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1.
  • Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Salivary cortisol : an alternative to serum cortisol determinations in dynamic function tests
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 36:4, s. 215-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Salivary cortisol was measured as an alternative to serum cortisol as a marker for adrenocortical function following insulin tolerance test, corticotropin-releasing-hormone stimulation and adreno-corticotrophic hormone stimulation. During insulin tolerance test and corticotropin-releasing-hormone stimulation adreno-corticotrophic hormone was also measured. The tests were performed on healthy control subjects as well as on patients under investigation for various disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (insulin tolerance test: 3 controls on two occasions and 14 patients; corticotropin-releasing-hormone stimulation: 4 controls and 18 patients; adreno-corticotrophic hormone stimulation: 6 controls and 10 patients). Five patients underwent both insulin tolerance test and corticotropin-releasing-hormone stimulation. Using criteria for adequate cortisol response in serum, the patients were classified as good or poor responders. In 42 of the 45 tests performed the same conclusion as to cortisol status was drawn when based on serum and salivary cortisol responses. In healthy subjects and good responders the mean cortisol relative increase was greater in saliva than in serum in all three tests (p < 0.05). Characteristic of the results for the insulin tolerance test was a significant initial mean decrease (p < 0.05), not found in serum, and the highest observed salivary cortisol value was delayed for at least 30 minutes compared to that in serum. Plasma adreno-corticotrophic hormone correlated significantly with the cortisol concentrations determined 15 minutes later in serum (r = 0.54–0.64) and in saliva (r = 0.76–0.85). The more pronounced cortisol response in saliva than in serum and its closer correlation with adreno-corticotrophic hormone offer advantages over serum cortisol, suggesting salivary cortisol measurement may be used as an alternative parameter in dynamic endocrine tets.
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2.
  • Andrade, Luis E. C., et al. (författare)
  • International consensus on antinuclear antibody patterns : definition of the AC-29 pattern associated with antibodies to DNA topoisomerase I
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 56:10, s. 1783-1788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on HEp-2 cells is the reference method for autoantibody screening. The HEp-2 IFA pattern provides useful information on the possible autoantibodies in the sample. The International Consensus on Antinuclear Antibody Patterns (ICAP) initiative seeks to define and harmonize the nomenclature of HEp-2 IFA patterns. The most relevant and usual patterns have been assigned an alphanumeric code from anti-cell (AC)-1 to AC-28 and were organized into a classification algorithm (www.ANApatterns.org). The systemic sclerosis-associated autoantibodies to DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I) produce a peculiar composite 5-element HEp-2 IFA pattern (Topo I-like pattern) comprising the staining of the nucleus, metaphase chromatin plate, nucleolar organizing region, cytoplasm and nucleolus. In a recent assessment of the European Consensus Finding Study Group on autoantibodies, a well-defined anti-Topo I sample was blindly analyzed and classified according to ICAP AC patterns by 43 participant laboratories across Europe. There were wide variations among these laboratories in reporting nuclear, nucleolar and cytoplasmic patterns, indicating the inadequacy of the existing AC patterns to report the Topo I-like pattern. Several ICAP member laboratories independently demonstrated the overall consistency of the HEp-2 IFA Topo I-like pattern using HEp-2 slides from different manufacturers. The ICAP committee reviewed 24 candidate images and selected the four most representative images to be available on the ICAP website. The proper recognition of the AC-29 pattern should trigger suspicion of the presence of anti-Topo I antibodies, which may engender appropriate analyte-specific reflex tests to confirm the autoantibody specificity.
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3.
