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  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • 0253 Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to ortho- and meta- toluidine
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926. ; 71 Suppl 1, s. 32-33
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hairdressing work is classified as carcinogenic based on excess risk for bladder cancer. We aimed at evaluating if current hairdressers are exposed to established/suspected bladder carcinogens (aromatic amines) and indicate possible sources of exposure.
  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of exposure to insulation wool on lung function and cough in Swedish construction workers
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926. ; 55:10, s. 661-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether application of insulation wool adversely affects lung volumes and increases the occurrence of symptoms of airway irritation. METHODS: Data from nationwide health check ups in 1981-93 of male construction workers born in 1955 or later were used to investigate cross sectional (n = 96,004) and longitudinal (n = 26,298) associations between lung volumes, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure to insulation wool by combining a job exposure matrix (JEM) and self reported exposure. Data on 12 month prevalence of persistent cough not associated with the common cold was available for the period 1989-92. Potential confounding from smoking, exposure to asbestos, silica, and isocyanates, was considered in the analyses. RESULTS: For those in the highest exposure category (self reported duration of exposure of > or = 11 years, and high exposure according to the JEM) VC was on average 2.5 cl lower (95% CI -6.5 to 1.5) than in those with no exposure. The corresponding figures for FEV1 was -2.4 cl (95% CI -6.1 to 1.3). In the longitudinal analyses, the yearly change in VC between the first and last spirometry for those in the highest exposure category was 0.50 cl (95% CI -0.97 to 1.98) less than in the unexposed category. The corresponding figure for FEV1 was 0.89 cl (95% CI - 0.70 to 2.06). High exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, or silica, during the 12 months preceding the check up was associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for persistent cough of the same magnitude as current smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate no effects on VC or FEV1 from exposure to insulation wool. Recent exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, and silica was associated with an increased prevalence of persistent cough.
  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of asthma in female Swedish hairdressers.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926 .- 1351-0711. ; 59:2, s. 119-23.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of asthma in hairdressers. METHODS: The incidence of asthma was retrospectively estimated in a Swedish nationwide study including all female hairdressers certified from vocational schools from 1970 to 1995, and a stratified sample of women from the general population were referents. A postal questionnaire included questions on respiratory tract symptoms, atopy, smoking, working periods as a hairdresser, and number of specific hair treatments performed/week. Reported exposures were validated by occupational hygienists. Rate ratios of incidence (IRRs) of asthma were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusted for calendar year of observation, hay fever, smoking, and region of domicile. RESULTS: The crude incidences of asthma/1000 person-years were: 3.9 during active years as a hairdresser, 2.8 among the hairdressers when not working in the profession, and 3.1 among the referents. The corresponding IRR for being an active hairdresser compared with the referents was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.6). Moderate effects on risk of asthma were found both from hairdressing work (IRR=1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) among never-smokers) and from smoking (IRR=1.6 (1.2 to 2.2) among referents). However, the combined effect from hairdressing work and smoking (IRR=1.5 (1.0 to 2.1)) was less than expected (p=0.02). No effect modification by respiratory atopy was found. The hairdressers most often performing hair bleaching treatments (IRR=1.5 (0.7 to 3.0)) or using hair spray (IRR=1.4 (0.8 to 2.4)) had, compared with the most infrequent users, a slightly, but not significantly higher incidence of asthma. Exposure to persulphates in hair bleach was estimated to be 0.04-0.15 mg/m(3) during mixing of the powder. Reported average number of bleaching treatments agreed well with those performed according to a diary. CONCLUSIONS: Active hairdressing work was associated with a moderately increased incidence of asthma among lifelong non-smokers. The results are moderately supportive, but not conclusive, of associations between asthma and exposure to hair bleach or hair spray.
  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Retention patterns of asbestos fibres in lung tissue among asbestos cement workers
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926. ; 51:3, s. 205-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Retention patterns in lung tissue (determined by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry) of chrysotile, tremolite, and crocidolite fibres were analysed in 69 dead asbestos cement workers and 96 referents. There was an accumulation of tremolite with time of employment. Among workers who died within three years of the end of exposure, the 13 with high tremolite concentrations had a significantly longer duration of exposure than seven in a low to intermediate category (medians 32 v 20 years; p = 0.018, one sided). Crocidolite showed similar patterns of accumulation. In workers who died more than three years after the end of exposure, there were no correlations between concentrations of amphibole fibres and time between the end of exposure and death. Chrysotile concentrations among workers who died shortly after the end of exposure were higher than among the referents (median difference in concentrations 13 million fibres (f)/g dry weight; p = 0.033, one sided). No quantitative differences in exposure (duration or intensity) could be shown between workers with high and low to intermediate concentrations. Interestingly, all seven workers who had had a high intensity at the end of exposure (> 2.5 f/ml), had low to intermediate chrysotile concentrations at death, whereas those with low exposure were evenly distributed (31 subjects in both concentration categories); hence, there was a dependence between last intensity of exposure and chrysotile concentration (p = 0.014). Among 14 workers with a high average intensity of exposure, both those (n = 5) with high tissue concentrations of chrysotile and those (n = 10) with high tissue concentrations of tremolite fibres had more pronounced fibrosis than those with low to intermediate concentrations (median fibrosis grades for chrysotile: 2 v 1, p = 0.021; for tremolite: 2 v 0.5, p = 0.012). Additionally, workers who died shortly after the end of exposure with high concentrations of chrysotile and crocidolite had smoked more than those with low intermediate concentrations (medians for chrysotile 35 v 15 pack-years, p = 0.030; for crocidolite 37 v 15 pack-years, p = 0.012). The present data indicate that chrysotile has a relatively rapid turnover in human lungs, whereas the amphiboles, tremolite and crocidolite, have a slower turnover. Further, chrysotile retention may be dependent on dose rate. Chrysotile and crocidolite deposition and retention may be increased by tobacco smoking; chrysotile and tremolite by fibrosis.
