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  • Ain, Noor Ul, et al. (författare)
  • Novel form of rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia associated with a homozygous variant in GNPNAT1
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 58:5, s. 351-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Studies exploring molecular mechanisms underlying congenital skeletal disorders have revealed novel regulators of skeletal homeostasis and shown protein glycosylation to play an important role.OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic cause of rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia in a consanguineous Pakistani family.METHODS: Clinical investigations were carried out for four affected individuals in the recruited family. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was completed using DNA from two affected and two unaffected individuals from the family. Sequencing data were processed, filtered and analysed. In silico analyses were performed to predict the effects of the candidate variant on the protein structure and function. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to study the effect of Gnpnat1 gene knockdown in primary rat chondrocytes.RESULTS: The patients presented with short stature due to extreme shortening of the proximal segments of the limbs. Radiographs of one individual showed hip dysplasia and severe platyspondyly. WGS data analyses identified a homozygous missense variant c.226G>A; p.(Glu76Lys) in GNPNAT1, segregating with the disease. Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, encoded by the highly conserved gene GNPNAT1, is one of the enzymes required for synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine, which participates in protein glycosylation. Knockdown of Gnpnat1 by siRNAs decreased cellular proliferation and expression of chondrocyte differentiation markers collagen type 2 and alkaline phosphatase, indicating that Gnpnat1 is important for growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a novel severe skeletal dysplasia associated with a biallelic, variant in GNPNAT1. Our data suggest that GNPNAT1 is important for growth plate chondrogenesis.
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  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:6, s. 419-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. Methods The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Results Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Conclusions Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting.
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  • Albagha, O M E, et al. (författare)
  • Association of oestrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with postmenopausal bone loss, bone mass, and quantitative ultrasound properties of bone.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 42:3, s. 240-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The gene encoding oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) appears to regulate bone mineral density (BMD) and other determinants of osteoporotic fracture risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between common polymorphisms and haplotypes of the ESR1 gene and osteoporosis related phenotypes in a population based cohort of 3054 Scottish women. RESULTS: There was a significant association between a common haplotype "px", defined by the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphisms within intron 1 of the ESR1 gene, and femoral neck bone loss in postmenopausal women who had not received hormone replacement therapy (n = 945; p = 0.009). Annual rates of femoral neck bone loss were approximately 14% higher in subjects who carried one copy of px and 22% higher in those who carried two copies, compared with those who did not carry the px haplotype. The px haplotype was associated with lower femoral neck BMD in the postmenopausal women (p = 0.02), and with reduced calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) values in the whole study population (p = 0.005). There was no association between a TA repeat polymorphism in the ESR1 promoter and any phenotype studied, though on long range haplotype analysis subjects with a smaller number of TA repeats who also carried the px haplotype had reduced BUA values. CONCLUSIONS: The ESR1px haplotype is associated with reduced hip BMD values and increased rates of femoral neck bone loss in postmenopausal women. An association with BUA may explain the fact that ESR1 intron 1 alleles predict osteoporotic fractures by a mechanism partly independent of differences in BMD.
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  • Arnell, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • The genetics of primary nocturnal enuresis: inheritance and suggestion of a second major gene on chromosome 12q
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 34:5, s. 360-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), or bedwetting at night, affects approximately 10% of 6 year old children. Genetic components contribute to the pathogenesis and recently one locus was assigned to chromosome 13q. We evaluated the genetic factors and the pattern of inheritance for PNE in 392 families. Dominant transmission was observed in 43% and an apparent recessive mode of inheritance was observed in 9% of the families. Among the 392 probands the ratio of males to females was 3:1 indicating sex linked or sex influenced factors. Linkage to candidate regions was tested in 16 larger families segregating for autosomal dominant PNE. A gene for PNE was excluded from chromosome 13q in 11 families, whereas linkage to the interval D13S263-D13S291 was suggested (Zmax = 2.1) in three families. Further linkage analyses excluded about 1/3 of the genome at a 10 cM resolution except the region around D12S80 on chromosome 12q that showed a positive two point lod score in six of the families (Zmax = 4.2). This locus remains suggestive because the material was not sufficiently large to give evidence for heterogeneity. Our pedigree analysis indicates that major genes are involved in a large proportion of PNE families and the linkage results suggest that such a gene is located on chromosome 12q.
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  • Björkman, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic spectrum and clinical course of single large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletion disease in the paediatric population: a multicentre study.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions (LMD) are a common genetic cause of mitochondrial disease and give rise to a wide range of clinical features. Lack of longitudinal data means the natural history remains unclear. This study was undertaken to describe the clinical spectrum in a large cohort of patients with paediatric disease onset. Methods A retrospective multicentre study was performed in patients with clinical onset <16 years of age, diagnosed and followed in seven European mitochondrial disease centres. Results A total of 80 patients were included. The average age at disease onset and at last examination was 10 and 31 years, respectively. The median time from disease onset to death was 11.5 years. Pearson syndrome was present in 21%, Kearns-Sayre syndrome spectrum disorder in 50% and progressive external ophthalmoplegia in 29% of patients. Haematological abnormalities were the hallmark of the disease in preschool children, while the most common presentations in older patients were ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia. Skeletal muscle involvement was found in 65% and exercise intolerance in 25% of the patients. Central nervous system involvement was frequent, with variable presence of ataxia (40%), cognitive involvement (36%) and stroke-like episodes (9%). Other common features were pigmentary retinopathy (46%), short stature (42%), hearing impairment (39%), cardiac disease (39%), diabetes mellitus (25%) and renal disease (19%). Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the phenotypic spectrum of childhood-onset, LMD-associated syndromes. We found a wider spectrum of more prevalent multisystem involvement compared with previous studies, most likely related to a longer time of follow-up.
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