  • Apweiler, Rolf, et al. (författare)
  • Approaching clinical proteomics : current state and future fields of application in fluid proteomics
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 75A:10, s. 816-832
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The field of clinical proteomics offers opportunities to identify new disease biomarkers in body fluids, cells and tissues. These biomarkers can be used in clinical applications for diagnosis, stratification of patients for specific treatment, or therapy monitoring. New protein array formats and improved spectrometry technologies have brought these analyses to a level with potential for use in clinical diagnostics. The nature of the human body fluid proteome with its large dynamic range of protein concentrations presents problems with quantitation. The extreme complexity of the proteome in body fluids presents enormous challenges and requires the establishment of standard operating procedures for handling of specimens, increasing sensitivity for detection and bioinformatical tools for distribution of proteomic data into the public domain. From studies of in vitro diagnostics, especially in clinical chemistry, it is evident that most errors occur in the preanalytical phase and during implementation of the diagnostic strategy. This is also true for clinical proteomics, and especially for fluid proteomics because of the multiple pretreatment processes. These processes include depletion of high-abundance proteins from plasma or enrichment processes for urine where biological variation or differences in proteolytic activities in the sample along with preanalytical variables such as inter- and intra-assay variability will likely influence the results of proteomics studies. However, before proteomic analysis can be introduced at a broader level into the clinical setting, standardization of the preanalytical phase including patient preparation, sample collection, sample preparation, sample storage, measurement and data analysis needs to be improved. In this review, we discuss the recent technological advances and applications that fulfil the criteria for clinical proteomics, with the focus on fluid proteomics. These advances relate to preanalytical factors, analytical standardization and quality-control measures required for effective implementation into routine laboratory testing in order to generate clinically useful information. With new disease biomarker candidates, it will be crucial to design and perform clinical studies that can identify novel diagnostic strategies based on these techniques, and to validate their impact on clinical decision-making.
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4.
  • Arfvidsson, Berndt, et al. (författare)
  • S100B concentrations increase perioperatively in jugular vein blood despite limited metabolic and inflammatory response to clinically uneventful carotid endarterectomy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : Walter de Gruyter. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 53:1, s. 111-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that metabolic and inflammatory responses of the brain perioperatively during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) might affect blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity.Methods: Twenty patients with >70% stenosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) were prospectively included. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. Blood was sampled from ipsilateral internal jugular vein and radial artery: just before, during, and after ICA clamping S100B protein, glucose, lactate, 20 amino acids, and key cytokines were analysed.Results: Jugular vein S100B increased during clamping and reperfusion, while a marginal systemic increase was recorded, unrelated to stump pressure during clamping. Glucose increased during clamping in jugular vein blood and even more systemically, while jugular lactate values were higher than systemic values initially. Most amino acids did not differ significantly between jugular vein and systemic levels: glutamic acid and aspartic acid decreased during surgery while asparagine increased. Jugular vein interleukin (IL)-6 showed a transient non-significant increase during clamping and decreased systemically. IL-8 and IL-10 increased over time.Conclusions: Rising jugular vein S100B concentrations indicated reduced BBB integrity, and marginal secondary increase of S100B systemically. Limited ischaemic effects on the brain during cross-clamping, unrelated to S100B concentrations, were confirmed by lower brain glucose levels and higher lactate levels than in systemic blood. The lack of increased jugular vein glutamic acid disproves any major ischaemic brain injury following CEA. The inflammatory response was limited, did not differ greatly between jugular and systemic blood, and was unrelated to S100B.
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5.
  • Arsov, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Advanced glycation end-products and skin autofluorescence in end-stage renal disease : a review
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : Walter de Gruyter. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 52:1, SI, s. 11-20
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in its end stage, is marked by extremely high cardiovascular rates of morbidity and mortality; hemodialysis patients have a five-fold shorter life expectancy than healthy subjects of the same age. In CKD the metabolic products that accumulate in the body are so-called uremic toxins. These include advanced glycation end-products (AGE). AGE levels are markedly increased in CKD patients not only because of impaired excretion but also because of increased production. AGE formation has initially been described as a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and glucose in the so-called Maillard reaction, but they are also more rapidly formed during oxidative stress and subsequent formation of reactive carbonyl compounds like (methyl) glyoxal. AGE accumulate in tissue where they cross-link with proteins, e. g., collagen, inducing tissue stiffening of blood vessels and skin. They may also interact with receptor of AGE (RAGE) and other receptors, which lead to activation of intracellular transduction mechanisms resulting in cytokine release and further tissue damage in CKD. The accumulation of AGE in the skin can be measured non-invasively using autofluorescence. The skin autofluorescence is a strong marker of cardiovascular mortality in CKD. The focus of this review is on the role of tissue and plasma AGE, and of skin autofluorescence as a proxy of tissue AGE accumulation, in the increase in cardiovascular disease in end stage renal disease (ESRD). This review will also present the possibility of reducing the AGE accumulation in ESRD patients using the following five methods: 1) use of low AGE peritoneal dialysis solutions; 2) use of advanced hemodialysis techniques; 3) use of AGE reducing drugs; 4) optimizing the nutrition of hemodialysis patients; and 5) renal transplantation.
