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  • Drabsch, Yvette, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming growth factor-β signalling controls human breast cancer metastasis in a zebrafish xenograft model
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 15:6, s. R106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway is known to control human breast cancer invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that the zebrafish xenograft assay is a robust and dependable animal model for examining the role of pharmacological modulators and genetic perturbation of TGF-β signalling in human breast tumour cells.METHODS: We injected cancer cells into the embryonic circulation (duct of cuvier) and examined their invasion and metastasis into the avascular collagenous tail. Various aspects of the TGF-β signalling pathway were blocked by chemical inhibition, small interfering RNA (siRNA), or small hairpin RNA (shRNA). Analysis was conducted using fluorescent microscopy.RESULTS: Breast cancer cells with different levels of malignancy, according to in vitro and in vivo mouse studies, demonstrated invasive and metastatic properties within the embryonic zebrafish model that nicely correlated with their differential tumourigenicity in mouse models. Interestingly, MCF10A M2 and M4 cells invaded into the caudal hematopoietic tissue and were visible as a cluster of cells, whereas MDA MB 231 cells invaded into the tail fin and were visible as individual cells. Pharmacological inhibition with TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitors or tumour specific Smad4 knockdown disturbed invasion and metastasis in the zebrafish xenograft model and closely mimicked the results we obtained with these cells in a mouse metastasis model. Inhibition of matrix metallo proteinases, which are induced by TGF-β in breast cancer cells, blocked invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells.CONCLUSIONS: The zebrafish-embryonic breast cancer xenograft model is applicable for the mechanistic understanding, screening and development of anti-TGF-β drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in a timely and cost-effective manner.
  • Heikkinen, Tuomas, et al. (författare)
  • Variants on the promoter region of PTEN affect breast cancer progression and patient survival
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 13:6, s. R130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUTION:The PTEN gene, a regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt oncogenic pathway, is mutated in various cancers and its expression has been associated with tumor progression in a dose-dependent fashion. We investigated the effect of germline variation in the promoter region of the PTEN gene on clinical characteristics and survival in breast cancer.METHODS:We screened the promoter region of the PTEN gene for germline variation in 330 familial breast cancer cases and further determined the genotypes of three detected PTEN promoter polymorphisms -903GA, -975GC, and -1026CA in a total of 2,412 breast cancer patients to evaluate the effects of the variants on tumor characteristics and disease outcome. We compared the gene expression profiles in breast cancers of 10 variant carriers and 10 matched non-carriers and performed further survival analyses based on the differentially expressed genes.RESULTS: All three promoter variants associated with worse prognosis. The Cox's regression hazard ratio for 10-year breast cancer specific survival in multivariate analysis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.17 to 3.46) P = 0.0119, and for 5-year breast cancer death or distant metastasis free survival 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.11) P = 0.0381 for the variant carriers, indicating PTEN promoter variants as an independent prognostic factor. The breast tumors from the promoter variant carriers exhibited a similar gene expression signature of 160 differentially expressed genes compared to matched non-carrier tumors. The signature further stratified patients into two groups with different recurrence free survival in independent breast cancer gene expression data sets.CONCLUSIONS:Inherited variation in the PTEN promoter region affects the tumor progression and gene expression profile in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to establish PTEN promoter variants as clinical markers for prognosis in breast cancer.
  • Li, Yihao, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic depletion and pharmacological targeting of alpha v integrin in breast cancer cells impairs metastasis in zebrafish and mouse xenograft models
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Increased expression of alpha v integrins is frequently associated with tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, and correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, the mechanism by which alpha v integrins can enhance breast cancer progression is still largely unclear. The effects of therapeutic targeting of alpha v integrins in breast cancer also have yet to be investigated. Methods: We knocked down alpha v integrin in MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A-M4 breast cancer cells, or treated these cells with the alpha v antagonist GLPG0187. The effects of alpha v integrin depletion on mesenchymal markers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/Smad signaling and TGF-beta-induced target gene expression were analyzed in MDA-MB-231 cells by RNA analysis or Western blotting. The function of alpha v integrin on breast cancer cell migration was investigated by transwell assay in vitro, and its effect on breast cancer progression was assessed by both zebrafish and mouse xenografts in vivo. In the mouse model, GLPG0187 was administered separately, or in combination with the standard-of-care anti-resorptive agent zoledronate and the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel, to study the effects of combinational treatments on breast cancer metastasis. Results: Genetic interference and pharmacological targeting of alpha v integrin with GLPG0187 in different breast cancer cell lines inhibited invasion and metastasis in the zebrafish or mouse xenograft model. Depletion of alpha v integrin in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited the expression of mesenchymal markers and the TGF-beta/Smad response. TGF-beta induced alpha v integrin mRNA expression and alpha v integrin was required for TGF-beta-induced breast cancer cell migration. Moreover, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with non-peptide RGD antagonist GLPG0187 decreased TGF-beta signaling. In the mouse xenografts GLPG0187 inhibited the progression of bone metastasis. Maximum efficacy of inhibition of bone metastasis was achieved when GLPG0187 was combined with the standard-of-care metastatic breast cancer treatments. Conclusion: These findings show that alpha v integrin is required for efficient TGF-beta/Smad signaling and TGF-beta-induced breast cancer cell migration, and for maintaining a mesenchymal phenotype of the breast cancer cells. Our results also provide evidence that targeting alpha v integrin could be an effective therapeutic approach for treatment of breast cancer tumors and/or metastases that overexpress alpha v integrin.
