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1.
  • Aboulaich, Nabila, et al. (författare)
  • Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: The Biochemical journal. - 1470-8728. ; 383:Pt 2, s. 237-248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caveolae, the specialized invaginations of plasma membranes, formed sealed vesicles with outwards-orientated cytosolic surface after isolation from primary human adipocytes. This morphology allowed differential, vectorial identification of proteins at the opposite membrane surfaces by proteolysis and MS. Extracellular-exposed caveolae-specific proteins CD36 and copper-containing amine oxidase were concealed inside the vesicles and resisted trypsin treatment. The cytosol-orientated caveolins were efficiently digested by trypsin, producing peptides amenable to direct MS sequencing. Isolation of peripheral proteins associated with the cytosolic surface of caveolae revealed a set of proteins that contained nuclear localization signals, leucine-zipper domains and PEST (amino acid sequence enriched in proline, glutamic acid, serine and threonine) domains implicated in regulation by proteolysis. In particular, PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) was found as a major caveolae-associated protein and its co-localization with caveolin was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. PTRF was present at the surface of caveolae in the intact form and in five different truncated forms. Peptides (44 and 45 amino acids long) comprising both the PEST domains were sequenced by nanospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS from the full-length PTRF, but were not found in the truncated forms of the protein. Two endogenous cleavage sites corresponding to calpain specificity were identified in PTRF; one of them was in a PEST domain. Both cleavage sites were flanked by mono- or diphosphorylated sequences. The phosphorylation sites were localized to Ser-36, Ser-40, Ser-365 and Ser-366 in PTRF. Caveolae of human adipocytes are proposed to function in targeting, relocation and proteolytic control of PTRF and other PEST-domain-containing signalling proteins.
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2.
  • Abrahamson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Structure and expression of the human cystatin C gene
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 1470-8728. ; 268:2, s. 287-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The structural organization of the gene for the human cysteine-proteinase inhibitor cystatin C was studied. Restriction-endonuclease digests of human genomic DNA hybridized with human cystatin C cDNA and genomic probes produced patterns consistent with a single cystatin C gene and, also, the presence of six closely related sequences in the human genome. A 30 kb restriction map covering the genomic region of the cystatin C gene was constructed. The positions of three polymorphic restriction sites, found at examination of digests of genomic DNA from 79 subjects, were localized in the flanking regions of the gene. The gene was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of a 7.3 kb genomic segment was determined, containing the three exons of the cystatin C structural gene as well as 1.0 kb of 5'-flanking and 2.0 kb of 3'-flanking sequences. Northern-blot experiments revealed that the cystatin C gene is expressed in every human tissue examined, including kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine, stomach, antrum, lung and placenta. The highest cystatin C expression was seen in seminal vesicles. The apparently non-tissue-specific expression of this cysteine-proteinase inhibitor gene is discussed with respect to the structure of its 5'-flanking region, which shares several features with those of housekeeping genes.
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3.
  • Aguiló, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the human acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase gene by PPARgamma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 427:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the cytosol of lipogenic tissue, ketone bodies are activated by AACS (acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase) and incorporated into cholesterol and fatty acids. AACS gene expression is particularly abundant in white adipose tissue, as it is induced during adipocyte differentiation. In order to elucidate the mechanism controlling the gene expression of human AACS and to clarify its physiological role, we isolated the human promoter, characterized the elements required to initiate transcription and analysed the expression of the gene in response to PPARgamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma), an inducer of adipogenesis. We show that the human AACS promoter is a PPARgamma target gene and that this nuclear receptor is recruited to the AACS promoter by direct interaction with Sp1 (stimulating protein-1).
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4.
  • Andersson, C, et al. (författare)
  • Activation and inhibition of microsomal glutathione transferase from mouse liver.
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 249:3, s. 819-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouse liver microsomal glutathione transferase was purified in an N-ethylmaleimide-activated as well as an unactivated form. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 17 kDa and a pI of 8.8. It showed cross-reactivity with antibodies raised against rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase, but not with any of the available antisera raised against cytosolic glutathione transferases. The fully N-ethylmaleimide-activated enzyme could be further activated 1.5-fold by inclusion of 1 microM-bromosulphophthalein in the assay system. The latter effect was reversible, which was not the case for the N-ethylmaleimide activation. At 20 microM-bromosulphophthalein the activated microsomal glutathione transferase was strongly inhibited, while the unactivated form was activated 2.5-fold. Inhibitors of the microsomal glutathione transferase from mouse liver showed either about the same I50 values for the activated and the unactivated form of the enzyme, or significantly lower I50 values for the activated form compared with the unactivated form. The low I50 values and the steep slope of the activity-versus-inhibitor-concentration curves for the latter group of inhibitors tested on the activated enzyme indicate a co-operative effect involving conversion of activated enzyme into the unactivated form, as well as conventional inhibition of the enzyme.
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5.
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6.