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6.
  • Ben, Rayana M.C., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for sampling, measuring and reporting ionized magnesium in undiluted serum, plasma or blood : International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 43:5, s. 564-569
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All analyzers with ion-selective electrodes for ionized magnesium (iMg) should yield comparable and unbiased results. The prerequisite to achieve this goal is to reach consensus on sampling, measurement and reporting. The recommended guidelines for sampling, measurement and reporting iMg in plasma ("plasma" refers to circulating plasma and the forms in which it is sampled: the plasma phase of anticoagulated whole blood, plasma separated from blood cells, or serum) or blood, referring to the substance concentration of iMg in the calibrants, will provide results for iMg that are approximately 3% greater than its true concentration, and 4% less than its true molality. Binding of magnesium to proteins and ligands in plasma and blood is pH-dependent. Therefore, pH should be simultaneously measured to allow adjustment of iMg concentration to pH 7.4. The substance concentration of iMg may be physiologically and consequently clinically more relevant than the substance concentration of total magnesium. © 2005 by Walter de Gruyter.
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7.
  • Ben Rayana, Mohammed C., et al. (författare)
  • IFCC guideline for sampling, measuring and reporting ionized magnesium in plasma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 46:1, s. 21-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analyzers with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for ionized magnesium (iMg) should yield comparable and unbiased results for iMg. This IFCC guideline on sampling, measuring and reporting iMg in plasma provides a prerequisite to achieve this goal [in this document, "plasma" refers to circulating plasma and the forms in which it is sampled, namely the plasma phase of anticoagulated whole blood (or "blood"), plasma separated from blood cells, or serum]. The guideline recommends measuring and reporting ionized magnesium as a substance concentration relative to the substance concentration of magnesium in primary aqueous calibrants with magnesium, sodium, and calcium chloride of physiological ionic strength. The recommended name is "the concentration of ionized magnesium in plasma". Based on this guideline, results will be approximately 3% higher than the true substance concentration and 4% lower than the true molality in plasma. Calcium ions interfere with all current magnesium ion-selective electrodes (Mg-ISEs), and thus it is necessary to determine both ions simultaneously in each sample and correct the result for Ca2+ interference. Binding of Mg in plasma is pH-dependent. Therefore, pH should be measured simultaneously with iMg to allow adjustment of the result to pH 7.4. The concentration of iMg in plasma may be physiologically and clinically more relevant than the concentration of total magnesium. Furthermore, blood-gas analyzers or instruments for point-of-care testing are able to measure plasma iMg using whole blood (with intact blood cells) as the sample, minimizing turnaround time compared to serum and plasma, which require removal of blood cells.
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8.
  • Ben Rayana, Mohammed C, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendation for measuring and reporting chloride by ISEs in undiluted serum, plasma or blood
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 44:3, s. 346-352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The proposed recommendation for measuring and reporting chloride in undiluted plasma† or blood by ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) will provide results that are identical to chloride concentrations measured by coulometry for standardized normal plasma or blood samples. It is applicable to all current ISEs dedicated to chloride measurement in undiluted samples that meet the requirements. However, in samples with reduced water concentration, results by coulometry are lower than by ion-selective electrode due to volume displacement. The quantity measured by this standardized ISE procedure is called the ionized chloride concentration. It may be clinically more relevant than the chloride concentration as determined by coulometry, photometry or by ISE after dilution of the sample. © 2006 by Walter de Gruyter.
