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1.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Bone mass in female volleyball players : a comparison of total and regional bone mass in female volleyball players and nonactive females
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 0171-967X .- 1432-0827. ; 60:4, s. 338-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate bone mass in female athletes participating in an impact loading sport (volleyball), and especially to investigate whether any changes in bone mass might be related to the type and magnitude of weightbearing loading and muscle strength. The volleyball group consisted of 13 first division players (age 20.9 +/- 3.7 years) training for about 8 hours/week, and the reference group consisted of 13 nonactive females (age 25.0 +/- 2.4 years) not participating in any kind of regular or organized sport activity. The groups were matched according to weight and height. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, the whole femur, and humerus using dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic concentric peak torque of the quadricep and hamstring muscles was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Compared with the controls, the volleyball players had a significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD of the total body (6.1%), lumbar spine (13.2%), femoral neck (15.8%), Ward's triangle (17.9%), trochanter (18.8%), nondominant femur (8.2%), and humerus (dominant 9.5%, nondominant 10.0%), but not of the head and the dominant whole femur. The dominant humerus showed significantly higher BMD than the nondominant humerus in both the volleyball and nonactive group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in muscle strength of the thigh between the two groups. In the nonactive group, muscle strength in the quadriceps, and especially hamstrings, was correlated to BMD of the adjacent bones (whole femur, hip sites) and also to distant sites (humerus). However, in the volleyball group there were no correlations between muscle strength and BMD of the adjacent bones, but quadricep strength correlated to BMD of the humerus. These results clearly show that young female volleyball players have a high bone mass. The demonstrated high bone mass seems to be related to the type of loading subjected to each BMD site. Muscle strength of the thigh seems to have little impact on BMD in female volleyball players.
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2.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Bone mass in the calcaneus after heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training in recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinosis
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 0171-967X .- 1432-0827. ; 64:5, s. 450-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an ongoing prospective study of 14 recreational athletes (12 males and 2 females, mean age 44.2 +/- 7.1 years) with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinosis, we investigated the effect of treatment with heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training. Pain during activity (recorded on a VAS scale) and isokinetic concentric and eccentric calf-muscle strength (peak torque at 90 degrees /second and 225 degrees /second) on the injured and noninjured side were evaluated. In this group of patients, we examined areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus after 9 months (range 6-14 months) of training. BMD of the injured side (subjected to heavy-loaded eccentric training) was compared with BMD of the noninjured side. Before onset of heavy-loaded eccentric training, all patients had Achilles tendon pain which prohibited running activity, and significantly lower concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque on the injured compared with the noninjured side. The training program consisted of 12 weeks of daily, heavy-loaded, eccentric calf-muscle training; thereafter the training was continued for 2-3 days/week. The clinical results were excellent-all 14 patients were back at their preinjury level with full running activity at the 3 month follow-up. The concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque had increased significantly and did not significantly differ from the noninjured side at the 3 and 9 month follow-up. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. There was no significant relationship between BMD of the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength. As a comparison group, we used 10 recreational athletes (5 males and 5 females) mean age 40.9 years (range 26-55 years), who were selected for surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis localized at the 2-6 cm level. Their duration of symptoms and severity of disease were the same as in the experimental group. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus preoperatively, but 12 months postoperatively BMD of the calcaneus was 16.4% lower at the injured side compared with the noninjured side. Heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training resulted in a fast recovery in all patients, equaled the side-to-side differences in muscle strength, and was not associated with side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. In this group of middle-aged recreational athletes, BMD of the calcaneus was not related to calf-muscle strength.
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3.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • High thigh muscle strength but not bone mass in young horseback-riding females
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 0171-967X .- 1432-0827. ; 62:6, s. 497-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate whether the type of weight-bearing loading subjected to the skeleton during horseback-riding was associated with differences in bone mass and muscle strength of the thigh, we investigated bone mass and isokinetic muscle strength in 20 female horse riders (age 17.9 +/- 0.6 years) who were riding 7.0 +/- 3.4 hours/week, and 20 nonactive females (age 17.8 +/- 1.1 years). The groups were matched according to age, weight, and height. Areal bone mineral density was measured in total body, head, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter, the whole dominant and nondominant humerus, and in specific sites in the right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia, and tibia diaphysis using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torque of the quadricep and hamstring muscles were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. There were no significant differences in bone mass between the horseback riders and nonactives at any site measured. The horse riders were significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) stronger in concentric hamstrings strength at 90 degrees/second and 225 degrees/second and in eccentric quadricep and hamstring strength at 90 degrees/second. Horseback riding in young females is associated with a high muscle strength of the thigh, but not with a high bone mass.