  • Ares, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial cells.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - : Portland Press. - 1470-8728. ; 374:Pt 2, s. 403-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, and this is believed to contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study we made the novel observation that oxLDL-induced death of HMEC-1 cells is accompanied by activation of calpain. The mu-calpain inhibitor PD 151746 decreased oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, whereas the general caspase inhibitor BAF (t-butoxycarboryl-Asp-methoxyfluoromethylketone) had no effect. Also, oxLDL provoked calpain-dependent proteolysis of cytoskeletal a-fodrin in the HMEC-1 cells. Our observation of an autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of mu-calpain provided further evidence for an oxLDL-indunced stimulation of calpain activity. The Bcl-2 protein Bid was also cleaved during oxLDL-elicited cell death, and this was prevented by calpain inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of cathepsin B and caspases. Treating the HMEC-1 cells with oxLDL did not result in detectable activation of procaspase 3 or cleavage of PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase], but it did cause polyubiquitination of caspase 3, indicating inactivation and possible degradation of this protease. Despite the lack of caspase 3 activation, oxLDL treatment led to the formation of nucleosomal DNA fragments characteristic of apoptosis. These novel results show that oxLDL initiates a calpain-mediated death-signalling pathway in endothelial cells.
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7.
  • Aspenström, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Rho GTPases have diverse effects on the organization of the actin filament system
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 377:Pt 2, s. 327-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Rho GTPases are related to the Ras proto-oncogenes and consist of 22 family members. These proteins have important roles in regulating the organization of the actin filament system, and thereby the morphogenesis of vertebrate cells as well as their ability to migrate. In an effort to compare the effects of all members of the Rho GTPase family, active Rho GTPases were transfected into porcine aortic endothelial cells and the effects on the actin filament system were monitored. Cdc42, TCL (TC10-like), Rac1-Rac3 and RhoG induced the formation of lamellipodia, whereas Cdc42, Rac1 and Rac2 also induced the formation of thick bundles of actin filaments. In contrast, transfection with TC10 or Chp resulted in the formation of focal adhesion-like structures, whereas Wrch-1 induced long and thin filopodia. Transfection with RhoA, RhoB or RhoC induced the assembly of stress fibres, whereas Rnd1-Rnd3 resulted in the loss of stress fibres, but this effect was associated with the formation of actin- and ezrin-containing dorsal microvilli. Cells expressing RhoD and Rif had extremely long and flexible filopodia. None of the RhoBTB or Miro GTPases had any major influence on the organization of the actin filament system; instead, RhoBTB1 and RhoBTB2 were present in vesicular structures, and Miro-1 and Miro-2 were present in mitochondria. Collectively, the data obtained in this study to some extent confirm earlier observations, but also allow the identification of previously undetected roles of the different members of the Rho GTPases.
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8.
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9.
  • Baird, Sarah K, et al. (författare)
  • Metallothionein protects against oxidative stress-induced lysosomal destabilization
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - 0264-6021 .- 1470-8728. ; 394:1, s. 275-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The introduction of apo-ferritin or the iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated to starch into the lysosomal compartment protects cells against oxidative stress, lysosomal rupture and ensuing apoptosis/necrosis by binding intralysosomal redox-active iron, thus preventing Fenton-type reactions and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal membranes. Because up-regulation of MTs (metallothioneins) also generates enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, including X-irradiation, and MTs were found to be capable of iron binding in an acidic and reducing lysosomal-like environment, we propose that these proteins might similarly stabilize lysosomes following autophagocytotic delivery to the lysosomal compartment. Here, we report that Zn-mediated MT up-regulation, assayed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, results in lysosomal stabilization and decreased apoptosis following oxidative stress, similar to the protection afforded by fluid-phase endocytosis of apo-ferritin or DFO. In contrast, the endocytotic uptake of an iron phosphate complex destabilized lysosomes against oxidative stress, but this was suppressed in cells with up-regulated MT. It is suggested that the resistance against oxidative stress, known to occur in MT-rich cells, may be a consequence of autophagic turnover of MT, resulting in reduced iron-catalysed intralysosomal peroxidative reactions. © 2006 Biochemical Society.
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10.
  • Banerjee, Debashish, et al. (författare)
  • Epithelial MUC1/Muc1 Promotes Cell migration, Reduces Apoptosis and Affects Levels of Mucosal Modulators During Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin) Induced Gastropathy.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Biochemical journal. - 1470-8728. ; 465:3, s. 423-431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin highly expressed in the stomach. While extensive research has uncovered many of its roles in cancer, knowledge about the functions of MUC1 in normal tissues is limited. Here we showed that acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, ASA) upregulated MUC1/Muc1 expression in the gastric mucosa of humans and wild type mice. ASA induced mucosal injury in all mice to a similar extent, however wild type animals and those chimeras with Muc1 on the epithelia recovered faster than Muc1 knock-out mice and chimeras carrying Muc1 on haematopoietic but not epithelial cells. MUC1 enhanced proliferation and migration of the human gastric cell line MKN-7, and increased resistance to apoptosis. The repeated treatment regime used caused a reduction in cyclooxygenase-1 expression, though wild type animals returned faster towards pre-treatment levels, and had increased cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels during recovery. Thus, we found that epithelial Muc1 is more important for the healing process than haematopoetic Muc1, and Muc1/MUC1 facilitates wound healing by enhancing cell migration and proliferation, protecting against apoptosis and mediating expression of mucosal modulators. Thus, MUC1 plays essential roles during wound healing, and development of treatment modalities targeting enhanced expression of MUC1 may be beneficial to treat mucosal wounds.
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