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1.
  • Adori, Csaba, et al. (författare)
  • Critical role of somatostatin receptor 2 in the vulnerability of the central noradrenergic system : new aspects on Alzheimer's disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 129:4, s. 541-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders are associated with deterioration of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), a probable trigger for mood and memory dysfunction. LC noradrenergic neurons exhibit particularly high levels of somatostatin binding sites. This is noteworthy since cortical and hypothalamic somatostatin content is reduced in neurodegenerative pathologies. Yet a possible role of a somatostatin signal deficit in the maintenance of noradrenergic projections remains unknown. Here, we deployed tissue microarrays, immunohistochemistry, quantitative morphometry and mRNA profiling in a cohort of Alzheimer's and age-matched control brains in combination with genetic models of somatostatin receptor deficiency to establish causality between defunct somatostatin signalling and noradrenergic neurodegeneration. In Alzheimer's disease, we found significantly reduced somatostatin protein expression in the temporal cortex, with aberrant clustering and bulging of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive afferents. As such, somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) mRNA was highly expressed in the human LC, with its levels significantly decreasing from Braak stages III/IV and onwards, i.e., a process preceding advanced Alzheimer's pathology. The loss of SSTR2 transcripts in the LC neurons appeared selective, since tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, galanin or galanin receptor 3 mRNAs remained unchanged. We modeled these pathogenic changes in Sstr2 (-/-) mice and, unlike in Sstr1 (-/-) or Sstr4 (-/-) genotypes, they showed selective, global and progressive degeneration of their central noradrenergic projections. However, neuronal perikarya in the LC were found intact until late adulthood (< 8 months) in Sstr2 (-/-) mice. In contrast, the noradrenergic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion lacked SSTR2 and, as expected, the sympathetic innervation of the head region did not show any signs of degeneration. Our results indicate that SSTR2-mediated signaling is integral to the maintenance of central noradrenergic projections at the system level, and that early loss of somatostatin receptor 2 function may be associated with the selective vulnerability of the noradrenergic system in Alzheimer's disease.
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2.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoglycemic brain injury. I. Metabolic and light microscopic findings in rat cerebral cortex during profound insulin-induced hypoglycemia and in the recovery period following glucose administration
  • 1980
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 1432-0533. ; 50:1, s. 31-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Profound hypoglycemia causing the disappearance of spontaneous EEG activity was induced by insulin in rats. For analysis of cerebral cortical concentrations of labile phosphates, glycolytic metabolites and amino acids, the brain was frozen in situ. For microscopic analysis of the corresponding cerebral cortical areas the brain was fixed by perfusion. Hypoglycemia with an isoelectric EEG for 30 and 60 min caused severe perturbation of the cerebral energy metabolites. After both 30 and 60 min of isoelectric EEG, two microscopically different types of nerve cell injury were seen. Type I injury was characterized by angulated, darkly stained neurons with perineuronal vacuolation, mainly affecting small neurons in cortical layer 3. Type II injured neurons, mainly larger ones in layers 5–6, were slightly swollen with vacuolation or clearing (depending on the histotechnique used) of the peripheral cytoplasm, but had no nuclear changes. Recovery was induced by glucose injection. Improvement in the cerebral energy state occurred during the 30 min recovery period even after 60 min of hypoglycemia. However, the persisting reduction in the size of adenine nucleotide and amino acid pools after 30 or 180 min recovery suggested that some cells remained damaged. In confirmation many type I injured neurons persisted during the recovery suggesting an irreversible injury. The disappearance of virtually all type II injuries indicated reversibility of these histopathological changes. The microscopic changes in hypoglycemia were different from those in anoxia-ischemia suggesting a dissimilar pathogenesis in these states despite the common final pathway of energy failure.
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3.
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4.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of hypothermia on hypoglycemia-induced brain damage in the rat
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : Springer. - 1432-0533. ; 83:4, s. 379-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effects of hypothermia on hypoglycemic brain damage were studied in rats after a 30-min period of hypoglycemic coma, defined as cessation of spontaneous EEG activity. The rats were either normothermic (37 degrees C) or moderately hypothermic (33 degrees C). Morphological brain damage was evaluated after various periods of recovery. Hypothermic animals with halothane anesthesia never resumed spontaneous respiration, thus requiring artificial ventilation during recovery (maximally 8 h). In contrast, when isoflurane was used as the anesthetic agent, all animals survived and were examined after 1 week of recovery. There was a tendency towards gradually higher arterial plasma glucose levels during hypoglycemia with lower body temperature. The time period from insulin injection until isoelectric EEG appeared was gradually prolonged by hypothermia, and was shorter when isoflurane was used for anesthesia. Brain damage was examined within the neocortex, caudoputamen and hippocampus (CA1, subiculum and the tip of the dentate gyrus). Damage to neurons was found to be of two types, namely condensed dark purple neurons (pre-acidophilic) and shrunken bright red-staining neurons (acidophilic). In the neocortex, no clear influence of temperature on the degree of injury was seen. In the caudoputamen, the number of injured neurons clearly decreased at lower temperature (33 degrees C, P less than 0.001) when halothane was used, while no such difference was seen when isoflurane was used as the anesthetic agent. Likewise, a protective effect of hypothermia was seen in subiculum (P less than 0.01) when halothane, but not isoflurane was used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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5.
  • Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia, et al. (författare)
  • Shortening heparan sulfate chains prolongs survival and reduces parenchymal plaques in prion disease caused by mobile, ADAM10-cleaved prions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - : SPRINGER. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 139:3, s. 527-546
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cofactors are essential for driving recombinant prion protein into pathogenic conformers. Polyanions promote prion aggregation in vitro, yet the cofactors that modulate prion assembly in vivo remain largely unknown. Here we report that the endogenous glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate (HS), impacts prion propagation kinetics and deposition sites in the brain. Exostosin-1 haploinsufficient (Ext1(+/-)) mice, which produce short HS chains, show a prolonged survival and a redistribution of plaques from the parenchyma to vessels when infected with fibrillar prions, and a modest delay when infected with subfibrillar prions. Notably, the fibrillar, plaque-forming prions are composed of ADAM10-cleaved prion protein lacking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, indicating that these prions are mobile and assemble extracellularly. By analyzing the prion-bound HS using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we identified the disaccharide signature of HS differentially bound to fibrillar compared to subfibrillar prions, and found approximately 20-fold more HS bound to the fibrils. Finally, LC-MS of prion-bound HS from human patients with familial and sporadic prion disease also showed distinct HS signatures and higher HS levels associated with fibrillar prions. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an endogenous cofactor that accelerates prion disease progression and enhances parenchymal deposition of ADAM10-cleaved, mobile prions.
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6.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of beta-amyloid deposits in human brain : a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 117:3, s. 309-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • beta-Amyloid (A-beta) related pathology shows a range of lesions which differ both qualitatively and quantitatively. Pathologists, to date, mainly focused on the assessment of both of these aspects but attempts to correlate the findings with clinical phenotypes are not convincing. It has been recently proposed in the same way as iota and alpha synuclein related lesions, also A-beta related pathology may follow a temporal evolution, i.e. distinct phases, characterized by a step-wise involvement of different brain-regions. Twenty-six independent observers reached an 81% absolute agreement while assessing the phase of A-beta, i.e. phase 1 = deposition of A-beta exclusively in neocortex, phase 2 = additionally in allocortex, phase 3 = additionally in diencephalon, phase 4 = additionally in brainstem, and phase 5 = additionally in cerebellum. These high agreement rates were reached when at least six brain regions were evaluated. Likewise, a high agreement (93%) was reached while assessing the absence/presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and the type of CAA (74%) while examining the six brain regions. Of note, most of observers failed to detect capillary CAA when it was only mild and focal and thus instead of type 1, type 2 CAA was diagnosed. In conclusion, a reliable assessment of A-beta phase and presence/absence of CAA was achieved by a total of 26 observers who examined a standardized set of blocks taken from only six anatomical regions, applying commercially available reagents and by assessing them as instructed. Thus, one may consider rating of A-beta-phases as a diagnostic tool while analyzing subjects with suspected Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because most of these blocks are currently routinely sampled by the majority of laboratories, assessment of the A-beta phase in AD is feasible even in large scale retrospective studies.
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7.
  • Alafuzoff, I, et al. (författare)
  • Histopathological criteria for progressive dementia disorders : clinical-pathological correlation and classification by multivariate data analysis.
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 74:3, s. 209-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autopsied brains from 55 patients with dementia between 59-95 years of age (mean age 77.9 +/- 8.1 years) and 19 non-demented individuals between 46-91 years of age (mean age 74.3 +/- 10.5 years) were examined to establish histopathological criteria for normal ageing, primary degenerative [Alzheimer's disease (AD)/senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)] and vascular (multi-infarct) dementia (MID) disorders. Senile/neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, microscopic infarcts and perivascular serum protein deposits were quantified in the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 10) and in the hippocampus. The demented patients were classified according to the DSM-III criteria into AD/SDAT and MID. Operationally defined histopathological criteria for dementias, based on the degree/amount of the histopathological changes seen in aged non-demented patients, were postulated. The demented patients were clearly separable into three histopathological types, namely AD/SDAT, MID and AD-MID, the dementia type where both the degenerative and the vascular changes are coexistent in greater extent than are seen in the non-demented individuals. Using general clinical, gross neuroanatomical and histopathological data three separate dementia classes, namely AD/SDAT, MID and AD-MID, were visualized in two-dimensional space by multivariate data analysis. This analysis revealed that the pathology in the AD-MID patients was not merely a linear combination of the pathology in AD/SDAT and MID, indicating that AD-MID might represent a dementia type of its own. The clinical diagnosis for AD/SDAT and MID was certain in only half of the AD/SDAT and one third of the MID cases when evaluated histopathologically and by multivariate data analysis. AD/SDAT, MID and AD-MID were histopathologically diagnosed in 49%, 24% and 27%, respectively, of all the dementia cases studied. Opposite correlation between the number of tangles, plaques and the patient age in non-demented and AD/SDAT cases were observed, indicating that the pathogenesis of tangles and plaques in the two groups of patients might be different and that AD/SDAT might not be a form of an exaggerated ageing process.
