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  • Andolf, E., et al. (författare)
  • Caesarean section and risk for endometriosis: a prospective cohort study of Swedish registries
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1471-0528. ; 120:9, s. 1061-1065
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate the association between caesarean section and later endometriosis. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting The Swedish Patient Register (PAR) and the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR). Sample Women who were delivered in Sweden between 1986 and 2004. Methods Women with the diagnosis of endometriosis, defined as codes 617 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, ICD-9) or N80 (ICD-10), were retrieved from the PAR. Obstetric outcome was assessed through linkage with the MBR. Out of 709090 women, 3110 were treated as inpatients with a first diagnosis of endometriosis after their first delivery. Women with a diagnosis of endometriosis before their first delivery were excluded. Cox analyses were performed to obtain hazard ratios for endometriosis and adjusted for maternal age at first delivery, body mass index, maternal smoking, and years of involuntary childlessness at study entry. Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed to calculate the risk according to time elapsed. Main outcome In-hospital diagnosis of endometriosis. Results The Cox analyses yielded a hazard ratio of 1.8 (95%CI 1.7-1.9) for endometriosis in women who had had a previous caesarean section compared with women with vaginal deliveries only. The risk of endometriosis increased over time: one additional case of endometriosis was found for every 325 women undergoing caesarean section within 10years. No increase in risk could be seen after two caesarean deliveries. The risk of caesarean scar endometrioma was 0.1%. Conclusion In addition to the recognised risk of scar endometrioma, we found an association between caesarean section and general pelvic endometriosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
  • Holmer, Hampus, et al. (författare)
  • The global met need for emergency obstetric care: a systematic review.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1471-0528. ; 122:2, s. 183-189
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Of the 287 000 maternal deaths every year, 99% happen in low- and middle-income countries. The vast majority could be averted with timely access to appropriate emergency obstetric care (EmOC). The proportion of women with complications of pregnancy or childbirth who actually receive treatment is reported as 'Met need for EmOC'.
  • Kuusela, Pihla, et al. (författare)
  • Second trimester transvaginal ultrasound measurement of cervical length for prediction of preterm birth : a blinded prospective multicentre diagnostic accuracy study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 1470-0328 .- 1471-0528. ; 128:2, s. 195-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the diagnostic performance of sonographic cervical length for prediction of preterm birth (PTB).DESIGN: Prospective observational multicentre study.SETTING: Seven Swedish ultrasound centres.SAMPLE: 11456 asymptomatic women with a singleton pregnancy.METHODS: Cervical length was measured with transvaginal ultrasound at 18 to 20 weeks (Cx1) and at 21 to 23 weeks (Cx2; optional). Staff and participants were blinded to results.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-), number of false positive results per true positive result (FP/TP), number needed to screen to detect one PTB (NNS), prevalence of "short" cervix.RESULTS: Spontaneous PTB (sPTB) <33 weeks occurred in 56/11072 (0.5%) women in the Cx1 population (89% white ethnicity) and in 26/6288 (0.4%) in the Cx2 population (92% white ethnicity). The discriminative ability of shortest endocervical length was better the earlier the sPTB occurred and better at Cx2 than at Cx1 (AUC to predict sPTB <33 weeks 0.76 versus 0.65, difference in AUC 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.23). At Cx2, shortest endocervical length ≤25 mm (prevalence 4.4%) predicted sPTB <33 weeks with sensitivity 38.5% (10/26), specificity 95.8% (5998/6262), PPV 3.6% (10/274), NPV 99.7% (5988/6014), LR+ 9.1, LR- 0.64, 26 FP/TP, 629 NNS.CONCLUSION: Second trimester sonographic cervical length can identify women at high risk of sPTB. In a population of mainly white women and low prevalence of sPTB its diagnostic performance is at best moderate.
