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  • Cuzick, Jack, et al. (författare)
  • Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488 .- 1470-2045. ; 15:11, s. 484-492
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer.
  • Dabestani, Saeed, et al. (författare)
  • Local treatments for metastases of renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488 .- 1470-2045. ; 15:12, s. 549-561
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Local treatment of metastases such as metastasectomy or radiotherapy remains controversial in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. To investigate the benefits and harms of various local treatments, we did a systematic review of all types of comparative studies on local treatment of metastases from renal cell carcinoma in any organ. Interventions included metastasectomy, radiotherapy modalities, and no local treatment. The results suggest that patients treated with complete metastasectomy have better survival and symptom control (including pain relief in bone metastases) than those treated with either incomplete or no metastasectomy. Nevertheless, the available evidence was marred by high risks of bias and confounding across all studies. Although the findings presented here should be interpreted with caution, they and the identified gaps in knowledge should provide guidance for clinicians and researchers, and directions for further research.
  • Erlandsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Optimal fractionation of preoperative radiotherapy and timing to surgery for rectal cancer (Stockholm III) : A multicentre, randomised, non-blinded, phase 3, non-inferiority trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 18:3, s. 336-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Radiotherapy reduces the risk of local recurrence in rectal cancer. However, the optimal radiotherapy fractionation and interval between radiotherapy and surgery is still under debate. We aimed to study recurrence in patients randomised between three different radiotherapy regimens with respect to fractionation and time to surgery. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, non-blinded, phase 3, non-inferiority trial (Stockholm III), all patients with a biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum, without signs of non-resectability or distant metastases, without severe cardiovascular comorbidity, and planned for an abdominal resection from 18 Swedish hospitals were eligible. Participants were randomly assigned with permuted blocks, stratified by participating centre, to receive either 5 × 5 Gy radiation dose with surgery within 1 week (short-course radiotherapy) or after 4-8 weeks (short-course radiotherapy with delay) or 25 × 2 Gy radiation dose with surgery after 4-8 weeks (long-course radiotherapy with delay). After a protocol amendment, randomisation could include all three treatments or just the two short-course radiotherapy treatments, per hospital preference. The primary endpoint was time to local recurrence calculated from the date of randomisation to the date of local recurrence. Comparisons between treatment groups were deemed non-inferior if the upper limit of a double-sided 90% CI for the hazard ratio (HR) did not exceed 1·7. Patients were analysed according to intention to treat for all endpoints. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00904813. Findings: Between Oct 5, 1998, and Jan 31, 2013, 840 patients were recruited and randomised; 385 patients in the three-arm randomisation, of whom 129 patients were randomly assigned to short-course radiotherapy, 128 to short-course radiotherapy with delay, and 128 to long-course radiotherapy with delay, and 455 patients in the two-arm randomisation, of whom 228 were randomly assigned to short-course radiotherapy and 227 to short-course radiotherapy with delay. In patients with any local recurrence, median time from date of randomisation to local recurrence in the pooled short-course radiotherapy comparison was 33·4 months (range 18·2-62·2) in the short-course radiotherapy group and 19·3 months (8·5-39·5) in the short-course radiotherapy with delay group. Median time to local recurrence in the long-course radiotherapy with delay group was 33·3 months (range 17·8-114·3). Cumulative incidence of local recurrence in the whole trial was eight of 357 patients who received short-course radiotherapy, ten of 355 who received short-course radiotherapy with delay, and seven of 128 who received long-course radiotherapy (HR vs short-course radiotherapy: short-course radiotherapy with delay 1·44 [95% CI 0·41-5·11]; long-course radiotherapy with delay 2·24 [0·71-7·10]; p=0·48; both deemed non-inferior). Acute radiation-induced toxicity was recorded in one patient (<1%) of 357 after short-course radiotherapy, 23 (7%) of 355 after short-course radiotherapy with delay, and six (5%) of 128 patients after long-course radiotherapy with delay. Frequency of postoperative complications was similar between all arms when the three-arm randomisation was analysed (65 [50%] of 129 patients in the short-course radiotherapy group; 48 [38%] of 128 patients in the short-course radiotherapy with delay group; 50 [39%] of 128 patients in the long-course radiotherapy with delay group; odds ratio [OR] vs short-course radiotherapy: short-course radiotherapy with delay 0·59 [95% CI 0·36-0·97], long-course radiotherapy with delay 0·63 [0·38-1·04], p=0·075). However, in a pooled analysis of the two short-course radiotherapy regimens, the risk of postoperative complications was significantly lower after short-course radiotherapy with delay than after short-course radiotherapy (144 [53%] of 355 vs 188 [41%] of 357; OR 0·61 [95% CI 0·45-0·83] p=0·001). Interpretation: Delaying surgery after short-course radiotherapy gives similar oncological results compared with short-course radiotherapy with immediate surgery. Long-course radiotherapy with delay is similar to both short-course radiotherapy regimens, but prolongs the treatment time substantially. Although radiation-induced toxicity was seen after short-course radiotherapy with delay, postoperative complications were significantly reduced compared with short-course radiotherapy. Based on these findings, we suggest that short-course radiotherapy with delay to surgery is a useful alternative to conventional short-course radiotherapy with immediate surgery. Funding: Swedish Research Council, Swedish Cancer Society, Stockholm Cancer Society, and the Regional Agreement on Medical Training and Clinical Research in Stockholm.