  • Monazzam, Azita, et al. (författare)
  • Application of the multicellular tumour spheroid model to screen PET tracers for analysis of early response of chemotherapy in breast cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 9:4, s. R45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IntroductionPositron emission tomography (PET) is suggested for early monitoring of treatment response, assuming that effective anticancer treatment induces metabolic changes that precede morphology alterations and changes in growth. The aim of this study was to introduce multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) to study the effect of anticancer drugs and suggest an appropriate PET tracer for further studies.MethodsMTS of the breast cancer cell line MCF7 were exposed to doxorubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, tamoxifen or imatinib for 7 days for growth pattern studies and for 3 or 5 days for PET tracer studies. The effect on growth was computed using the semi-automated size determination method (SASDM). The effect on the uptake of PET tracers [18F]3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT), [1-11C]acetate (ACE), [11C]choline (CHO), [11C]methionine (MET), and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was calculated in form of uptake/viable volume of the MTS at the end of the drug exposures, and finally the uptake was related to effects on growth rate.ResultsThe drugs paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin gave severe growth inhibition, which correlated well with inhibition of the FLT uptake. FLT had, compared with ACE, CHO, MET and FDG, higher sensitivity in monitoring the therapy effects.ConclusionSASDM provides an effective, user-friendly, time-saving and accurate method to record the growth pattern of the MTS, and also to calculate the effect of the drug on PET tracer uptake. This study demonstrate the use of MTS and SASDM in combination with PET tracers as a promising approach to probe and select PET tracer for treatment monitoring of anticancer drugs and that can hopefully be applied for optimisation in breast cancer treatment.
  • Muggerud, Aslaug Aa, et al. (författare)
  • Frequent aberrant DNA methylation of ABCB1, FOXC1, PPP2R2B and PTEN in ductal carcinoma in situ and early invasive breast cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 12:1, s. R3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive lesion of the breast that is frequently detected by mammography and subsequently removed by surgery. However, it is estimated that about half of the detected lesions would never have progressed into invasive cancer. Identifying DCIS and invasive cancer specific epigenetic lesions and understanding how these epigenetic changes are involved in triggering tumour progression is important for a better understanding of which lesions are at risk of becoming invasive. METHODS: Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of ABCB1, CDKN2A/p16INK4a, ESR1, FOXC1, GSTP1, IGF2, MGMT, MLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN and RASSF1A was performed by pyrosequencing in a series of 27 pure DCIS, 28 small invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), 34 IDCs with a DCIS component and 5 normal breast tissue samples. FOXC1, ABCB1, PPP2R2B and PTEN were analyzed in 23 additional normal breast tissue samples. Real-Time PCR expression analysis was performed for FOXC1. RESULTS: Aberrant DNA methylation was observed in all three diagnosis groups for the following genes: ABCB1, FOXC1, GSTP1, MGMT, MLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN and RASSF1A. For most of these genes, methylation was already present at the DCIS level with the same frequency as within IDCs. For FOXC1 significant differences in methylation levels were observed between normal breast tissue and invasive tumours (P < 0.001). The average DNA methylation levels were significantly higher in the pure IDCs and IDCs with DCIS compared to pure DCIS (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively). Real-time PCR analysis of FOXC1 expression from 25 DCIS, 23 IDCs and 28 normal tissue samples showed lower gene expression levels of FOXC1 in both methylated and unmethylated tumours compared to normal tissue (P < 0.001). DNA methylation levels of FOXC1, GSTP1, ABCB1 and RASSF1A were higher in oestrogen receptor (ER) positive vs. ER negative tumours; whereas methylation levels of FOXC1, ABCB1, PPP2R2B and PTEN were lower in tumours with a TP53 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative methylation analysis identified ABCB1, FOXC1, PPP2R2B and PTEN as novel genes to be methylated in DCIS. In particular, FOXC1 showed a significant increase in the methylation frequency in invasive tumours. Low FOXC1 gene expression in both methylated and unmethylated DCIS and IDCs indicates that the loss of its expression is an early event during breast cancer progression.
