This population-based longitudinal cohort study comprises 16,223 Swedes aged 18-84 years who answered questionnaires about lifestyle, including alcohol consumption in 2002, and who were followed-up for self-reported or register-based diabetes in 2003-2011. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in a multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model for all participants and stratified by high and low occupational position. We adjusted for HED, socioeconomic (occupational position, cohabiting status and unemployment), health and lifestyle (body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, smoking, physical inactivity, poor general health, anxiety/depression and psychosocial (low job control and poor social support) characteristics one by one, and the sets of these factors.RESULTS: Moderate consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes after controlling for health and lifestyle (OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.29-0.79) and psychosocial factors (OR=0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.79) when compared to non-drinkers. When adjusting for socioeconomic factors, there was still an inverse but non-significant association (OR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-1.00). In those with high occupational position, there was no significant association between moderate consumption and type 2 diabetes after adjusting for socioeconomic (OR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.3-1.52), health and lifestyle (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.32-1.5), and psychosocial factors (OR=0.75; 95% CI: 0.23-2.46). On the contrary, in those with low occupational position, ORs decreased from 0.55 (95% CI: 0.28-1.1) to 0.35 (95% CI: 0.15-0.82) when adjusting for psychosocial factors, a decrease that was solely due to low job control. HED did not influence any of these associations.CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, after adjusting for HED, health and lifestyle, and psychosocial characteristics. The association was inverse but non-significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. When stratified by occupational position, there was an inverse association only in those with low occupational position and after adjusting for low job control.
  • Aglen, B., et al. (författare)
  • Self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties in a Nordic context : A review
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 39:8, s. 813-822
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this review is to provide systematic knowledge of research from Nordic countries about the meaning of self-help and self-help groups when these are used as a concept or method addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties. Methods: Included were studies conducted in the Nordic countries that were published between January 1999 and September 2009. These studies investigated self-help and self-help groups addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems. Results: A total of 83 publications met the inclusion criteria. Four major characteristics of self-help were found to be present in the publications: self-help as an intrapsychological process, self-help as an interpsychological or group process, self-help as a coping, individual learning or empowerment process, and self-help as an alternative or complement to medical treatment. Of the 83 studies, 72 publications used a professional treatment perspective for studying self-help and 11 publications used a perspective derived from alternative or complementary therapies. Conclusions: The review shows that most of the research on self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or disability is conducted with an interest to improve the professional healthcare system. That is, the health-promotion strategy is mainly considered in the framework of treatment or care settings. This means that self-help in this context does not challenge the dominant biomedical health model. © 2011 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
  • Ahlner, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of alcohol and other drugs and the concentrations in blood of drivers killed in road traffic crashes in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : SAGE Publications (UK and US). - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 42:2, s. 177-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Drunk or drug-impaired drivers represent a major public health and societal problem worldwide. Because over 95% of drivers killed on the roads in Sweden are autopsied, reliable information is available about the use of alcohol and/or other drug before the crash. Methods: This retrospective 4-year study (2008-2011) used a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to evaluate the concentrations of alcohol and other drugs in blood samples from drivers killed in road-traffic crashes. Results: The mean age of all victims (N = 895) was 48 +/- 20 years, and the majority were male (86%). In 504 drivers (56%), the results of toxicological analysis were negative and these victims were older; mean age (+/- SD) 47 +/- 20 years, than alcohol positive cases (35 +/- 14 years) and illicit drug users (34 +/- 15 years). In 21% of fatalities, blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) was above the statutory limit for driving (0.2 g/L), although the median BAC was appreciably higher (1.72 g/L). Illicit drugs (mainly amphetamine and cannabis) were identified in similar to 7% of victims, either alone (2.5%), together with alcohol (1.8%) or a prescription drug (2%). The psychoactive prescription drugs identified were mainly benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and tramadol, which were found in the blood of 7.6% of crash victims. Conclusions: The high median BAC in fatally-injured drivers speaks strongly towards alcohol-induced impairment as being responsible for the crash. Compared with alcohol, the prevalence of illicit and psychoactive prescription drugs was fairly low despite a dramatic increase in the number of drug-impaired drivers arrested by the police after a zero-tolerance law was introduced in 1999.