  • Fransson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Ultra-hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer (HYPO-RT-PC) : patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes of a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 22:2, s. 235-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The HYPO-RT-PC trial compared conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with ultra-hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with localised prostate cancer. Ultra-hypofractionation was non-inferior to conventional fractionation regarding 5-year failure-free survival and toxicity. We aimed to assess whether patient-reported quality of life (QOL) differs between conventional fractionation and ultra-hypofractionation up to 6 years after treatment in the HYPO-RT-PC trial.METHODS: HYPO-RT-PC is a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial done in 12 centres (seven university hospitals and five county hospitals) in Sweden and Denmark. Inclusion criteria were histologically verified intermediate-to-high-risk prostate cancer (defined as T1c-T3a with one or two of the following risk factors: stage T3a; Gleason score ≥7; and prostate-specific antigen 10-20 ng/mL with no evidence of lymph node involvement or distant metastases), age up to 75 years, and WHO performance status 0-2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to conventional fractionation (78·0 Gy in 39 fractions, 5 days per week for 8 weeks) or ultra-hypofractionation (42·7 Gy in seven fractions, 3 days per week for 2·5 weeks) via a minimisation algorithm with stratification by trial centre, T-stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen. QOL was measured using the validated Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) at baseline, the end of radiotherapy, months 3, 6, 12, and 24 after radiotherapy, every other year thereafter up to 10 years, and at 15 years. The primary endpoint (failure-free survival) has been reported elsewhere. Here we report QOL, a secondary endpoint analysed in the per-protocol population, up to 6 years after radiotherapy. The HYPO-RT-PC trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN45905321.FINDINGS: Between July 1, 2005, and Nov 4, 2015, 1200 patients were enrolled and 1180 were randomly assigned (conventional fractionation n=591, ultra-hypofractionation n=589); 1165 patients (conventional fractionation n=582, ultra-hypofractionation n=583) were included in this QOL analysis. 158 (71%) of 223 patients in the conventional fractionation group and 146 (66%) of 220 in the ultra-hypofractionation group completed questionnaires at 6 years. The median follow-up was 48 months (IQR 25-72). In seven of ten bowel symptoms or problems the proportion of patients with clinically relevant deteriorations at the end of radiotherapy was significantly higher in the ultra-hypofractionation group than in the conventional fractionation group (stool frequency [p<0·0001], rush to toilet [p=0·0013], flatulence [p=0·0013], bowel cramp [p<0·0001], mucus [p=0·0014], blood in stool [p<0·0001], and limitation in daily activity [p=0·0014]). There were no statistically significant differences in the proportions of patients with clinically relevant acute urinary symptoms or problems (total 14 items) and sexual functioning between the two treatment groups at end of radiotherapy. Thereafter, there were no clinically relevant differences in urinary, bowel, or sexual functioning between the groups. At the 6-year follow-up there was no difference in the incidence of clinically relevant deterioration between the groups for overall urinary bother (43 [33%] of 132 for conventional fractionation vs 33 [28%] of 120 for ultra-hypofractionation; mean difference 5·1% [95% CI -4·4 to 14·6]; p=0·38), overall bowel bother (43 [33%] of 129 vs 34 [28%] of 123; 5·7% [-3·8 to 15·2]; p=0·33), overall sexual bother (75 [60%] of 126 vs 59 [50%] of 117; 9·1% [-1·4 to 19·6]; p=0·15), or global health/QOL (56 [42%] of 134 vs 46 [37%] of 125; 5·0% [-5·0 to 15·0]; p=0·41).INTERPRETATION: Although acute toxicity was higher for ultra-hypofractionation than conventional fractionation, this long-term patient-reported QOL analysis shows that ultra-hypofractionation was as well tolerated as conventional fractionation up to 6 years after completion of treatment. These findings support the use of ultra-hypofractionation radiotherapy for intermediate-to-high-risk prostate cancer.FUNDING: The Nordic Cancer Union, the Swedish Cancer Society, and the Swedish Research Council.