  • Mokarami, Parisa, et al. (författare)
  • Hidden acidosis: an explanation of acid-base and lactate changes occurring in umbilical cord blood after delayed sampling.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1471-0528. ; 120:8, s. 996-1002
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To explore the 'hidden acidosis' phenomenon, in which there is a washout of acid metabolites from peripheral tissues in both vaginal and abdominal deliveries, by investigating temporal umbilical cord blood acid-base and lactate changes after delayed blood sampling. DESIGN: Prospective comparative study. SETTING: University hospital. SAMPLE: Umbilical cord blood from 124 newborns. METHODS: Arterial and venous cord blood was sampled immediately after birth (T0 ), and at 45 seconds (T45 ), from unclamped cords with intact pulsations taken from 66 neonates born vaginally and 58 neonates born via planned caesarean section at 36-42 weeks of gestation. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical comparisons, with P < 0.05 considered significant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Temporal changes (T0 -T45 ) in umbilical cord blood pH, the partial pressure of CO2 (\prod a) and O2 (\prod a), and in the concentrations of lactate, haematocrit (Hct), and haemoglobin (Hb). RESULTS: In both groups all arterial parameters, except for \prod a in the group delivered by caesarean section, changed significantly (pH decreased and the other variables increased). There were corresponding changes in venous acid-base parameters. When temporal arterial changes were compared between the two groups, the decrease in pH and increase in \prod a were more pronounced in the group delivered vaginally. Neonates born vaginally had significantly lower pH and higher lactate, Hct, and Hb concentrations at T0 and T45 in both the artery and the vein. At T45 , arterial \prod a and \prod a levels in the group delivered vaginally were also significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed umbilical cord sampling affected the acid-base balance and haematological parameters after both vaginal and caesarean deliveries, although the effect was more marked in the group delivered vaginally. The hidden acidosis phenomenon explains this change towards acidaemia and lactaemia. Arterial haemoconcentration was not the explanation of the acid-base drift.
  • Norberg, H., et al. (författare)
  • Timing of antenatal corticosteroid administration and survival in extremely preterm infants : A national population-based cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1470-0328 .- 1471-0528. ; 124:10, s. 1567-1574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To explore the association between administration-to-birth interval of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) and survival in extremely preterm infants. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: All obstetric and neonatal units in Sweden from 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2007. Population: All live-born infants (n = 707) born at 22-26 completed weeks of gestation. Methods: The relationship between time from first administration of ACS to delivery and survival was investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Main outcome measures: Neonatal (0-27 days) and infant (0-365 days) survival, and infant survival without major neonatal morbidity (intraventricular haemorrhage grade ≥ 3, retinopathy of prematurity stage ≥ 3, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotising enterocolitis, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Results: Five-hundred and ninety-one (84%) infants were exposed to ACS. In the final adjusted model, infant survival was lower in infants unexposed to ACS [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.26; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.43], in infants born <24 h [HR = 0.53 (0.33-0.87)] and >7 days after ACS [HR = 0.56 (0.32-0.97)], but not in infants born 24-47 h after ACS [HR = 1.60 (0.73-3.50)], as compared with infants born 48 h to 7 days after administration. The findings were similar for neonatal survival. Survival without major neonatal morbidity among live-born infants was 14% in unexposed infants and 30-39% in steroid-exposed groups, indicating that any ACS exposure was valuable. Conclusions: Administration of ACS 24 h to 7 days before extremely preterm birth was associated with significantly higher survival than in unexposed infants and in infants exposed to ACS at shorter or longer administration-to-birth intervals. Tweetable abstract: Timing of antenatal corticosteroids is important for extremely preterm infants' survival.
  • Rudnicki, M., et al. (författare)
  • Anterior colporrhaphy compared with collagen-coated transvaginal mesh for anterior vaginal wall prolapse: a randomised controlled trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1471-0528. ; 121:1, s. 102-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveTo investigate the anatomical cure rate and complications related to collagen-coated mesh for cystocele, compared with a conventional anterior colporrhaphy. DesignA randomised controlled study. SettingSix departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark. PopulationWomen aged 55years or older, referred for surgery with a prolapse of the anterior vaginal wall of stage2 or higher. MethodsWomen scheduled for primary cystocoele surgery were randomised to either anterior colporrhaphy or a collagen-coated Prolene mesh. Power analysis indicated that 130 patients had to be randomised. All patients were evaluated using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification (POP-Q) measurement. Quality of life, symptoms, and sexual function were evaluated using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Main outcome measuresThe primary outcome was objective cure, defined as prolapse below POP-Q stage2 at the 12-months follow-up. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, symptoms, and presence (or not) of complications. ResultsIn total, 161 women were randomised to either anterior colporrhaphy or mesh (participant ages 64.96.4years versus 64.7 +/- 6.6years, respectively; mean +/- SD). The objective cure rate was 39.8% (95%CI 28.6-50.9%) in the anterior colporrhaphy group, compared with 88.1% (95%CI 80.7-95.6%) in the mesh group (P<0.001). Vaginal mesh exposure occurred in ten women (13.3%) and dyspareunia occurred in two women (2.7%, not significant) in the mesh group at the 12-months follow-up. Questionnaires revealed no difference between the groups. ConclusionsOur study demonstrates a significantly improved objective cure rate associated with a high exposure rate among women with mesh surgery as opposed to conventional surgery.
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