  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Survival in cohorts of asbestos cement workers and controls
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926. ; 53:2, s. 87-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To measure the impact on survival of being exposed to asbestos cement dust. METHODS: Survival of 866 asbestos cement workers and 755 controls was studied with Cox's proportional hazards regression models with age as the basic time variable. The effect of cumulative exposure up to the age of 40 was investigated in an internal analysis of 635 asbestos cement workers who had dose estimates. RESULTS: The death risk was higher for the asbestos cement workers than for the controls with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15 (95% confidence interval was 1.00 to 1.31). The increased risk found seemed to be confined to the period 20-40 years from start of employment. The estimates of the cohort effect were almost unaffected by adjustment for smoking habits. The estimates of the exposure effect rose with increasing dose (< 4 fibre-years/ml (f-y/ml): HR = 1.00, 4-9.9 f-y/ml: HR = 1.06, > or = 10 f-y/ml: HR = 1.35, for workers with at least five years of employment), and were higher when restricted only to deaths from malignant or non-malignant respiratory disease. However, none of the point estimates were significantly increased. Median age at death was two years lower in the high than in the low, exposure group. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that even a moderate asbestos exposure may shorten the median duration of life in an exposed population. Compared with the estimated effect on duration of life from ever being a smoker, that of ever being an asbestos cement worker was less, although that of having a high exposure was similar.
  • Alhamdow, A., et al. (författare)
  • Fluorene exposure among PAH-exposed workers is associated with epigenetic markers related to lung cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 77:7, s. 488-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Exposure to high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause cancer in chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers, however, knowledge about exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in relation to cancer risk is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate occupational exposure to the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene in relation to different cancer biomarkers. Methods We recruited 151 chimney sweeps, 19 creosote-exposed workers and 152 unexposed workers (controls), all men. We measured monohydroxylated metabolites of phenanthrene and fluorene in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We measured, in peripheral blood, the cancer biomarkers telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number using quantitative PCR; and DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRRusing pyrosequencing. Results Median PAH metabolite concentrations were higher among chimney sweeps (up to 3 times) and creosote-exposed workers (up to 353 times), compared with controls (p<0.001; adjusted for age and smoking). n-ary sumation OH-fluorene (sum of 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene) showed inverse associations with percentage DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRRin chimney sweeps (B (95% CI)=-2.7 (-3.9 to -1.5) forF2RL3_cg03636183, and -7.1 (-9.6 to -4.7) forAHRR_cg05575921: adjusted for age and smoking), but not in creosote-exposed workers. In addition, n-ary sumation OH-fluorene showed a 42% mediation effect on the inverse association between being a chimney sweep and DNA methylation ofAHRRCpG2. Conclusions Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers were occupationally exposed to low-molecular-weight PAHs. Increasing fluorene exposure, among chimney sweeps, was associated with lower DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRR, markers for increased lung cancer risk. These findings warrant further investigation of fluorene exposure and toxicity.
  • Axelson, Olav, 1937- (författare)
  • Ethylene oxide and cancer
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Axmon, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their sisters.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926. ; 66, s. 198-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate birth weight and fetal growth in female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to childhood exposures. METHODS: A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers were compared to their sisters with respect to birth weight and fetal growth (measured as small or large for gestational age, SGA and LGA, respectively) in their infants. In total, 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdresser's sisters were studied. RESULTS: Among the infants born to the hairdresser's sisters, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. This was also reflected in that hairdresser cohort affiliation tended to be protective against both SGA (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.49-1.31) and LGA (0.77; 0.54-1.09). For LGA, this effect was even more pronounced among women who had actually worked as a hairdresser during at least one pregnancy (0.60; 0.39-0.92). The infants born to these women also had a significantly lower mean birth weight (3387 g vs 3419 g; p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study suggest that infants born to hairdressers have a decreased risk of being LGA. This is most likely not caused by a shift in birth weight distribution or abnormal glucose metabolism.
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