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9.
  • Bjerke, Maria, 1977, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing the commutability of reference material formats for the harmonization of amyloid beta measurements.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine : CCLM / FESCC. - 1437-4331. ; 54:7, s. 1177-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β (Aβ42) peptide is an important biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Variability in measured Aβ42 concentrations at different laboratories may be overcome by standardization and establishing traceability to a reference system. Candidate certified reference materials (CRMs) are validated herein for this purpose. METHODS: Commutability of 16 candidate CRM formats was assessed across five CSF Aβ42 immunoassays and one mass spectrometry (MS) method in a set of 48 individual clinical CSF samples. Promising candidate CRM formats (neat CSF and CSF spiked with Aβ42) were identified and subjected to validation across eight (Elecsys, EUROIMMUN, IBL, INNO-BIA AlzBio3, INNOTEST, MSD, Simoa, and Saladax) immunoassays and the MS method in 32 individual CSF samples. Commutability was evaluated by Passing-Bablok regression and the candidate CRM termed commutable when found within the prediction interval (PI). The relative distance to the regression line was assessed. RESULTS: The neat CSF candidate CRM format was commutable for almost all method comparisons, except for the Simoa/MSD, Simoa/MS and MS/IBL where it was found just outside the 95% PI. However, the neat CSF was found within 5% relative distance to the regression line for MS/IBL, between 5% and 10% for Simoa/MS and between 10% and 15% for Simoa/MSD comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The neat CSF candidate CRM format was commutable for 33 of 36 method comparisons, only one comparison more than expected given the 95% PI acceptance limit. We conclude that the neat CSF candidate CRM can be used for value assignment of the kit calibrators for the different Aβ42 methods.
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10.
  • Björk, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Accuracy of GFR estimating equations combining standardized cystatin C and creatinine assays: a cross-sectional study in Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : De Gruyter. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 53:3, s. 403-414
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The recently established international cystatin C calibrator makes it possible to develop non-laboratory specific glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating (eGFR) equations. This study compares the performance of the arithmetic mean of the revised Lund-Malmo creatinine and CAPA cystatin C equations (MEAN(LM-REV+CAPA)), the arithmetic mean of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI) creatinine and cystatin C equations (MEAN(CKD-EPI)), and the composite CKD-EPI equation (CKD-EPICREA+CYSC) with the corresponding single marker equations using internationally standardized calibrators for both cystatin C and creatinine. Methods: The study included 1200 examinations in 1112 adult Swedish patients referred for measurement of GFR (mGFR) 2008-2010 by plasma clearance of iohexol (median 51 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Bias, precision (interquartile range, IQR) and accuracy (percentage of estimates +/- 30% of mGFR; P-30) were compared. Results: Combined marker equations were unbiased and had higher precision and accuracy than single marker equations. Overall results of MEAN(LM-REV+CAPA)/MEAN(CKD-EPI)/CKD-EPICREA+CYSC were: median bias -2.2%/-0.5%/-1.6%, IQR 9.2/9.2/8.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and P-30 91.3%/91.0%/91.1%. The P-30 figures were about 7-14 -percentage points higher than the single marker equations. The combined equations also had a more stable performance across mGFR, age and BMI intervals, generally with P-30 >= 90% and never <80%. Combined equations reached P-30 of 95% when the difference between eGFR(CREA) and eGFR(CYSC) was <10% but decreased to 82% at a difference of >= 40%. Conclusions: Combining cystatin C and creatinine assays improves GFR estimations with P-30 >= 90% in adults. Reporting estimates of both single and combined marker equations in clinical settings makes it possible to assess the validity of the combined equation based on the agreement between the single marker equations.
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