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  • Bramson, L. M., et al. (författare)
  • The association between childhood relocations and subsequent risk of suicide attempt, psychiatric problems, and low academic achievement
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - New York, USA : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 46:5, s. 969-979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Given the frequency with which families change residences, the effects of childhood relocations have gained increasing research attention. Many researchers have demonstrated that childhood relocations are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. However, drawing strong causal claims remains problematic due to uncontrolled confounding factors.Method: We utilized longitudinal, population-based Swedish registers to generate a nationally representative sample of offspring born 1983-1997 (n = 1 510 463). Using Cox regression and logistic regression, we examined the risk for numerous adverse outcomes after childhood relocation while controlling for measured covariates. To account for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounds, we also compared differentially exposed cousins and siblings.Results: In the cohort baseline model, each annual relocation was associated with risk for the adverse outcomes, including suicide attempt [hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.20]. However, when accounting for offspring and parental covariates (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07-1.09), as well as genetic and environmental confounds shared by cousins (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09) and siblings (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04), the risk for suicide attempt attenuated. We found a commensurate pattern of results for severe mental illness, substance abuse, criminal convictions, and low academic achievement.Conclusions: Previous research may have overemphasized the independent association between relocations and later adverse outcomes. The results suggest that the association between childhood relocations and suicide attempt, psychiatric problems, and low academic achievement is partially explained by genetic and environmental confounds correlated with relocations. This study demonstrates the importance of using family-based, quasi-experimental designs to test plausible alternate hypotheses when examining causality.
  • Javaras, K N, et al. (författare)
  • Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Stockholm : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 47:3, s. 576-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence.METHOD: Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history.RESULTS: Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED.CONCLUSIONS: In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.
  • Larsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • The heritability of clinically diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Psycological Medicine. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1469-8978.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: No prior twin study has explored the heritability of clinically diagnosed ADHD. Such studies are needed to resolve conflicting results regarding the importance of genetic effects for ADHD in adults. We aimed to estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences for clinically diagnosed ADHD across the life-span with a specific focus on ADHD in adults. Method: Information about zygosity and sex was obtained from 59,514 twins born between 1959 and 2001 included in the nation-wide population-based Swedish Twin Register. Clinical data of ADHD diagnosis was obtained from the Prescribed Drug (i.e., stimulant or non-stimulant medication for ADHD) and National Patient Registers (i.e., ICD-10 diagnosis of ADHD). Twin methods were applied to clinical data of ADHD diagnosis using structural equation modeling with monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Results: The best-fitting model revealed a high heritability of ADHD (0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.92) for the entire sample. Shared environmental effects, on the other hand, were non-significant and of minimal importance. The heritability of ADHD in adults was also substantial (0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.84). Conclusion: This study showed that the heritability of clinically diagnosed ADHD is high across the life span. Our finding of high heritability for clinically diagnosed ADHD in adults indicate that the previous reports of low heritability is best explained by rater effects and that gene-identification studies of ADHD in adults needs to consider pervasiveness (e.g., multiple raters) and developmentally (e.g., childhood onset criteria) informative data.
  • Amin, Ridwanul, et al. (författare)
  • Suicide attempt and suicide in refugees in Sweden - a nationwide population-based cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 51:2, s. 254-263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Despite a reported high rate of mental disorders in refugees, scientific knowledge on their risk of suicide attempt and suicide is scarce. We aimed to investigate (1) the risk of suicide attempt and suicide in refugees in Sweden, according to their country of birth, compared with Swedish-born individuals and (2) to what extent time period effects, socio-demographics, labour market marginalisation (LMM) and morbidity explain these associations.METHODS: Three cohorts comprising the entire population of Sweden, 16-64 years at 31 December 1999, 2004 and 2009 (around 5 million each, of which 3.3-5.0% refugees), were followed for 4 years each through register linkage. Additionally, the 2004 cohort was followed for 9 years, to allow analyses by refugees' country of birth. Crude and multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. The multivariate models were adjusted for socio-demographic, LMM and morbidity factors.RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, HRs regarding suicide attempt and suicide in refugees, compared with Swedish-born, ranged from 0.38-1.25 and 0.16-1.20 according to country of birth, respectively. Results were either non-significant or showed lower risks for refugees. Exceptions were refugees from Iran (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.41) for suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt in refugees compared with the Swedish-born diminished slightly across time periods.CONCLUSIONS: Refugees seem to be protected from suicide attempt and suicide relative to Swedish-born, which calls for more studies to disentangle underlying risk and protective factors.
  • Anckarsäter, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • The sociocommunicative deficit subgroup in anorexia nervosa: autism spectrum disorders and neurocognition in a community-based, longitudinal study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1469-8978 .- 0033-2917. ; 42:9, s. 1957-1967
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A subgroup of persons with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been proposed to have sociocommunicative problems corresponding to autism spectrum disorders [ASDs, i.e. DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs): autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, PDD not otherwise specified (NOS)]. Here, clinical problems, personality traits, cognitive test results and outcome are compared across 16 subjects (32%) with teenage-onset AN who meet or have met ASD criteria (AN+ASD), 34 ASD-negative AN subjects and matched controls from a longitudinal Swedish study including four waves of independent assessments from the teens to the early thirties.MethodThe fourth wave included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)-I and the SCID-II (cluster C, i.e. 'anxious' PDs) interviews, the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Interview, self-assessments by the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Temperament and Character Inventory, neurocognitive tests by subscales from the Wechsler scales, continuous performance tests, Tower of London, and Happé's cartoons. RESULTS: The ASD assessments had substantial inter-rater reliability over time (Cohen's κ between 0.70 and 0.80 with previous assessments), even if only six subjects had been assigned a diagnosis of an ASD in all four waves of the study, including retrospective assessments of pre-AN neurodevelopmental problems. The AN+ASD group had the highest prevalence of personality disorders and the lowest Morgan-Russell scores. The non-ASD AN group also differed significantly from controls on personality traits related to poor interpersonal functioning and on neurocognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: A subgroup of subjects with AN meet criteria for ASDs. They may represent the extreme of neurocognitive and personality problems to be found more generally in AN.
  • Andersson, E, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press (CUP). - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 42:10, s. 2193-2203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod. Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohens d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69-1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46-72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1-17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with or without booster : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 44:13, s. 2877-2887
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. As relapse after completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common, many treatment protocols include booster programs to improve the long-term effects. However, the effects of booster programs are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support for OCD with or without an Internet-based booster program. Method. A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were randomized to a booster program or no booster program. Outcome assessments were collected at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months after receiving ICBT. Results. The entire sample had sustained long-term effects from pre-treatment to all follow-up assessments, with large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d=1.58-2.09). The booster group had a significant mean reduction in OCD symptoms compared to the control condition from booster baseline (4 months) to 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Participants in the booster group improved significantly in terms of general functioning at 7, 12 and 24 months, and had fewer relapses. Kaplan-Meier analysis also indicated a significantly slower relapse rate in the booster group. Conclusions. The results suggest that ICBT has sustained long-term effects and that adding an Internet-based booster program can further improve long-term outcome and prevent relapse for some OCD patients.
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