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4.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term loading and regional bone mass of the arm in female volleyball players
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - 0171-967X .- 1432-0827. ; 62:4, s. 303-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study, we compared the bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the arms of 11 female volleyball players (mean age 22.0 +/- 2.6 years) training for about 8 hours/week, and 11 nonactive females aged 24.6 +/- 3.1 years (mean +/- SD) not participating in regular or organized sport activity. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BMC was measured in the proximal and distal humerus, and BMD in the distal radius. Isokinetic concentric peak torque (highest value attained during 5 or 10 repetitions) of the rotator muscles of the shoulder and flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The volleyball players had significantly higher BMC (P < 0.05) at the proximal humerus of the dominant arm compared with the nonactive group, but there were no differences between the groups in BMC of the distal humerus and BMD of the distal radius. In the volleyball players, BMC was significantly higher at the proximal humerus, at the distal humerus, and at the distal radius in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm. In the nonactive group, there were no significant differences in BMC and BMD between the dominant and nondominant arm at any site measured. Except for shoulder internal rotation strength and elbow flexion strength at 90 degrees/second that was higher in the dominant arm in the volleyball players, there were no significant differences in muscle strength of the rotator muscles of the shoulder and flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow between the dominant and nondominant arm in the volleyball players and nonactive controls. In the volleyball players, but not in the nonactive controls, there were several significant relationships between shoulder and elbow strength and BMC at the distal humerus of the dominant and especially the nondominant arm. These results show that young female volleyball players have a higher bone mass in the proximal humerus, distal humerus, and distal radius in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm, and a higher bone mass in the proximal humerus compared with nonactive controls. Muscle strength of the rotator muscles of the shoulder is not related to the higher bone mass in the proximal humerus of the dominant arm. Theoretically, the observed differences in bone mass can be related to the type of loading the skeleton undergoes when playing volleyball.
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5.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Prolonged progressive calcaneal bone loss despite early weightbearing rehabilitation in patients surgically treated for Achilles tendinosis
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 0171-967X .- 1432-0827. ; 62:2, s. 166-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We prospectively evaluated areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength (concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque in Nm) in 10 recreational athletes (5 males and 5 females), mean age 40.9 years (range 26-55), who were selected to undergo surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis localized at the 2-6 cm level. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a plaster cast for 2 weeks, followed by flexibility training and slowly progressing strength training and weight-bearing activity. One patient was excluded after week 0 because of a new injury. Seven patients were back to their preinjury activity at the 26-week control, and eight patients at the 52-week control postoperatively. BMD in the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength on the injured and noninjured side was measured preoperatively (week 0) and postoperatively (weeks 2, 6, 16, 26, and 52). There were no significant differences in BMD between the injured and noninjured side at weeks 0, 2, and 6, but at weeks 16, 26, and 52, BMD was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (11.5%, 18.4%, and 16.4%, respectively) in the calcaneus of the injured side. Concentric and eccentric plantar flexion strength were significantly lower on the injured side preoperatively. Eccentric, but not concentric plantar flexion strength had recovered compared with the noninjured side 1 year postoperatively. Calf-muscle strength was not related to bone mass in the calcaneus. As a comparison, we used a group of 11 recreational athletes (10 males and 1 female), with a mean age of 46.1 years (range 28.9-58.5) who had been surgically treated for chronic Achilles tendinosis at the 2-6 cm level 39.5 +/- 11.8 months ago. In this group, there was no significant difference in BMD of the calcaneus between the injured and noninjured side. It seems that there was a delayed and prolonged calcaneal bone loss despite early weightbearing loading in patients surgically treated for chronic Achilles tendinosis at the 2-6 cm level. Around that time, when the Achilles tendon had healed (4-6 months) and the athletes returned to their sports, the calcaneal bone had a relatively low BMD and might possibly be vulnerable to heavy loadings. There were no signs of recovery 1 year postoperatively, but in a comparison group there were no significant side-to-side differences 39.5 months postoperatively.