  • Froyman, Wouter, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of complications in patients with conservatively managed ovarian tumours (IOTA5) : a 2-year interim analysis of a multicentre, prospective, cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 20:3, s. 448-458
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Ovarian tumours are usually surgically removed because of the presumed risk of complications. Few large prospective studies on long-term follow-up of adnexal masses exist. We aimed to estimate the cumulative incidence of cyst complications and malignancy during the first 2 years of follow-up after adnexal masses have been classified as benign by use of ultrasonography. Methods: In the international, prospective, cohort International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Phase 5 (IOTA5) study, patients aged 18 years or older with at least one adnexal mass who had been selected for surgery or conservative management after ultrasound assessment were recruited consecutively from 36 cancer and non-cancer centres in 14 countries. Follow-up of patients managed conservatively is ongoing at present. In this 2-year interim analysis, we analysed patients who were selected for conservative management of an adnexal mass judged to be benign on ultrasound on the basis of subjective assessment of ultrasound images. Conservative management included ultrasound and clinical follow-up at intervals of 3 months and 6 months, and then every 12 months thereafter. The main outcomes of this 2-year interim analysis were cumulative incidence of spontaneous resolution of the mass, torsion or cyst rupture, or borderline or invasive malignancy confirmed surgically in patients with a newly diagnosed adnexal mass. IOTA5 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01698632, and the central Ethics Committee and the Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products, number S51375/B32220095331, and is ongoing. Findings: Between Jan 1, 2012, and March 1, 2015, 8519 patients were recruited to IOTA5. 3144 (37%) patients selected for conservative management were eligible for inclusion in our analysis, of whom 221 (7%) had no follow-up data and 336 (11%) were operated on before a planned follow-up scan was done. Of 2587 (82%) patients with follow-up data, 668 (26%) had a mass that was already in follow-up at recruitment, and 1919 (74%) presented with a new mass at recruitment (ie, not already in follow-up in the centre before recruitment). Median follow-up of patients with new masses was 27 months (IQR 14–38). The cumulative incidence of spontaneous resolution within 2 years of follow-up among those with a new mass at recruitment (n=1919) was 20·2% (95% CI 18·4–22·1), and of finding invasive malignancy at surgery was 0·4% (95% CI 0·1–0·6), 0·3% (<0·1–0·5) for a borderline tumour, 0·4% (0·1–0·7) for torsion, and 0·2% (<0·1–0·4) for cyst rupture. Interpretation: Our results suggest that the risk of malignancy and acute complications is low if adnexal masses with benign ultrasound morphology are managed conservatively, which could be of value when counselling patients, and supports conservative management of adnexal masses classified as benign by use of ultrasound. Funding: Research Foundation Flanders, KU Leuven, Swedish Research Council.
  • Gimsing, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of pamidronate 30 mg versus 90 mg on physical function in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Nordic Myeloma Study Group): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488 .- 1470-2045. ; 11:10, s. 973-982
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Compared with placebo, prophylactic treatment with bisphosphonates reduces risk of skeletal events in patients with multiple myeloma. However, because of toxicity associated with long-term bisphosphonate treatment, establishing the lowest effective dose is important. This study compared the effect of two doses of pamidronate on health-related quality of life and skeletal morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Methods This double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial was undertaken at 37 clinics in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Patients with multiple myeloma who were starting antimyeloma treatment were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive one of two doses of pamidronate (30 mg or 90 mg) given by intravenous infusion once a month for at least 3 years. Randomisation was done by use of a central, computerised minimisation system. Primary outcome was physical function after 12 months estimated by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire (scale 0-100). All patients who returned questionnaires at 12 months and were still on study treatment were included in the analysis of the primary endpoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, number NCT00376883. Findings From January, 2001, until August, 2005, 504 patients were randomly assigned to pamidronate 30 mg or 90 mg (252 in each group). 157 patients in the 90 mg group and 156 in the 30 mg group were included in the primary analysis. Mean physical function at 12 months was 66 points (95% CI 62.9-70.0) in the 90 mg group and 68 points (64.6-71.4) in the 30 mg group (95% CI of difference -6.6 to 3.3; p=0.52). Median time to first skeletal-related event in patients who had such an event was 9.2 months (8.1-10.7) in the 90 mg group and 10-2 months (7.3-14.0) in the 30 mg group (p=0.63). In a retrospective analysis, eight patients in the pamidronate 90 mg group developed osteonecrosis of the jaw compared with two patients in the 30 mg group. Interpretation Monthly infusion of pamidronate 30 mg should be the recommended dose for prevention of bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma.