  • Aili, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Sleep disturbances predict future sickness absence among individuals with lower back or neck-shoulder pain : A 5-year prospective study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 43:3, s. 315-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most common causes of sickness absence. Sleep disturbances are often co-occurring with pain, but the relationship between sleep and pain is complex. Little is known about the importance of self-reported sleep, when predicting sickness absence among persons with musculoskeletal pain. This study aims to study the association between self-reported sleep quality and sickness absence 5 years later, among individuals stratified by presence of lower back pain (LBP) and neck and shoulder pain (NSP). Methods: The cohort (n = 2286) in this 5-year prospective study (using data from the MUSIC-Norrtalje study) was stratified by self-reported pain into three groups: no LBP or NSP, solely LBP or NSP, and oncurrent LBP and NSP. Odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of self-reported sleep disturbances at baseline on sickness absence (> 14 consecutive days), 5 years later, were calculated. Results: Within all three pain strata, individuals reporting the most sleep problems showed a significantly higher OR for all-cause sickness absence, 5 years later. The group with the most pronounced sleep problems within the concurrent LBP and NSP stratum had a significantly higher OR (OR 2.00; CI 1.09-3.67) also for long-term sickness absence (> 90days) 5 years later, compared to the group with the best sleep. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances predict sickness absence among individuals regardless of co-existing features of LBP and/or NSP. The clinical evaluation of patients should take possible sleep disturbances into account in the planning of treatments.
  • Albrecht, Sophie (författare)
  • Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 44:3, s. 320-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.
  • Ali, Sadiq Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in daily smoking prevalence in different age strata: A population-based study in southern Sweden.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : SAGE Publications. - 1651-1905 .- 1403-4948. ; 37:2, s. 146-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate gender differences in daily smoking prevalence in different age groups in southern Sweden. Methods: The 2004 public-health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study. A total of 27,757 persons aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between gender and daily smoking according to age. The multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders (country of origin, education, snus use, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, and BMI) on the gender differences in daily smoking in different age groups. Results: 14.9% of the men and 18.1% of the women were daily smokers. Middle-aged respondents were daily smokers to a significantly higher extent than young and old respondents. The prevalence of daily smoking also varied according to other demographic, socioeconomic, health related behaviour, and BMI characteristics. The crude odds ratios of daily smoking were 1.79 (1.42-2.26) among women compared to men in the 18-24 years age group, and 0.95 (0.80-1.12) in the 65-80 years age group. These odds ratios changed to 2.00 (1.49-2.67) and 0.95 (0.76-1.18), respectively, when all confounders were included. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in Sweden women have a higher prevalence of daily smoking than men. The odds ratios of daily smoking are highest among women compared to men in the youngest age group of 18-24 years and the odds ratios decrease with increasing age. The findings point to a serious public health problem. Strategic interventions targeting young women's tobacco smoking are needed.
  • Alm, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course : A prospective cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous research has shown that poor family relations in childhood are associated with adverse mental health in adulthood. Yet, few studies have followed the offspring until late adulthood, and very few have had access to register-based data on hospitalisation due to psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relations in adolescence and the likelihood of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course up until age 55. Methods: Data were derived from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study, with information on 2638 individuals born in 1953. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on in-patient psychiatric treatment was derived from administrative registers from 1969 to 2008. Binary logistic regression was used. Results: Poor family relations in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of later in-patient treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis, even when adjusting for other adverse conditions in childhood. Further analyses showed that poor family relations in adolescence were a statistically significant predictor of in-patient psychiatric care up until age 36-45, but that the strength of the association attenuated over time. Conclusions: Poor family relationships during upbringing can have serious negative mental-health consequences that persist into mid-adulthood. However, the effect of poor family relations seems to abate with age. The findings point to the importance of effective interventions in families experiencing poor relationships.
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