  • Segersten, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase expression in breast cancer and use of non-hydroxylated vitamin D analogue
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 7, s. R980-R986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION:The cytochrome P450 mitochondrial enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase) of renal tubule cells hydroxylates the major circulating form of vitamin D (25(OH)D3) to the active systemic hormone 1,25(OH)2D3. Local production of 1,25(OH)2D3 appears to occur also at other sites where 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed for autocrine/paracrine regulation. To reduce risks of hypercalcemia during treatment with vitamin D, we have previously suggested use of non-1alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D analogues to target tissues where 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed, including the parathyroid glands in secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study was undertaken to examine expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase in breast cancer and to investigate whether a non-1alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D analogue displayed biological function. In addition, expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated.METHODS:The expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase, 24-hydroxylase and VDR was investigated in breast cancer specimens (n = 19) and normal breast tissues (n = 10) by immunohistochemistry and/or RT-PCR. Consecutive cryosections of 6 mum essentially free of immune cells were used in the analyses. The effect of vitamin D analogues on transcriptional activation was analyzed in transiently transfected MCF-7 breast cancer cells.RESULTS:1alpha-hydroxylase protein was demonstrated in 79% and 100% of breast cancer specimens and normal breast, respectively. The overall relative mRNA levels of 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in normal breast compared to breast tumors were: 1alpha-hydroxylase, 1 +/- 0.07 versus 0.7 +/- 0.05, respectively (p < 0.001); 24-hydroxylase, 1 +/- 0.08 verus 2.1 +/- 0.2, respectively (p < 0.001). The VDR was expressed in 95% of the tumors as expected, with mRNA levels of 1 +/- 0.09 and 1.4 +/- 0.12 (p < 0.05) in breast cancer and normal breast, respectively. The ketoconazole-sensitive transcription activation potential of the non-1alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D analogue prodrug of EB1089 (EB1285) was demonstrated in MCF-7 cells, which express 1alpha-hydroxylase. The activity of EB1285 was about 20% of 1,25(OH)2D3.CONCLUSION:These results demonstrate nearly normal expression levels of 1alpha-hydroxylase, 24-hydroxylase and VDR in the majority of investigated breast cancer specimens. A non-1alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D analogue displayed activity in breast cancer cells. Such analogues may present future therapeutic options for proliferative disorders where 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed.
  • Shen, Qing, et al. (författare)
  • Psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the diagnostic workup of potential breast cancer : a population-based cohort study in Skåne, Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: An increasing number of women are evaluated for potential breast cancer and may experience mental distress during evaluation. We aim to assess the risks of psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the diagnostic workup of potential breast cancer.METHODS: All women with a new diagnosis of unspecified lump in breast (N = 15,714), benign tumor or breast cancer in situ (N = 4435), or breast cancer (N = 8512) during 2005-2014 in Skåne, Sweden, were considered as exposed to a breast diagnostic workup. We used multivariable Poisson regression to compare rates of psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the 6 weeks before the date of diagnosis of these women with the corresponding rates of women not undergoing such workup. The commonest waiting time for breast cancer patients was 6 weeks during the study period. A within-individual comparison was performed to control for potential unmeasured time-stationary confounders.RESULTS: Compared to the reference, we found a higher rate of psychiatric disorders during the 6 weeks before diagnosis of benign tumor or breast cancer in situ (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 1.5) and breast cancer (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.6). A higher rate was also noted for cardiovascular diseases (IRR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6 for benign tumor or breast cancer in situ, and IRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 2.0 for breast cancer). The rate increases for breast cancer were greater comparing a diagnostic workup due to symptoms to a workup due to screening. Little rate increase of neither psychiatric disorders nor cardiovascular diseases was noted during the 6 weeks before the diagnosis of unspecified lump in breast. The within-individual comparison largely confirmed these findings.CONCLUSIONS: Women with benign and malignant breast tumor had increased rates of psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular diseases during the waiting for a final diagnosis.