  • Hansson, MG, et al. (författare)
  • Should donors be allowed to give broad consent to future biobank research?
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488 .- 1470-2045. ; 7:3, s. 266-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large international biobank studies can make substantial contributions to scientific research by validation of the biological importance of previous research and by identification of previously unknown causes of disease. However, regulations for patient consent that are too strict and discrepancies in national policies on informed consent might hinder progress. Therefore, establishment of common ground for ethical review of biobank research is essential. in this essay, broad consent is defined on a scale between strictly specified (eg, for a specific study) and blanket consent (ie, with no restrictions regarding the purpose of the research). Future research includes that which might not be planned or even conceptualised when consent is obtained. In conclusion, broad consent and consent for future research are valid ethically and should be recommended for biobank research provided that: personal information related to research is handled safely; donors of biological samples are granted the right to withdraw consent; and new research studies or changes to the legal or ethical authority of a biobank are approved by an ethics-review board.
  • Kefford, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic testing for melanoma
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1474-5488 .- 1470-2045. ; 3:11, s. 653-654
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Lacas, Benjamin, et al. (författare)
  • Role of radiotherapy fractionation in head and neck cancers (MARCH) : an updated meta-analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 18:9, s. 1221-1237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The Meta-Analysis of Radiotherapy in squamous cell Carcinomas of Head and neck (MARCH) showed that altered fractionation radiotherapy is associated with improved overall and progression-free survival compared with conventional radiotherapy, with hyperfractionated radiotherapy showing the greatest benefit. This update aims to confirm and explain the superiority of hyperfractionated radiotherapy over other altered fractionation radiotherapy regimens and to assess the benefit of altered fractionation within the context of concomitant chemotherapy with the inclusion of new trials. Methods For this updated meta-analysis, we searched bibliography databases, trials registries, and meeting proceedings for published or unpublished randomised trials done between Jan 1, 2009, and July 15, 2015, comparing primary or postoperative conventional fractionation radiotherapy versus altered fractionation radiotherapy (comparison 1) or conventional fractionation radiotherapy plus concomitant chemotherapy versus altered fractionation radiotherapy alone (comparison 2). Eligible trials had to start randomisation on or after Jan 1, 1970, and completed accrual before Dec 31, 2010; had to have been randomised in a way that precluded prior knowledge of treatment assignment; and had to include patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx undergoing first-line curative treatment. Trials including a non-conventional radiotherapy control group, investigating hypofractionated radiotherapy, or including mostly nasopharyngeal carcinomas were excluded. Trials were grouped in three types of altered fractionation: hyperfractionated, moderately accelerated, and very accelerated. Individual patient data were collected and combined with a fixed-effects model based on the intention-to-treat principle. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Findings Comparison 1 (conventional fractionation radiotherapy vs altered fractionation radiotherapy) included 33 trials and 11 423 patients. Altered fractionation radiotherapy was associated with a significant benefit on overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·94, 95% CI 0·90–0·98; p=0·0033), with an absolute difference at 5 years of 3·1% (95% CI 1·3–4·9) and at 10 years of 1·2% (−0·8 to 3·2). We found a significant interaction (p=0·051) between type of fractionation and treatment effect, the overall survival benefit being restricted to the hyperfractionated group (HR 0·83, 0·74–0·92), with absolute differences at 5 years of 8·1% (3·4 to 12·8) and at 10 years of 3·9% (−0·6 to 8·4). Comparison 2 (conventional fractionation radiotherapy plus concomitant chemotherapy versus altered fractionation radiotherapy alone) included five trials and 986 patients. Overall survival was significantly worse with altered fractionation radiotherapy compared with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (HR 1·22, 1·05–1·42; p=0·0098), with absolute differences at 5 years of −5·8% (−11·9 to 0·3) and at 10 years of −5·1% (−13·0 to 2·8). Interpretation This update confirms, with more patients and a longer follow-up than the first version of MARCH, that hyperfractionated radiotherapy is, along with concomitant chemoradiotherapy, a standard of care for the treatment of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers. The comparison between hyperfractionated radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy remains to be specifically tested. Funding Institut National du Cancer; and Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer.
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