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6.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Total and regional bone mass in female soccer players
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 0171-967X .- 1432-0827. ; 59:6, s. 438-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This cross-sectional study investigated bone mass in female athletes participating in an impact-loading sport (soccer), and evaluated whether any changes in bone mass could be related to the type of weight-bearing loading and muscle strength. The group of soccer players consisted of 16 second-division female players (age 20.9 +/- 2.2 years) training for about 6 hours/week. The reference group consisted of 13 nonactive females (age 25.0 +/- 2.4 years) not participating in any kind of regular or organized sport activity. The groups were matched according to weight and height. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, the whole femur and humerus, and in specific sites in femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia, and tibia diaphysis using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic concentric peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The soccer players had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD in the lumbar spine (10.7%), femoral neck (13.7%), Ward's triangle (19.6%), nondominant femur and humerus (8.2 and 8.0%, respectively), distal femur (12.6%), and proximal tibia (12.0%) compared with the nonactive women. There was no significant difference in muscle strength of the thigh between the two groups. In the nonactive group, muscle strength in the quadriceps and especially hamstrings, was correlated to BMD of the adjacent bones (whole femur, hip sites) and also to distant sites (humerus). In the soccer group, there were no correlations between muscle strength and BMD of the adjacent and distant bones. Soccer playing and training appears to have a beneficial effect on bone mass in young females, and it seems that there is a site-specific skeletal response to the type of loading subjected to each BMD site. Muscle strength in the thigh is not related to bone mass in female soccer players.
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7.
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8.
  • Alwis, Gayani, et al. (författare)
  • Femoral Neck Bone Strength Estimated by Hip Structural Analysis (HSA) in Swedish Caucasians Aged 6-90 Years.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 1432-0827. ; 90:3, s. 174-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry hip scans of 1,760 population-based Caucasians, 599 girls and 642 boys aged 6-19 years and 270 women and 249 men aged 20-90 years, were analyzed with the hip structural analysis (HSA) software to present age- and sex-specific normative HSA data of the femoral neck (FN). Measured traits included bone mineral density (BMD), cross-sectional area (CSA), section modulus (Z), periosteal diameter (PD), endosteal diameter (ED), cortical thickness (CT), and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI). When plotting the measured traits versus age, the curves increased with higher ages until statistically significant break points were reached, for all traits at age 17 in girls and age 19 in boys. After the break points, PD and ED increased with higher ages but, as ED increased more than PD, BMD and CT decreased significantly with higher ages. The decline in BMD was counteracted by the increase in bone size so that there was only a nonstatistically significant decrease in bone strength, estimated as Z and CSMI, from break point to age 90. The partial preservation of bone strength was more obvious in men than in women as the decline in BMD was higher in women than in men, while the expansion in PD was larger in men than in women. The sex difference in the normative FN bone strength data seems to be related to sex discrepancies in the development of both bone mass and geometrical parameters during both growth and adulthood.
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9.
  • Alwis, Gayani, et al. (författare)
  • Normative Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound Data as an Estimation of Skeletal Development in Swedish Children and Adolescents.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International. - : Springer. - 1432-0827. ; 87, s. 493-506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present age- and gender-specific normative bone status data evaluated by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in the calcaneus with the Lunar Achilles device and compare these estimates with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Included were a sample of 518 population-based collected Swedish girls and 558 boys aged 6-19 years. QUS measurements included speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness index (SI) in the calcaneus. DXA measurements included BMC and BMD in the femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total body (TB). Height and weight were measured with standard equipment. Age, height, and weight were significantly associated with SOS, BUA, and SI. Compared to SOS, in both girls and boys there was a higher correlation between BUA and FN BMC (r = 0.71 and r = 0.73, respectively), FN BMD (r = 0.68 and r = 0.67, respectively), L2-L4 BMC (r = 0.70 and r = 0.64, respectively), L2-L4 BMD (r = 0.69 and r = 0.64, respectively), TB BMC (r = 0.76 and r = 0.75, respectively), and TB BMD (r = 0.74 and r = 0.74, respectively). The correlations between SOS and FN BMC (r = 0.38 and r = 0.52, respectively), FN BMD (r = 0.41 and r = 0.52, respectively), L2-L4 BMC (r = 0.31 and r = 0.40, respectively), L2-L4 BMD (r = 0.32 and r = 0.41, respectively), TB BMC (r = 0.42 and r = 0.49, respectively), and TB BMD (r = 0.48 and r = 0.54, respectively) were lower, although still significant (all P < 0.001). BUA seems to be the QUS parameter that best resembles the changes in BMC during growth.
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10.
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