  • Sundqvist, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Key signaling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer : Smad signal integration in epithelial cell plasticity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 14:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Smad proteins are the key intermediates of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling during development and in tissue homeostasis. Pertubations in TGF-β/Smad signaling have been implicated in cancer and other diseases. In the cell nucleus, Smad complexes trigger cell type- and context-specific transcriptional programs, thereby transmitting and integrating signals from a variety of ligands of the TGF-β superfamily and other stimuli in the cell microenvironment. The actual transcriptional and biological outcome of Smad activation critically depends on the genomic integrity and the modification state of genome and chromatin of the cell. The cytoplasmic and nuclear Smads can also modulate the activity of other signal transducers and enzymes such as microRNA-processing factors. In the case of breast cancer, the role of Smads in epithelial plasticity, tumor-stroma interactions, invasion, and metastasis seems of particular importance.
  • Wedrén, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Oestrogen receptor alpha gene haplotype and postmenopausal breast cancer risk : a case control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 6:4, s. R437-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Oestrogen receptor alpha, which mediates the effect of oestrogen in target tissues, is genetically polymorphic. Because breast cancer development is dependent on oestrogenic influence, we have investigated whether polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) are associated with breast cancer risk. METHODS: We genotyped breast cancer cases and age-matched population controls for one microsatellite marker and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1. The numbers of genotyped cases and controls for each marker were as follows: TAn, 1514 cases and 1514 controls; c.454-397C --> T, 1557 cases and 1512 controls; c.454-351A --> G, 1556 cases and 1512 controls; c.729C --> T, 1562 cases and 1513 controls; c.975C --> G, 1562 cases and 1513 controls. Using logistic regression models, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Haplotype effects were estimated in an exploratory analysis, using expectation-maximisation algorithms for case-control study data. RESULTS: There were no compelling associations between single polymorphic loci and breast cancer risk. In haplotype analyses, a common haplotype of the c.454-351A --> G or c.454-397C --> T and c.975C --> G SNPs appeared to be associated with an increased risk for ductal breast cancer: one copy of the c.454-351A --> G and c.975C --> G haplotype entailed an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.33) and two copies with an OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.15-1.77), compared with no copies, under a model of multiplicative penetrance. The association with the c.454-397C --> T and c.975C --> G haplotypes was similar. Our data indicated that these haplotypes were more influential in women with a high body mass index. Adjustment for multiple comparisons rendered the associations statistically non-significant. CONCLUSION: We found suggestions of an association between common haplotypes in ESR1 and the risk for ductal breast cancer that is stronger in heavy women.
  • Yoosuf, Niyaz, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and transfer of spatial transcriptomics signatures for cancer diagnosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 22:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Distinguishing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) regions in clinical biopsies constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Spatial transcriptomics (ST) is an in situ capturing method, which allows quantification and visualization of transcriptomes in individual tissue sections. In the past, studies have shown that breast cancer samples can be used to study their transcriptomes with spatial resolution in individual tissue sections. Previously, supervised machine learning methods were used in clinical studies to predict the clinical outcomes for cancer types. Methods: We used four publicly available ST breast cancer datasets from breast tissue sections annotated by pathologists as non-malignant, DCIS, or IDC. We trained and tested a machine learning method (support vector machine) based on the expert annotation as well as based on automatic selection of cell types by their transcriptome profiles. Results: We identified expression signatures for expert annotated regions (non-malignant, DCIS, and IDC) and build machine learning models. Classification results for 798 expression signature transcripts showed high coincidence with the expert pathologist annotation for DCIS (100%) and IDC (96%). Extending our analysis to include all 25,179 expressed transcripts resulted in an accuracy of 99% for DCIS and 98% for IDC. Further, classification based on an automatically identified expression signature covering all ST spots of tissue sections resulted in prediction accuracy of 95% for DCIS and 91% for IDC. Conclusions: This concept study suggest that the ST signatures learned from expert selected breast cancer tissue sections can be used to identify breast cancer regions in whole tissue sections including regions not trained on. Furthermore, the identified expression signatures can classify cancer regions in tissue sections not used for training with high accuracy. Expert-generated but even automatically generated cancer signatures from ST data might be able to classify breast cancer regions and provide clinical decision support for pathologists in the future.
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