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8.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Inter-laboratory comparison of neuropathological assessments of beta-amyloid protein : a study of the BrainNet Europe consortium.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 115:5, s. 533-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid-beta-protein (Abeta) is generally assessed by neuropathologists in diagnostics. This BrainNet Europe ( http://www.brainnet-europe.org/ ) (15 centres and 26 participants) study was carried out to investigate the reliability of such an assessment. In the first part of this trial, tissue microarray sections were stained with the antibody of each centre's choice. Reflecting the reality, seven antibodies and a plethora of pretreatment strategies were used. Ninety-two percent of the stainings were of good/acceptable quality and the estimation of presence of Abeta aggregates yielded good results. However, a poor agreement was reached particularly regarding quantitative (density) and qualitative (diffuse/cored plaques) results. During a joint meeting, the clone 4G8 was determined to label best the fleecy/diffuse plaques, and thus, this clone and the formic acid pretreatment technique were selected for the second part of this study. Subsequently, all stained sections were of good/acceptable quality and again a high level of concordance of the dichotomized (presence/absence) assessment of plaques and CAA was achieved. However, even when only one antibody was used, the type of Abeta-aggregates (diffuse/cored), type of vessel and Vonsattel grade, were not reliably assigned. Furthermore, the quantification of lesions was far from reliable. In line with the first trial, the agreement while assessing density (some, moderate and many) was unimpressive. In conclusion, we can confirm the utility of immunohistochemical detection of Abeta-protein in diagnostics and research. It is noteworthy that to reach reproducible results a dichotomized assessment of Abeta-immunoreactivity rather than quantification and assignment of various types of lesions should be applied, particularly when comparing results obtained by different neuropathologists.
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9.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Staging/typing of Lewy body related alpha-synuclein pathology : a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 117:6, s. 635-652
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When 22 members of the BrainNet Europe (BNE) consortium assessed 31 cases with alpha-synuclein (alphaS) immunoreactive (IR) pathology applying the consensus protocol described by McKeith and colleagues in 2005, the inter-observer agreement was 80%, being lowest in the limbic category (73%). When applying the staging protocol described by Braak and colleagues in 2003, agreement was only 65%, and in some cases as low as 36%. When modifications of these strategies, i.e., McKeith's protocol by Leverenz and colleagues from 2009, Braak's staging by Müller and colleagues from 2005 were applied then the agreement increased to 78 and 82%, respectively. In both of these modifications, a reduced number of anatomical regions/blocks are assessed and still in a substantial number of cases, the inter-observer agreement differed significantly. Over 80% agreement in both typing and staging of alphaS pathology could be achieved when applying a new protocol, jointly designed by the BNE consortium. The BNE-protocol assessing alphaS-IR lesions in nine blocks offered advantages over the previous modified protocols because the agreement between the 22 observers was over 80% in most cases. Furthermore, in the BNE-protocol, the alphaS pathology is assessed as being present or absent and thus the quality of staining and the assessment of the severity of alphaS-IR pathology do not alter the inter-observer agreement, contrary to other assessment strategies. To reach these high agreement rates an entity of amygdala-predominant category was incorporated. In conclusion, here we report a protocol for assessing alphaS pathology that can achieve a high inter-observer agreement for both the assignment to brainstem, limbic, neocortical and amygdala-predominant categories of synucleinopathy and the Braak stages.
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10.
  • Anan, Intissar, et al. (författare)
  • Colonic enteric nervous system in patients with familial amyloidotic neuropathy.
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 98:1, s. 48-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The colonic enteric nervous system was investigated in autopsy specimens from 12 patients with familial amyloidotic neuropathy (FAP) and 9 controls. The infiltration of amyloid deposits in the enteric nervous system was studied by double staining for amyloid and nerve elements. The myenteric plexus was immunostained for protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The immunostained nerve elements were quantified by computerised image analysis. Double staining revealed that there was no amyloid infiltration in the ganglia, or in the nerve fibres in the colonic enteric nervous system of FAP patients. The relative volume density of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibres in both the circular and the longitudinal muscle layers in FAP patients did not differ significantly from that of controls. The relative volume density of VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the circular muscle layer was significantly decreased in FAP patients compared with controls, but not in the longitudinal layer. The number of VIP-immunoreactive neurons/mm2 myenteric ganglia was significantly decreased in FAP patients. There were no statistical differences in the relative volume density for substance P- and NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres between FAP patients and controls, nor was there any difference between FAP patients and controls regarding the number of NOS- and substance P-immunoreactive neurons/mm2 myenteric ganglia. It is concluded that the colonic enteric nervous system as a whole is intact and is not damaged by amyloid infiltration. The present observation of a reduction of VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres and neurons in myenteric plexus of FAP patients might be one of the factors that contribute to the motility disorders seen in FAP patients.
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